WHAT IS INCIDENT?An unexpected, unplanned event in a sequence of eventsThat occurs through a combination of causes
RESULT OF INCIDENTPhysical harm (injury, ill-health or disease) to an individual,•Damage to property, •A near-miss, a loss •Any combination of these effects
ACCIDENTUnplanned event results in mishap (personal injury or property damage).Accidents are the result of the failure of people, equipment, materials, or environment to react as expected.Allaccidents have consequences or outcomes.
PREVENTION OF INCIDENTGood ManagementHow:1. Management and workers must fully cooperate2. Top management must lead3. There must be an OSH policy
PREVENTION OF INCIDENTGood ManagementHow:4. Must have organization and resources to implement policy5. Best available information (and technology) must be applied
TYPE OF INCIDENT1. Serious Personal Injury- A injury/disease cause at work that need:a. To given emergency medical treatment by a registered medical practitionerb. treated in a hospital as a casualty, without being admitted to the hospital; or admitted to hospital;
EXAMPLE OF SPI1. a wound which requires sutures (stitches)2. a fracture of any part of the body3. knocked unconscious
TYPE OF INCIDENT2.Fatality - death3. Incapacity 30 or more days- An employee is unable to work for 30 or more consecutive days or shifts
TYPE OF INCIDENT4. Minor injury- An employee is injured and is:a. Unable to work for between 1 and 4 daysb. Sees a doctor, nurse, or first aid attendant and attend medical centre but is not given emergency medical treatment
EXAMPLE OF MINOR INJURY1. Minor cuts or bruises.2. Grazes
TYPE OF INCIDENT5.Exposure - An event where an employee comes into contact with a substance or circumstance which does not lead to an immediate injury or illness.
EXAMPLE OF EXPOSURE1. Radiation2. Hazardous substances3. Noise4. Biological agents
TYPE OF INCIDENT6. Dangerous Occurrence - An incident where no person is injured, but could have been injured, resulting in Serious Personal Injury, Incapacity or Death. Commonly called a ‘near miss.’
EXAMPLE OF DANGEROUS OCCURENCE1. Emergency evacuation from a facility2. Negligent Discharge (ND) of a weapon3.Plant or property damage that could have killed or injured a person but didn’t.
THE THEORY…1. injuries result from a complete series factor, one of which is the accident itself2. An accident occur only as a result of unsafe act by person/physical/mechanical hazard
THE THEORY…3. accident are result of unsafe behavior by people4. An unsafe act by person or unsafe act by condition does not always immediate result in accident/injury5. the reason why people commit unsafe act can serve as helpful guide in selecting corrective action
THE THEORY…6. the severity of an accident is largely fortuitous and the accident that are cause are largely preventable7. The best accident prevention techniques are analogous with the best quality and productive technique8. Management should assume responsibility for safety since it is in the best position to get result. Supervisor is an important person
HEINRICH’S SAY…The factors can be visualized asa series of dominoes standingon edge; when one falls, thelinkage required for a chainreaction is completed
FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY1. Lack of management system and controlExample : negative character - Recklessness, stubbornness, bad work practices fail to establish OSH management no PPE, safety training, absent caution sign, no emergency procedure
FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY2. Job FactorExample : complex job and tasks high risk job (work with machineries, working at high place) lack of engineering control (e.g. engineering barrier) Worn out tool, bad quality part, unstable process
FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY3. Personal FactorExample : Worker who have not acquired the necessary skill level and inexperience Doing task which is not familiar Attitude of worker Stress level of the worker
FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY4. Unsafe and substandard work conditionExample : Inadequate guards/barrier/caution and warning level Messy housekeeping crowded and congested work station
FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY5. Unsafe act or substandard practiceExample : Bad working habit Ignoring their work safety Doing task dangerously
FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY6. AccidentExample : Fall Impact of moving object Trapp in moving system Burn/Fire Explosion
FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY6. IncidentExample : Infliction of human body When there is an injury or property damage
THE THEORY1. There are may be many contributory factors, causes and sub-causes and that certain combinations of these give rise to accidents.2. May be more than one cause, not only in sequence, but occurring at the same time3. Accident is the result of single cause or act –Simple accident (single cause) major accident (multiple cause)
THE THEORYCause aCause b Unsafe ActCause c Accident Injury or DamageCause dCause e Unsafe ConditionCause f
CONTRIBUTORY FACTORBehavioural. - This category includes factors pertaining to the worker, such as improper attitude, lack of knowledge, lack of skills and inadequate physical and mental condition.
CONTRIBUTORY FACTOREnvironmental. This category includesimproper guarding of other hazardouswork elements and degradation ofequipment through use and unsafeprocedures.
THE THEORYFrank E. Bird Jr. renamed the dominos and made clear the relation between the undesired event and its consequences and the Management System via Direct and Basic or "root" Causes.
THE THEORYThe Loss Causation Model should be applied to each barrier in turn, effectively treating each barrier failure as a loss. This is in contrast to the original approach of applying the model to the entire incident.
BASIC CAUSESthe real cause(s) of an accident/incident and the reasons why it occurredan incident is a cause that, when corrected, would result in long-term prevention of similar incidents.Example:inadequate design, lack of knowledge or skill, physical and physiological stress
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES1. Lack of Knowledge (Training)A person doesn’t have the knowledge to safely perform the job.The person couldn’t perform the task safely if his/her life depended on it If questioned, the person couldn’t tell you how to safely perform the task.
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES2. Employee PlacementThe person placed on the job:has a physical deficiency (bad eyesight, weak back, etc);is not physically capable of performing the job safely (small stature, out of shape, etc).
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES3. Not Enforcing Safe Work PracticesEstablished safe work practices are not followed because:• they lack credibility, eg they are inconsistent, unrealistic• it is believed that they conflict with other company goals, eg production;• the method used is the normal, accepted practice.
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES4. EngineeringThe system is such that it:• requires extra effort to be safe;• contains built-in hazards, eg nip points, etc;• doesn’t safely meet job requirements.
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES5. Inadequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)• Personal protective equipment is not provided.• The equipment selected is not adequate to protect against the hazards.
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES6. Inadequate Inspection/Maintenance SystemsSystems are not:• established to ensure that critical items are inspected and maintained;• being followed due to inadequate tracking systems.
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES7. Purchasing Inadequate/Inferior EquipmentEquipment is purchased that:• lacks safety features, eg railings, guarding, etc;• is inadequate to safely meet job requirements
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES8. Inadequate Feedback System• The person’s behavior was motivated by the perception that management recognition, peer acceptance, saving time, etc, is more important than performing the job safely.• Insufficient or no feedback is given regarding actual versus expected safety performance.
9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES9. Unsafe Method• Established or accepted safe work practices prove to be unsafe.• A newly developed safe work practice proves to be unsafe
DEFINITION1.The direct cause of an incident is the immediate events or conditions that caused the incident2. The direct cause is usually the result of one or more unsafe acts or unsafe conditions, or both3. Direct causes are the unsafe acts or conditions that directly cause the safety incident.
DIRECT CAUSE MAY HAPPEN…1. causes that are related to a person and an act, and2. causes that are related to the actual(work) environment or conditions.
CATEGORY OF DIRECT CAUSE Substandard (or unsafe) actOperating without authorityFailure to warnSubstandard (or unsafe) conditionInadequate guards/barrierDefective tool, material, equipment
DEFINITIONother factors relating to an accident/incident in the workplace which do not directly cause the accident/incident.Indirect causes can be the physical or emotional conditions that could allow unsafe acts to occur or the can be individual inadequacies caused by a poor work environment or social conditions.
DEFINITIONSome indirect causes could be the a culture of inattention or indifference to safety policies, inadequate leadership, excessive work or physical arrangement or orderliness of the work place
MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT1. Employer, plant manager must willing to take responsibility for OSH as an integral part of their job2. How: a. establish OSH policies b. stimulate awareness on safety and health c. Employ a competent person to coordinate the safety and health program. d. Educate Worker
ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAMBasic activity must be carried: a Organizing OSH promotions and environmental awareness programs b. Provide training and awareness program c.Provide PPE,housekeeping,MSDS and chemical handling program d. Safety inspection and safety audit at workplace
TRAINNINGDepartmental Training must be done to give new employee additional safety training before they begin work, such as: A. Hazard inherent on the job or within the department B. Safeguards and precautionary measures for those hazard C. PPE required on the job, instruction for its proper care and use D. Location of emergency, exit and telephone E. Location of fire extinguisher
TYPE OF TRAINNING1. Housekeeping Training2. PPE Training3. Safety and Health Training
SAFETY TRAINNINGThe new employee needs to given orientation to acquire knowledge: A. Company OSH rules B. Employee’s responsibility towards OSH C. Type of PPE available D. Location of medical/first aid facilities E. Procedure for reporting job related injuries/job hazard/defective or unsafe equipment/condition.
TRAINNING ARE NEEDED TONewly hired employeeEmployees reassigned to others jobEmployee returning to work after external layoff period or medical leaveWhen new equipment and process are introduced or installedWhen need arises to improve or update safe work practice and procedure