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  1. 1. CHAPTER -Incident
  2. 2. WHAT IS INCIDENT?An unexpected, unplanned event in a sequence of eventsThat occurs through a combination of causes
  3. 3. RESULT OF INCIDENTPhysical harm (injury, ill-health or disease) to an individual,•Damage to property, •A near-miss, a loss •Any combination of these effects
  4. 4. ACCIDENTUnplanned event results in mishap (personal injury or property damage).Accidents are the result of the failure of people, equipment, materials, or environment to react as expected.Allaccidents have consequences or outcomes.
  5. 5. PREVENTION OF INCIDENTGood ManagementHow:1. Management and workers must fully cooperate2. Top management must lead3. There must be an OSH policy
  6. 6. PREVENTION OF INCIDENTGood ManagementHow:4. Must have organization and resources to implement policy5. Best available information (and technology) must be applied
  7. 7. TYPE OF INCIDENT1. Serious Personal Injury- A injury/disease cause at work that need:a. To given emergency medical treatment by a registered medical practitionerb. treated in a hospital as a casualty, without being admitted to the hospital; or admitted to hospital;
  8. 8. EXAMPLE OF SPI1. a wound which requires sutures (stitches)2. a fracture of any part of the body3. knocked unconscious
  9. 9. TYPE OF INCIDENT2.Fatality - death3. Incapacity 30 or more days- An employee is unable to work for 30 or more consecutive days or shifts
  10. 10. TYPE OF INCIDENT4. Minor injury- An employee is injured and is:a. Unable to work for between 1 and 4 daysb. Sees a doctor, nurse, or first aid attendant and attend medical centre but is not given emergency medical treatment
  11. 11. EXAMPLE OF MINOR INJURY1. Minor cuts or bruises.2. Grazes
  12. 12. TYPE OF INCIDENT5.Exposure - An event where an employee comes into contact with a substance or circumstance which does not lead to an immediate injury or illness.
  13. 13. EXAMPLE OF EXPOSURE1. Radiation2. Hazardous substances3. Noise4. Biological agents
  14. 14. TYPE OF INCIDENT6. Dangerous Occurrence - An incident where no person is injured, but could have been injured, resulting in Serious Personal Injury, Incapacity or Death. Commonly called a ‘near miss.’
  15. 15. EXAMPLE OF DANGEROUS OCCURENCE1. Emergency evacuation from a facility2. Negligent Discharge (ND) of a weapon3.Plant or property damage that could have killed or injured a person but didn’t.
  17. 17. THE THEORY…1. injuries result from a complete series factor, one of which is the accident itself2. An accident occur only as a result of unsafe act by person/physical/mechanical hazard
  18. 18. THE THEORY…3. accident are result of unsafe behavior by people4. An unsafe act by person or unsafe act by condition does not always immediate result in accident/injury5. the reason why people commit unsafe act can serve as helpful guide in selecting corrective action
  19. 19. THE THEORY…6. the severity of an accident is largely fortuitous and the accident that are cause are largely preventable7. The best accident prevention techniques are analogous with the best quality and productive technique8. Management should assume responsibility for safety since it is in the best position to get result. Supervisor is an important person
  20. 20. HEINRICH’S SAY…The factors can be visualized asa series of dominoes standingon edge; when one falls, thelinkage required for a chainreaction is completed
  22. 22. FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY1. Lack of management system and controlExample : negative character - Recklessness, stubbornness, bad work practices fail to establish OSH management no PPE, safety training, absent caution sign, no emergency procedure
  23. 23. FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY2. Job FactorExample : complex job and tasks high risk job (work with machineries, working at high place) lack of engineering control (e.g. engineering barrier) Worn out tool, bad quality part, unstable process
  24. 24. FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY3. Personal FactorExample : Worker who have not acquired the necessary skill level and inexperience Doing task which is not familiar Attitude of worker Stress level of the worker
  25. 25. FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY4. Unsafe and substandard work conditionExample : Inadequate guards/barrier/caution and warning level Messy housekeeping crowded and congested work station
  26. 26. FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY5. Unsafe act or substandard practiceExample : Bad working habit Ignoring their work safety Doing task dangerously
  27. 27. FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY6. AccidentExample : Fall Impact of moving object Trapp in moving system Burn/Fire Explosion
  28. 28. FACTOR IN HEINRICH THEORY6. IncidentExample : Infliction of human body When there is an injury or property damage
  30. 30. THE THEORY1. There are may be many contributory factors, causes and sub-causes and that certain combinations of these give rise to accidents.2. May be more than one cause, not only in sequence, but occurring at the same time3. Accident is the result of single cause or act –Simple accident (single cause) major accident (multiple cause)
  31. 31. THE THEORYCause aCause b Unsafe ActCause c Accident Injury or DamageCause dCause e Unsafe ConditionCause f
  32. 32. CONTRIBUTORY FACTORBehavioural. - This category includes factors pertaining to the worker, such as improper attitude, lack of knowledge, lack of skills and inadequate physical and mental condition.
  33. 33. CONTRIBUTORY FACTOREnvironmental. This category includesimproper guarding of other hazardouswork elements and degradation ofequipment through use and unsafeprocedures.
  35. 35. THE THEORY
  36. 36. THE THEORYFrank E. Bird Jr. renamed the dominos and made clear the relation between the undesired event and its consequences and the Management System via Direct and Basic or "root" Causes.
  37. 37. THE THEORYThe Loss Causation Model should be applied to each barrier in turn, effectively treating each barrier failure as a loss. This is in contrast to the original approach of applying the model to the entire incident.
  39. 39. BASIC CAUSESthe real cause(s) of an accident/incident and the reasons why it occurredan incident is a cause that, when corrected, would result in long-term prevention of similar incidents.Example:inadequate design, lack of knowledge or skill, physical and physiological stress
  40. 40. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES1. Lack of Knowledge (Training)A person doesn’t have the knowledge to safely perform the job.The person couldn’t perform the task safely if his/her life depended on it If questioned, the person couldn’t tell you how to safely perform the task.
  41. 41. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES2. Employee PlacementThe person placed on the job:has a physical deficiency (bad eyesight, weak back, etc);is not physically capable of performing the job safely (small stature, out of shape, etc).
  42. 42. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES3. Not Enforcing Safe Work PracticesEstablished safe work practices are not followed because:• they lack credibility, eg they are inconsistent, unrealistic• it is believed that they conflict with other company goals, eg production;• the method used is the normal, accepted practice.
  43. 43. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES4. EngineeringThe system is such that it:• requires extra effort to be safe;• contains built-in hazards, eg nip points, etc;• doesn’t safely meet job requirements.
  44. 44. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES5. Inadequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)• Personal protective equipment is not provided.• The equipment selected is not adequate to protect against the hazards.
  45. 45. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES6. Inadequate Inspection/Maintenance SystemsSystems are not:• established to ensure that critical items are inspected and maintained;• being followed due to inadequate tracking systems.
  46. 46. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES7. Purchasing Inadequate/Inferior EquipmentEquipment is purchased that:• lacks safety features, eg railings, guarding, etc;• is inadequate to safely meet job requirements
  47. 47. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES8. Inadequate Feedback System• The person’s behavior was motivated by the perception that management recognition, peer acceptance, saving time, etc, is more important than performing the job safely.• Insufficient or no feedback is given regarding actual versus expected safety performance.
  48. 48. 9 DOMINANT OF BASIC CAUSES9. Unsafe Method• Established or accepted safe work practices prove to be unsafe.• A newly developed safe work practice proves to be unsafe
  49. 49. DIRECT CAUSE
  50. 50. DEFINITION1.The direct cause of an incident is the immediate events or conditions that caused the incident2. The direct cause is usually the result of one or more unsafe acts or unsafe conditions, or both3. Direct causes are the unsafe acts or conditions that directly cause the safety incident.
  51. 51. DIRECT CAUSE MAY HAPPEN…1. causes that are related to a person and an act, and2. causes that are related to the actual(work) environment or conditions.
  52. 52. CATEGORY OF DIRECT CAUSE Substandard (or unsafe) actOperating without authorityFailure to warnSubstandard (or unsafe) conditionInadequate guards/barrierDefective tool, material, equipment
  54. 54. DEFINITIONother factors relating to an accident/incident in the workplace which do not directly cause the accident/incident.Indirect causes can be the physical or emotional conditions that could allow unsafe acts to occur or the can be individual inadequacies caused by a poor work environment or social conditions.
  55. 55. DEFINITIONSome indirect causes could be the a culture of inattention or indifference to safety policies, inadequate leadership, excessive work or physical arrangement or orderliness of the work place
  56. 56. BASIC,DIRECT , INDIRECTDirect Causes Indirect Causes Basic CauseStruck Failure to No oversightby/against secureFalls Guarding Poor maintenance.Impact Defect Engineering(vehicle)Contact with…. Environmental Stress
  58. 58. DESIGN COSTCost that are used to develop prevention equipment for accident/incident in workplace.Example : a. install machine guard b. Warning Sign
  59. 59. OPERATIONAL COSTCost that are used to aware workers on Safety and health in workplaceExample:a. OSH training Costb. PPE Cost
  60. 60. SAFE GUARDING OF THE FUTURE COSTCost that are used to make sure safety in workplaceExample:a. health surveillance,b. audits
  62. 62. MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT1. Employer, plant manager must willing to take responsibility for OSH as an integral part of their job2. How: a. establish OSH policies b. stimulate awareness on safety and health c. Employ a competent person to coordinate the safety and health program. d. Educate Worker
  63. 63. ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAMBasic activity must be carried: a Organizing OSH promotions and environmental awareness programs b. Provide training and awareness program c.Provide PPE,housekeeping,MSDS and chemical handling program d. Safety inspection and safety audit at workplace
  64. 64. TRAINNINGDepartmental Training must be done to give new employee additional safety training before they begin work, such as: A. Hazard inherent on the job or within the department B. Safeguards and precautionary measures for those hazard C. PPE required on the job, instruction for its proper care and use D. Location of emergency, exit and telephone E. Location of fire extinguisher
  65. 65. TYPE OF TRAINNING1. Housekeeping Training2. PPE Training3. Safety and Health Training
  66. 66. SAFETY TRAINNINGThe new employee needs to given orientation to acquire knowledge: A. Company OSH rules B. Employee’s responsibility towards OSH C. Type of PPE available D. Location of medical/first aid facilities E. Procedure for reporting job related injuries/job hazard/defective or unsafe equipment/condition.
  67. 67. TRAINNING ARE NEEDED TONewly hired employeeEmployees reassigned to others jobEmployee returning to work after external layoff period or medical leaveWhen new equipment and process are introduced or installedWhen need arises to improve or update safe work practice and procedure