FUELFuel is substance or material that will combine with oxygen in the presence of heat and burn as a resultSource :gases/liquid/gasCompound: Hydrogen and Carbon (can oxidized)Must mix with air in order to burn
HEATAbsorbed by substance when it is converted from a solid to a liquid, from liquid to gasThe source of heat : overhead electrical wiring, boiler, chimney, open flame, electrical heater, hotplate etc.Most substance will burn only after the solid/liquid fuel has been vaporized or decomposed by heat to produce gas
OXYGENOxygen is odorless, tasteless and colorless gasAir contain 21% oxygen, a fire require 16% to burnIt is most difficult element to control in order to prevent fire.
CLASS AClass A –Ordinary Combustible Solids- Fire that caused by solid, combustible material- Example:- Wood, paper, cloth, plastic, rubber
CLASS BClass B – Flammable & Combustible Liquids Fire that is cause byflammable liquid or liquefiable solid or combustible gasses- Example:- Petrol, oil, kerosene, thinner, alcohol
CLASS CClass C – Flammable Gases Fire that cause by energized electrical, or chemical, equipment or gases/ liquefiable gases resulted by spillage/ leakage- Example:- LPG, Gas Butane, Methane, Hydrogen
CLASS DClass D – Combustible MetalsFire which cause by combustible, extinguishing metal- Example:- Magnesium, Aluminium,Sodium
CLASS EClass E – Electrical Fires Fire which cause by electrical material, electrical device, short circuit- Example:- Plug, Computer, Switchboard
CLASS FClass F – Cooking Oils and Fats Fire cause by cooking activity- Example:- Cooking Oil,Fat
INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY PLANMust include:1. Identification of the significant fire hazard2. Procedures for recognizing and reporting unsafe conditions3. Alarm procedures
INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY PLANMust include:4. Procedures for notifying employees of a fire emergency5. Procedures for notifying fire response organizations of a fire emergency6. Procedures for evacuation
INFORMATION IN FIRE SAFETY PLANMust include:7. Procedures to account for all employees after an evacuation8. Names, job titles, or departments for individuals who can be contacted for further information about the plan.
EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES1. The employer must review the plan with each employee at the following times : I) Upon initial assignment for new employees; and II) When the actions the employee must take under the plan change because of a change in duties or a change in the plan
EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES2. Keep the plan accessible to employees, employee representatives, and OSHA3. Review and update the plan whenever necessary. Employees have been informed about the plan as required4. Ensure any outside fire response organization that the employer expects to respond to fires at the employers worksite has been given a copy of the current plan.
METHODThe methods used to extinguish a fire, once started, fall into two classes:1. deprive the fire of oxygen and2. cool the fire below the ignition temperature3. Most fire extinguishers operate by excluding oxygen from the site of combustion
CONTAIN OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER1. Portable fire extinguishers contain CO22. dry chemical extinguishers contain nitrogen3. water and foam extinguishers typically use air
TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER A small, disposable sodium bicarbonate dry chemical unit intended for home kitchen use A typical dry chemical extinguisher containing 5 lbs. of ammonium phosphate dry chemical.
TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER A 20lb.U.S.Navy cartridge-operated purple-K dry chemical (potassium bicarbonate) extinguisher
TYPES OF DRY CHEMICALPowderPowder based agent that extinguishes by separating the four parts of the fire tetrahedron.Itprevents the chemical reaction between heat, fuel and oxygen and halts the production of fire sustaining "free- radicals", thus extinguishing the fire.
TYPES OF DRY CHEMICALFoamFoams are sprayed on fires to exclude air. The foam is generated in the extinguisher using water and a foaming agent.The most type in portable foam extinguisher is aqueous film forming foam.
TYPES OF DRY CHEMICALWaterAirpressurized water cool burning material by absorbing heat. (cool burning material)Water Mist uses a fine misting nozzle to break up a stream of deionized water to the point of not conducting electricity back to the operator
TYPES OF WET CHEMICALAntifreeze Chemicals added to water to lower its freezing point to about −40 °F. Has no appreciable effect on extinguishing performance.Wet Chemical (potassium acetate, carbonate, or citrate) extinguishes the fire by forming a soapy foam blanket over the burning oil and by cooling the oil below its ignition temperature.
CO2 AND CLEAN AGENTSuch extinguishers spray a cloud of CO2 particles, which convert to gas and blanket the area, excluding oxygenOther systems to exclude oxygen use nitrogen gas or Freon.CO2, a clean gaseous agent which displaces oxygen. the high-pressure cloud of gas can scatter burning materials
STEP TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER1. Pull the Pin at the top of the extinguisher2. Aim at the base of the fire3. Squeeze the lever slowly4. Sweep from side to side5.Call 999 (if required)
CLASS AMethod to extinguishing fire are using :1.Water2.Dry chemical3.Carbon dioxide
CLASS BMethod to extinguishing fire are :1.foam, dry chemical2. carbon dioxide3. Powder4.Water Spray/Light Water/Vaporizing Liquid5.Use foam, carbon dioxide, dry powder
CLASS CMethod to extinguishing fire are :1.Carbon dioxide, dry powder, carbon dioxide agent2. foam, dry powder in
CLASS D,E,FMethod to extinguishing fire are :Class D - Use heat absorbing medium that are reactive with the burning metalClass E -Dry Chemical and carbon dioxideClass F – Wet Chemical and carbon dioxide
PREVENTION METHODS1.Provide adequate fire appliances, fire hydrants & other facilities to assist fire & rescue personnel2. Provide adequate fixed installation, where appropriate, for quick & effective detection & extinguishment of fires
PREVENTION METHODS3. Designing & installing building services so that they do no assist the spread of fire, smoke or toxic fumes4. Designing & providing adequate and safe escape routes for the occupants of the building
PREVENTION METHODS5. Selecting materials for the construction which will not promote the rapid spread of fire or generate dangerous smoke6. Subdividing buildings into compartments of reasonable sizes by means of fire resisting walls & floors, providing fire stops to protect openings between floors & compartments
PREVENTION METHODS7. Designing & constructing the exterior of a building so that fire is unlikely to spread to it from another burning building
CAUSE & ACTIVITYCause:SmokingActivity:1.Prohibit smoking in all area2.Clearly marked smoking area and display sign3. Proper handling and disposal match
CAUSE & ACTIVITYCause:EquipmentActivity: Equipment should be selected to fit the need of job. 2.Equipment approved by government standard 3.provision for safe storage and handling fuel. Provision for safe disposal for all waste Training for personal
CAUSE & ACTIVITYCause:DocumentationActivity:prepare standard operating procedure (SOP)
CAUSE & ACTIVITYCause:HousekeepingActivity:1.provide good housekeeping program2. Minimize accumulation of waste3.Provide safe container for all flammable and combustion substance
CAUSE & ACTIVITYCause:Chemical Flammable LiquidActivity:1.avoid use highly flammable liquid2. All flammable liquid kept in closed safety container3.limit the supply of flammable liquid4.provide SOP for all hazardous and critical process5.Provide adequate ventilation6.Safety disposal of flammable liquid7.Provide substance for cleaning spillage/leakages8.Prohibit smoking
CAUSE & ACTIVITYCause:Structural Design and fire extinguisherActivity:1. use incombustible roof, sparks arrester, insulator of combustible2.Provide housekeeping to avoid accumulation of fuel3.Provide fire extinguisher4.Provide periodic maintenance5.Provide SOP
CAUSE & ACTIVITYCause:Source of IgnitionActivity:1.must have proper lubrication and maintenance for friction of machine2.hot surface must be cooled down3.Electrical arcing must be monitor and check
CAUSE & ACTIVITYCause:FuelActivity:1. Amount of fuel should be kept to minimum2.Constant monitoring
SMOKE DETECTOR Function: to warn occupants of a fire in time for them to leave the building and seek safety away from the burning structure. Benefit : you will receive warning in the event of a fire Type:1. ion smoke detector -uses a radioactive source to detect smoke.2. use a radioactive source to create an electrical circuit. Breaking the circuit causes the alarm to go off
HEAT DETECTORPhotoelectric cell detected the emission of infrared/uv radiation from the fireThe radiation produces an electrical current.Tiny amounts of smoke, even if invisible, disrupt the production of the current, setting off the alarm. Thus, detectors using this system respond quickly, even to fires that do not produce much smoke.
FLAMMABLE GAS DETECTORFunction: used to give early warning of leaks from plant containing flammable gases or vapors, or for monitoring concentrations of such gases and vapors within plantBenefit: useful where there is the possibility of a leakIf a specified gas concentration or set point is exceeded, the detector system should trigger an alarm.
HUMAN DETECTORThrough surveillance, inspection, rounding, patrol serves as early as fire detection systemIncase of the fire, the number to call is 999, it is recommended to have the number of the Jabatan Bomba
ALARM SYSTEMAn automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustionA fire alarm system will indicate a FIRE EMERGENCY requiring immediate action. The system shall alert all occupants of a building where it is installed when a fire emergency is present.
SPRINKLERThe use of sprinkle is to:a.To detect, control and extinguish a fireb. To warn the occupants of the occurrence of fire
HOSE REEL SYSTEMintended for the occupant to use during the early stages of fireHose reel:a. 30mcoverage of each hose reelb. One hose reel for every 800sq.mof usable floor spacec. Located along escape routes or besides exit doors or staircase