COTTON is a unicellular, natural fiber
composed of almost pure cellulose.
As taken from plants, the fiber is
found in leng...
cotton
cotton is an important cash crop in more than 80
countries
the major producers in the world are:
•China—32.0%
•Indi...
Light to dark cream.
SHADES
Colored cottons also
have following shades
Greens
Blue
Rust
Each cotton fiber is composed of concentricEach cotton fiber is composed of concentric
layers. The cuticle layer on the fi...
COTTON
Cellulose 80-90%
Water 6-8%
Waxes and fats 0.5 - 1%
Proteins 0 - 1.5%
Hemicelluloses 4 - 6%
Ash 1 - 1.8%
• Comfortable Soft hand
• Good absorbency
• Color retention
• Prints well
• Machine-washable
• Dry-cleanable
• Good streng...
PROCESS GINNING
CULTIVATE
WEAVE SPIN
END
USE
CULTIVATIONREQUIREMENTS
A long growing seasonA long growing season
Plenty of sunshinePlenty of sunshine
Water during the p...
 Modern gins place modules in front of
machines called MODULE FEEDERS.
 It break the modules apart and “feed”
the seed c...
 Once in the cotton gin, the seed cotton
moves through dryers and through
cleaning machines.
 It remove the gin waste su...
• FIBER LENGTH
• LENGTH UNIFORMITY
• FIBER STRENGTH
• MICRONAIRE
• COLOR
FIBER LENGTH
Fiber length is described as “The
average length of the longer one-half
of the fibers (upper half mean
length...
FIBER STRENGTH
Fiber strength is measured in grams per
denier. It is determined as the force
necessary to break the beard ...
MICRONAIRE
 Micronaire measurements reflect fiber fineness and
maturity.
 A constant mass (2.34 grams) of cotton fibers ...
COLOR
The color of cotton samples is determined from two
parameters:
 Degree of reflectance (Rd)
 Yellowness (+b)
The co...
• SWELLING
• ATTACK OF ACIDS & BASES
• OXIDATION & HYDROLYSIS
SWELLING
Cotton swells in a HIGH HUMIDITY
environment, in WATER and in
concentrated solutions of certain ACIDS,
SALTS and ...
ATTACK OF ACIDS AND BASES
 Cotton is attacked by HOT DILUTE or
COLD CONCENTRATED ACID solutions.
Acid hydrolysis of cellu...
identification of cotton
microscopic identification of cotton is relatively easy—
convolutions are easily seen along the f...
properties of cotton—care
cotton can be washed with strong detergents and
requires no special care during washing and dryi...
properties of cotton—care
cotton draperies should be dry-cleaned
cotton upholstery may be steam-cleaned with caution
cotto...
APPAREL
Wide range of wearing
apparel:
 Shirts
 Dresses
 Children wear
 Active wear
 Blouses
 Separates
 Swimwear
...
Home Fashion Curtains
 Draperies
 Bedspreads
 Comforters
 Throws
 Sheets
 Towels
 Table Cloths
 Table Mats
 Napk...
NON-WOVENS
 Swabs
 Puffs
 Wipes
 Filters
 Weddings
Personal care products
 Diapers
 Feminine Hygiene
products
Semi-...
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know
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29029075 cotton-what-is-cotton-do-u-know

  1. 1. COTTON is a unicellular, natural fiber composed of almost pure cellulose. As taken from plants, the fiber is found in lengths of 3/8 to 2 inches.
  2. 2. cotton cotton is an important cash crop in more than 80 countries the major producers in the world are: •China—32.0% •India—21.8% •USA—12.2% •Pakistan—7.8% •Brazil—5.7% in 2007 worldwide, 113 million bales (480 lbs/bale)
  3. 3. Light to dark cream. SHADES Colored cottons also have following shades Greens Blue Rust
  4. 4. Each cotton fiber is composed of concentricEach cotton fiber is composed of concentric layers. The cuticle layer on the fiber itself islayers. The cuticle layer on the fiber itself is separable from the fiber and consists of waxseparable from the fiber and consists of wax and pectin materials.and pectin materials. •Primary WallPrimary Wall •Secondary WallSecondary Wall •LumenLumen
  5. 5. COTTON Cellulose 80-90% Water 6-8% Waxes and fats 0.5 - 1% Proteins 0 - 1.5% Hemicelluloses 4 - 6% Ash 1 - 1.8%
  6. 6. • Comfortable Soft hand • Good absorbency • Color retention • Prints well • Machine-washable • Dry-cleanable • Good strength • Drapes well • Easy to handle and sew
  7. 7. PROCESS GINNING CULTIVATE WEAVE SPIN END USE
  8. 8. CULTIVATIONREQUIREMENTS A long growing seasonA long growing season Plenty of sunshinePlenty of sunshine Water during the period of growthWater during the period of growth Dry weather for harvestDry weather for harvest In general, these conditions are metIn general, these conditions are met within tropical and warm subtropicalwithin tropical and warm subtropical latitudes in the northern andlatitudes in the northern and southern hemispheressouthern hemispheres..
  9. 9.  Modern gins place modules in front of machines called MODULE FEEDERS.  It break the modules apart and “feed” the seed cotton into the gin.  Some gins use powerful pipes to suck the cotton into the gin building.
  10. 10.  Once in the cotton gin, the seed cotton moves through dryers and through cleaning machines.  It remove the gin waste such as Burs Dirt Stems Leaf Material.
  11. 11. • FIBER LENGTH • LENGTH UNIFORMITY • FIBER STRENGTH • MICRONAIRE • COLOR
  12. 12. FIBER LENGTH Fiber length is described as “The average length of the longer one-half of the fibers (upper half mean length)“..
  13. 13. FIBER STRENGTH Fiber strength is measured in grams per denier. It is determined as the force necessary to break the beard of fibers, clamped in two sets of jaws.  The breaking strength of cotton is about 3.0~4.9 g/denier.  The breaking elongation is about 8~10%.
  14. 14. MICRONAIRE  Micronaire measurements reflect fiber fineness and maturity.  A constant mass (2.34 grams) of cotton fibers is compressed into a space of known volume and air permeability measurements of this compressed sample are taken. These, when converted to appropriate number, denote Micronaire values. COTTON RANGECOTTON RANGE MICRONAIRE READINGMICRONAIRE READING PremiumPremium 3.7-4.23.7-4.2 Base RangeBase Range 4.3-4.94.3-4.9 Discount RangeDiscount Range >5.0>5.0
  15. 15. COLOR The color of cotton samples is determined from two parameters:  Degree of reflectance (Rd)  Yellowness (+b) The color of the fibers is affected by climatic conditions, impact of insects and fungi, type of soil, storage conditions etc. There is five recognized groups of color: White Gray Spotted Tinged 
  16. 16. • SWELLING • ATTACK OF ACIDS & BASES • OXIDATION & HYDROLYSIS
  17. 17. SWELLING Cotton swells in a HIGH HUMIDITY environment, in WATER and in concentrated solutions of certain ACIDS, SALTS and BASES. The swelling effect is usually attributed to the sorption of highly hydrated ions. and the moisture absorption is 7~8% The moisture regain for cotton is about 7.1~8.5%The moisture regain for cotton is about 7.1~8.5% Moisture absorption for cotton is 7~8%Moisture absorption for cotton is 7~8%
  18. 18. ATTACK OF ACIDS AND BASES  Cotton is attacked by HOT DILUTE or COLD CONCENTRATED ACID solutions. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose produces hydro-celluloses. Cold weak acids do not affect it.  The fibers show excellent RESISTANCE TO ALKALIS.  There are a few other SOLVENTS that will DISSOLVE COTTON completely.
  19. 19. identification of cotton microscopic identification of cotton is relatively easy— convolutions are easily seen along the fiber burn tests verify cellulose fiber length helps identify content cotton is soluble is sulfuric acid
  20. 20. properties of cotton—care cotton can be washed with strong detergents and requires no special care during washing and drying white cottons can be washed in hot water—dyed cottons retain their color better if washed in warm water cotton releases most soils readily but soil-resistant finishes are desirable for some interior & apparel uses excessive bleaching weakens cellulosic fibers cotton fabrics respond best to steam pressing or ironing while damp—can be ironed safely at high temperatures
  21. 21. properties of cotton—care cotton draperies should be dry-cleaned cotton upholstery may be steam-cleaned with caution cottons should be stored clean and dry cotton is harmed by acids—fruit & fruit juice stains should be treated promptly cotton oxidizes in sunlight which causes yellowing and degradation—some dyes are especially sensitive
  22. 22. APPAREL Wide range of wearing apparel:  Shirts  Dresses  Children wear  Active wear  Blouses  Separates  Swimwear  Suits  Jackets  Skirts  Pants  Sweaters  Hosiery  Neckwear
  23. 23. Home Fashion Curtains  Draperies  Bedspreads  Comforters  Throws  Sheets  Towels  Table Cloths  Table Mats  Napkins
  24. 24. NON-WOVENS  Swabs  Puffs  Wipes  Filters  Weddings Personal care products  Diapers  Feminine Hygiene products Semi-durable Segments  Bedding  Household furnishing  Pillow fillers
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