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  • 1. Chapter 4: Control Structure – Repetitions/Loops
  • 2. Objectives State the types of repetitions Differentiate among three types of repetitions Build a simple program to solve a problem using repetitions 
  • 3. pretest Repetitions structure  The expression (syarat) is evaluated, before the loop body is executed.  If the result of evaluation is true. the loop body is executed. Following this, control goes back to the expression and is evaluated again. This continues until the expression computes to a value of false.  If the expression produce of false, the loop body is bypassed and the program control drops down to the statement.
  • 4. Posttest repetition statement First executes the loop body and then computes the expression (syarat). If the expression is true, the loop body is executed again; otherwise the repetition terminates.
  • 5. Repetitions with counter value (nilai pembilang) Nilai Pembilang Hasil dari pelaksanaan arahan nilai pembilang i++ Nilai pembilang iaitu i ditambah dengan satu i-- Nilai pembilang i dikurangkan dengan satu i+=2 Nilai pembilang i ditambah dengan 2 i*=2 Nilai pembilang i didarab dengan 2
  • 6. While loop  #include<iostream.h>  main()  {  int i=0;  while ( i <= 5 )  {  cout<<"n Welcome to while statement";  i++;  }  }
  • 7. do – while loop  #include<iostream.h>  main()  {  int i=0;  do {  cout<<"n Welcome to while statement";  i++;  } while ( i <=5);  }
  • 8. For loop #include<iostream.h> main() {  int i;  for (i=0; i<=5; i++)  cout<<"n Welcome to while statement"; }
  • 9. For loops with counter  Sintaksis:  for (pembolehubah = nilai_awalan; syarat; pembilang)  Blok arahan  { senarai penyataan;  :  :   }
  • 10. Loops with sentinel value we don’t know the number of loops will execute. For example, we don’t know how many items bought by customer. Refer to Rajah 4.8 page# 62
  • 11. Nested Loop In a nested loop, one loop referred to as the inner loop and one is called the outer loop.