Urban Morphology of Dhaka City

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Source of Original paper: Publication of Asiatic Society on the Celebration of 400 years of the Capital Dhaka, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2010. Also in WEB:
http://buet.academia.edu/DrFaridaNilufar

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Urban Morphology of Dhaka City

  1. 1. Urban Morphology of Dhaka City:Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core Dr. Farida Nilufar Professor, Department of Architecture Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology ( BUET) 1
  2. 2. Dhaka :The capital city of Bangladesh 590 Sq.miles 54.5 Sq.miles 26 Sq.miles 12 Sq.miles 8 Sq.miles 1 Sq.mile. Before 1610 Pre- Mughal Period 1610-1765 Mughal Period 1765-1947 British Period 1947-1971 Pakista ni Period B ngladesh Period ( DMA Lim it) a 1971-till now B ngladesh Period ( DMDP/ Rajuk L a imit) Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core 21
  3. 3. Sir Patrick Geddes advocated that "The diagnostic survey . . . seeks to unravel the old city’s labyrinth and discern how this has grown up. Though, like all organic growths, this may at first seem confused to our modern eyes, that have for so long been trained to a mechanical order, gradually a higher form of order can be discerned - the order of life in development . . . In city planning then, we must constantly keep in view the whole city, old and new alike in all its aspects and at all its levels. The transition in an Indian city, from narrow lanes and earthen dwellings to small streets, great streets and buildings of high importance and architectural beauty, forms an inseparably interwoven structure. Once this is understood, the city plan ceases to appear instead as a great chessboard on which the manifold game of life is in active progress". 32 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  4. 4. Objectives • To explore the evolutionary layering of urban form and meaning which Geddes urged to uncovered through historic studies of Dhaka • To identify the primary spatial patterns existing in Dhaka since its inception. • To investigate the spatial dynamics of urban growth of Dhaka by analyzing the configuration of the urban grid. • Try to reveal the fundamental relation between configuration of space in an organic city like Dhaka and the way that it functions. 43 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  5. 5. Organic Urban Grid of Dhaka • With the passage of time the entire Dhaka grew in a natural way. •Formal Planning and Uncontrolled development side by side. •Some parts are deliberately created by the designers- in a fragmented way. Distinctive morphological ‘clusters’4 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  6. 6. Old Dhaka – New Dhaka Two dominant urban patterns are conspicuous within the successive stages of growth; they are the historical core or old Dhaka and the later development towards the north, known as new Dhaka. New Dhaka Old Dhaka Old Dhaka 65 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  7. 7. Urban Spatial Patterns in DhakaIndigenous Historic StructureNew Indigenous Communities -Informal Layout Colonial Interventions - Civil linesPlanned Schemes -Geometric Layout 76 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  8. 8. Spatial Dynamics of Growing City: pre-Mughal Mughal Urban core and functional pattern in Dhaka 1859 3 0 3 6 Meter 87 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  9. 9. Methodology Urban Grid Axial Line Spatial Analysis (Depthmap programme) relationship Land use pattern 98 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  10. 10. Methodology There are three basic conceptions in Space Syntax Analysis. These are Tools for Configurational Analysis a. Axial Line b. Convex Space c. Isovist, or fields of vision 109 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  11. 11. analysis of settlement structure 1110 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  12. 12. Spatial analysis of urban grid Axial Map Global Integration Local Integration 1211 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  13. 13. Bangla Bazaar Historic Boundary of pre-Mughal Dhaka 1312 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  14. 14. Chawk Islampur Road Bangla Bazaar Land use pattern of Mughal Dhaka (1700 ) 1413 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  15. 15. Bangshal Road Chawk Nawabpur Road IslampurRoad 1514 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  16. 16. Ramna Dhaka University Land use pattern of British Dhaka (1910) Nawabpur Road Nawabpur Road Islampur Road 1615 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  17. 17. Tejgaon Dhanmandi Ramna Abdul Gani Road Nawabpur Road Land use pattern of Dhaka (1945 ) 1716 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  18. 18. •Integration core at the physical centre of the city •Highly integrated lines - within the newer parts of Dhaka •The global core - a continuous loop forming three rings, with a long tail linking Motijheel Tejgaon •All these provide an evidence of a shift in importance from the old city towards the newer part Dhanmandi Green Road •Ringy and hollow core which contained large pockets of un-built and open areas New Market Motijheel Land use pattern of Dhaka (1962 ) 1817 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  19. 19. Land use pattern of Dhaka (1975 ) 1918 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  20. 20. Land use (1995 ) 2019 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  21. 21. 2007 : •City has physically extended •Extensive internal densification as well as linking corridors. •Infill developments in the low lying areas: Western and Eastern fringes. • Due to newer link roads from south to north, the integration core has a northward pull. •There is an indication of two types of areas in Dhaka – one is the integrated center and the other is segregated periphery •The physical extension of integration core corresponds to the development of polycentric functional centers •The planned areas, as developed in piece meal manner, have greater impact form the organic city grid as it engulfs the planned areas in course of time 2120 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  22. 22. Morphological character of old Dhaka: •Morphology of Old city is particularly distinctive because of the density of its built up areas by comparison with the looseness of the later developments. •Dispersed development outside the old core had changed the global character of the city. •The Old Dhaka is modeled independently - Islampur Road revealed as the urban core of old Dhaka. •The bazaar streets feature as locally important segments in the old city over time. •The old city had its own global, as well as local structure, different from that of the total city. Global Integration cores of Old Dhaka [built-up areas] 2221 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  23. 23. •The commercial centre systematically declines in importance with each subsequent stage of growth. •The global core of the total spatial system of Dhaka at different stages identified the functional core, both commercial and administrative, of the city in each corresponding period. •This result is based on the changing character of the global integration core at different phases, which is always influenced by the pull of the new extensions. 1953 1963 Existing centers Possible Future centers 1973 Global Integration core 1995 2007 3 0 3 6 Meter 2322 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
  24. 24. Conclusion • The essential morphological characteristics of four different spatial patterns, that exists in Dhaka, needs special attention in terms of planning and design. • More over, the linear cores of traditional period have changed into ringy and hollow ones which contained large pockets of un-built and open areas. As compared to more established western cities, this might be referred to as a condition of unplanned growth in rapidly developing cities. • The old part of the city is becoming increasingly segregated from the life of the new core day by day. • With all its idiosyncrasies from the established planning theories, the harmonious development of Dhaka’s land use with its morphological transformations is significant. The spatial dynamics of Dhaka and its core corresponds to a social history which remains as the underlying force behind the spontaneous formation of its morphological structure. • Although the global core has been more or less static for the last two decades, the growth of vast developments in all the peripheral areas except the south may lead to its beginning to move once again in the not too distant future. 2423 Urban Morphology of Dhaka City: Spatial Dynamics of Growing City and the Urban Core
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