allah,there is no god but he!to him belong the most beautiful namesADVANCED CURRICULUM PLANNINGPROF MOYANI BIN RAZKINBY FARIBA ATAIE (G1023404)
CONTENT• INTRODUCTION• CURRICULUM PLANNING• TYPES OF CURRICULUM• CENTERALIZED VS DECENTERALIZED CURRICULUM• PLANNING PROCESS OF CURRICULUM
INTRODUCTION• The curriculum of a school is the formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations, and values under he auspices of that school (Doll, 1996 p15).It is this last definition that is perhaps the most useful to educators who wish to affect and improve student learning.
Curriculum Types: AlignedTeaching alone will not improve test scores.Teaching has to be aligned (on task) andpurposive (cumulative)”(English, 2000, p. 104). Alignment is typically understood as the agreement between a set of content standards and an assessment used to measure those standards
Concept-BasedConcepts are timeless, universal,abstract and broad. The conceptualtransfer of knowledge includes theapplication of concepts or universalgeneralizations across time, cultures orsituations (Erickson, 2007, p. 129).
DifferentiatedIn differentiated classrooms, teachers providespecific ways for each individual to learn asdeeply as possible and as quickly as possible,without assuming one students road map forlearning is identical to anyone else’s”(Tomlinson, 1999, p. 2).
HiddenThe messages ofhidden curriculum maysupport or contradicteach other as well asthe written curriculum.E.g such as one person-one vote
Guaranteed and Viable“If teachers can lay out a sound – a viable – set ofstandards and can then guarantee (more or less) thatthese standards actually get taught, we can raise levelsof achievement immensely”(Schmoker, 2006, p. 36).
Learned The learned curriculum is what the students actually learn from the taught curriculum. Common formative assessments assist educators in monitoring the written and taught curriculum while assessing student understanding.
The null curriculumis that which is nottaught in schools.
Purposeful“All learners benefit fromand should receiveinstruction that reflectsclarity about purposesand priorities of content”(Tomlinson & McTighe,2006, 6).
The received curriculum is not always the intended or taught curriculum. Each student brings their ownbackground and prior knowledgeto the classroom. Studentunderstanding is impacted by eachstudent’s perception of thealigned, hidden, null, spiral, andtested curricula.
Academic rigor :can be defined as the set of standardswe set for our students and theexpectations we have forour students and ourselves.
The taught curriculum is whatteachers actually teach in theclassroom. Traditionally, thewritten curriculum .
The tested curriculumprovides valuablefeedback about eachstudent’s understandingof essential content,concepts and skills.
CENTERALIZED CURRICULUM VS DECENTERALIZATION Centralization refers to the condition where by the administrative authority for education is vested, not in the local community, but in a central body. This central body has complete power over all resources: money, information, people, technology. It decides the content of curriculum, controls the budget, is responsible for employment, the building of educational facilities, discipline policies, etc. Giving students a centralized curriculum empowers students to have access to the same education no matter where they live.
Decentralization may be defined as “thetransfer of decision-making authority,responsibility, and tasks from higher to lowerorganizational levels or betweenorganizations” (Hanson, 1998, p.112).Decentralization provides for persons at thescene of the action to become involved in thedecision-making process. This allows forgreater flexibility, and makes it possible forbetter decisions to be made because personsat the scene of the action are more closelyrelated to the problem.
What is required is :A different two-way relationship ofpressure, support, and continuousnegotiation between higher decisionmaking authority and local community.
Participants of curriculum planning getinvolved in variety of activities such as: Discussing common problems Making decisions Developing a functional philosophy Studying learners and the environment Keeping up to date with the knowledge Studying ways to improve instructions Carrying research and evaluation
Decide how and where to set priorities in the use of limited human and economic resources. Decide how to accomplish not only your short-range goals but also you medium and long-range goals Build on the strong and successful parts of the program. As well as to identify and improve the weak parts Reach agreement in the school community about what to do and how to do it.
It is organized thinking thathelps in deciding what needs tobe done, how it will happen,and who will do it.It is the setting of priorities inthe use of resources: people,money, time and materialsIt is trying to anticipate thefuture.It is adapting and modifyingsteps or processes until theywork for you
REFERENCES• CURRICULUM OVER VIEW WWW.multiage –education.com structures as experienced by students. Ronald C. Doll, in his book, Curriculum Improvement: Decision Ma ... ..• . ons, and values under he auspices of that school (Doll, 1996 p15). It is this last definition that is perhaps the …• Author unknown. (2006). Future-ready students for the 21st century: What will a future-ready school look like? Retrieved August 2, 2008, from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/sbe_meetings/revisions/2006/pdfs/0608futurereadystudents.pdf•• Bruner, J. (1960). The Process of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.•• Cuban, L. (1992). Curriculum stability and change. In Jackson, P. (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum (pp. 216-247). New York, NY: Macmillan.•• Eisner, E. (1994). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs, 3rd ed. New York, NY: Macmillan College Publishing.•• English, F.W. (2000). Deciding what to teach and test: Developing, aligning and• auditing the curriculum. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.•• Erickson, H.L. (2007). Concept-based curriculum and instruction for the thinking• classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.•• Hargett, V. (2004). The non-negotiables of academic rigor. Retrieved July 30, 2008, from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/ec/development/gifted/nonnegotiables/.•
• Glatthorn, A.A. (1987). Curriculum renewal. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.•• Jacobs, H.H. (1997). Mapping the big picture: Integrating curriculum and assessment• K-12. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.•• Marzano, R.J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action.• Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.•• Perkins-Gough, D. (2004). Creating a timely curriculum: A conversation with Heidi Hayes Jacobs. Educational Leadership, 61(4), 12-17.•• Schmoker, M. (2006). Results now: How we can achieve unprecedented improvements in teaching and learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.•• Sergiovanni, T.J. (1990). Value-added leadership: How to get extraordinary performance in schools. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.•• Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.•• Tomlinson, C.A. & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating differentiated instruction and• understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.•• Tyler, R.W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago, IL:• The University of Chicago Press.•• Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA:• Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.•••
• Reporters: Sir Romel B. Macalinao,RN• Jean C. Mena,RN