The year 1980 marked the beginning of globalization.
But the economic growth across the developing world was
slower and unequal.
The year 1990 began a “decade of conferences”
World Summit for Children, New York, 1990 (UNICEF)
World Conference on Basic Education for All,Jomtien,1990(UNESCO)
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,
Rio de Janeiro, 1992
World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, 1993 (OHCHR)
International Conference on Population and
Development, Cairo, 1994 (UN-DESA and UNFPA)
Fourth World Conference on Women, 1995, Beijing (United Nations)
World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, 1995 (United
The Millennium Summit was held from 6-8 September 2000 at
the United Nations headquarters in New York City under the
framework of the 55th General Assembly of the United
Its purpose was to discuss the role of the United Nations at
the turn of the 21st century and was attended by 189 member
states of United nations.
At this meeting, world leaders adopted the United Nations
The delegates at this summit agreed on the following
Values and Principles
Peace, Security and Disarmament
Development and Poverty Eradication
Protecting our Common Environment
Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance
Protecting the Vulnerable
Meeting the Special Needs of Africa
Strengthening the United Nations
In September 2001, the 8 MDGs based on the above
eight chapters were approved by the 56th UN General
Assembly to be achieved by 2015.
It occupies a position of central importance in the
Millennium Development Goals.
In fact, it can accurately be described as the backdrop
for all other unmet needs addressed in the Millennium
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
people whose income is less than one dollar a day.
1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day
1.2 Poverty gap ratio
1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national
The World Bank have confirmed that the world
reached the MDG target five years ahead of the
In developing regions, the proportion of people
living on less than $1.25 a day fell from 47 per cent
in 1990 to 22 per cent in 2010.
Despite this impressive achievement at the global
level, In sub-Saharan Africa, almost half the
population live on less than $1.25 a day.
As per the poverty estimates of 2011-12, the Poverty
Head Count Ratio (PHCR) is 21.9% thus India has already
achieved the target.
All States, except Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are
likely to achieve the national level MDG target by 2015.
Poverty Gap Ratio has shown decline both in
rural and urban area between 2004-05 and 2010-
Rural 9.22 5.05
Urban 6.08 2.7
Share of Poorest Quintile in National
Consumption has not changed between 1990 and
Rural 9.6 9.8
Urban 8 7.1
Achieve full and productive employment and
decent work for all, including women and young
1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed.
1.5 Employment-to-population ratio.
1.6 Proportion of employed people living below
$1 (PPP) per day.
1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing
family workers in total employment.
From 2007 to 2012, the developed regions registered a
1.7 percentage point drop in the employment-to
population ratio. And the developing regions
experienced a decline of 0.9 percentage points.
The gender gap in employment persists, with a 24.8
percentage point difference between men and women.
The number of workers living in extreme poverty has
declined dramatically over the past decade. In
developing regions, the working poor constituted 15.1
per cent of the employed labour force in 2012, down
from 48.2 per cent in 1991.
Target 1(C) :
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
people who suffer from Hunger.
1. Prevalence of underweight children under 5
years of age.
2. Proportion of population below minimum level
of dietary energy consumption.
India is going slow in eliminating the effect of
The proportion of underweight children has
declined from about 43% to about 40%.(NFHS-III)
At the historical rate of decline, it is expected to
come down to about 33% by 2015 against the target
value of 26%.
States(Mizoram, Sikkim,Manipur, Kerala, Goa, Punjab, Nagaland,J
ammu & Kashmir , Delhi, and Tamil Nadu) have already
achieved the all India MDG target and four more
States(Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,Maharashtra Uttarakhand)are
Education is one of the first and foremost stepping
stones in nation building.
Literacy can pave the way for reduction in
population growth, child mortality and poverty, and
facilitate in attaining gender parity, sustainable and
TARGET 2(A): Ensure that, by 2015, children
everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to
complete a full course of primary schooling
2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education.
2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who
reach grade 5.
2.3 Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds.
Universal primary education has already been
DISE 2010-11 reports Net Enrolment Ratio (NER) at Primary
level as 99.89.
The DISE shows apparent survival rate at Primary level of 82
According to the trend exhibited during 1991 -2001 (1991:
61.9% and 2001: 76.4 %), India is likely to attain 100% Youth
literacy (Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds) by 2015.
The MDGs recognise the centrality of gender
equality in the development agenda.
TARGET 3(A) :
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary
education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of
education no later than 2015
3.1 Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and
3.2 Ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 years old
3.3 Share of women in wage employment in the non-
3. 4 Proportion of seats held by women in national
Gender parity is closest to being achieved at
the primary level.
Globally, 40 out of 100 wage earning jobs in
the non-agricultural sector are held by
As of 31 January 2013, the average share of
women members in parliaments worldwide
was just over 20 per cent.
The gender parity in Primary education reached
the target value of 1 in 2008-09 itself.
The female: male literacy rate in the age group 15-
24 years tends to reach 1 by 2015.
The percentage share of females in wage
employment in the non- agricultural sector, stood at
18.6% in 2009-10 (NSS)
It is projected that with the historical rate of
progression, the share of women in wage
employment can at best reach a level of about 23.1%
by 2015 which is much below target of 50%.
In 2011-12, the State of Manipur (41.6%) has reported
the highest percentage share of women in wage
employment in non-agricultural sector, followed by
Tripura(33.8%), Tamil Nadu (32.5%), Kerala (30.8%)
and Meghalaya (30%).
The lowest percentage share of women in wage
employment in non-agricultural sector was reported
in Bihar (6.1%), Damn & Diu (6.6%), Jharkhand
(9.1%), Uttarakhand (9.1%) and Uttar Pradesh (10%).
The Proportion of seats held by women in
National Parliament is 11.21% in 2013 against
the target of 50% in 2015.
As on December 2013, India, has only 62 women
representatives out of 543 members in Lok
Sabha, while there are 28 female MPs in the 242-
member Rajya Sabha.
TARGET 5(A) :
Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the
Under- Five Morality Rate
5.1 Under-five mortality rate
5.2 Infant mortality rate
5.3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized
Since 1990, the child mortality rate has dropped by 41
Still, 6.9 million children under age five died in 2011—
mostly from preventable diseases.
In sub-Saharan Africa, one in nine children die before
age five,more than 16 times the average for
“Efforts must be redoubled to meet the global target”
Given to reduce U5MR to 42 per thousand live
births by 2015, India tends to reach 50 by 2015 as
per the historical trend, missing the target by 8
As per the historical trend IMR is likely to miss the
The proportion of one-year old (12-23
months) children immunised against measles
is at 74.1% in 2009 (UNICEF &GOI- Coverage
Evaluation Survey 2009)
As per the historical trend, India is expected
cover about 89% children in the age group
12-23 months for immunisation against
measles by 2015 and thus likely to fall short
of universal immunisation by about 11
Deaths due to pregnancy and child birth are
potential threats to women in the
reproductive age groups.
Maternal death is an important indicator of
the reach of effective clinical health services
to the poor, and is in turn act as one of the
composite measure to assess the country’s
TARGET 5(A) :
Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and
2015, the maternal mortality ratio.
5.1 Maternal mortality ratio
5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled
Maternal mortality has declined by nearly
half since 1990, but falls far short of the
At the historical pace of decrease, India tends to
reach MMR of 140 per 100,000 live births by
2015, against the target of 109.
With the existing rate of increase in deliveries by
skilled personnel, the achievement for 2015 is
likely to be 62% only, which is far short of the
targeted universal coverage.
7 States namely, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Jammu
&Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,Orissa,
Rajasthan,Sikkim and Tamil Nadu are likely to reach
universal coverage or close to it by the year 2015.
Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive
5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate
5.4 Adolescent birth rate
5.5 Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit
and at least four visits)
5.6 Unmet need for family planning
Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the
spread of HIV/AIDS
6.1 HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24
6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex.
6.3 Proportion of population aged 15-24 years
with comprehensive correct knowledge of
6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to
school attendance of non orphans aged 10-14
Achieve, by 2010, universal access to
treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who
6.5 Proportion of population with advanced
HIV infection with access to
The HIV epidemic in India continues to decline at the
national level with an overall reduction in adult HIV
prevalence, HIV incidence (new infections) and AIDS related
mortality in the country.
Declines in adult HIV prevalence and new HIV infections are
sustained in most of the states including all the high
prevalence states of South India and North East.
Also, rising trends in HIV prevalence, number of People
Living with HIV (PLHIV) and new HIV infections have been
noted in some low prevalence states over the last few years.
Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the
incidence of malaria and other major diseases
6.1 Prevalence and death rates associated with
6.2 Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas
using effective malaria prevention and
6.3 Prevalence and death rates associated with
6.4 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and
cured under DOTS
Between 2000 and 2010, mortality rates from malaria
fell by more than 25 per cent globally.
By 2011, 50 of 99 countries with ongoing malaria
transmission were on track to reduce their malaria
case incidence rates by 75 per cent by 2015.
Current levels of insecticide-treated bed net use by
children are still well below the target of universal
Successful treatment of tuberculosis is exceeding
global targets, but more work lies ahead
Integrate the principal of sustainable development into
country policies and programmes and reverse the loss
of environmental resources.
25. Proportion of land area covered by forest
26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological
diversity to surface area
27. Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP)
28. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and
consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs.
29. Proportion of population using solid fuels
Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without
sustainable access to safe drinking water and
7.8 Proportion of population with sustainable
access to an improved water source, urban
7.9 Proportion of population with access to
improved sanitation, urban and rural
TARGET 7(D) :
By 2020, to have achieved a significant
improvement in the lives of at least 100 million
More than 2.1 billion people have gained access
to improved drinking water sources since
1990, exceeding the MDG target.
In 1990, just under half (49 per cent) of the
global population had improved sanitation.
Coverage must extend to 75 per cent to meet
the target, up from the current level of 64 per
Between 2000 and 2010, over 200 million slum
dwellers gained access to improved water
sources,sanitation facilities, durable housing or
sufficient living space, thereby exceeding the
100 million MDG target.
The proportion of households without access to safe
drinking water sources from its 1990 level of about 34%
to the order of 17%, to be reached by 2015, has already
been attained by 2007-08, much before the target
Given the 1990 level for households without any
sanitation facility at 76%, India is required to reduce the
proportion of households having no access to improved
sanitation to 38% by 2015.
The NSS 2008-09 reports that, 49.2% households are not
having sanitation facility. It is expected that at the
historical rate of decline, India may achieve to reduce
the proportion of households without any sanitation to
about 43% by 2015 missing the target by about 5
TARGET 18 :
In cooperation with the private sector, make
available the benefits of new
technologies, especially information and
Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100
Personal computers in use per 100 population and
Internet users per 100 population
Internet users per 100 population
Enormous progress has been made towards achieving the
Millennium Development Goals, (MDGs)
After 2015, efforts to achieve a world of prosperity,
equity, freedom, dignity and peace will continue
The UN is working with governments, civil society and
other partners to build on the momentum generated by
the MDGs and carry on with an ambitious post-2015
At the September 2010 MDG Summit, UN Member States
initiated steps towards advancing the development
agenda beyond 2015 and are now leading a process of
open, inclusive consultations on the post-2015 agenda.
Civil society organizations from all over the world have
also begun to engage in the post-2015 process, while
academia and other research institutions, including think
tanks, are particularly active.