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Tg14 group 1 qed 528 educational psychology presentation 13.10.2011

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  • 2. Social persuasion: Positive comments from teachers / peers /parents -> positive expectations -> high self-efficacy

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  • 1. PBL Assignment Presentation:
    Parents-Teachers-Peers-Jeremy
    Effects on Learning Behaviours
    Presented by: Farhati, Shariza, Shirlyn Tay, Valerie Wong, Simon Sng
    1
  • 2. Problem Statement:
    As a teacher, it is important for Ms Low to understand the factors that can affect Jeremy's learning in the classroom; and the strategies she can adopt to help him learn better.
    2
  • 3. Today’s Checklist
    Theories identified to explain problems and to generate Solutions
    Identified Problems
    #
    Parents
    #
    Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model
    Ms. Low’s perception on the parents’ nonchalance
    Braumrind’s Parenting Style Theory
    Misalignment of expectations, goals and rewards
    Parenting style
    Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
    Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory
    Peers
    Jeremy’s lack of security and sense of belonging
    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    Negative and abusive remarks towards Jeremy
    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
    Ostracization towards Jeremy
    Teachers
    Parenting style vs. Teaching Style
    Failure to establish a safe and supportive environment
    Inherent heuristic biases subjected to colleague’s influence
    3
  • 4. Overall Quadripartite Relationship
    - Interdependent & Affecting Jeremy-
    Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological
    Model
    Parents
    • Parents vs. Jeremy = Microsystem
    • 5. Parents vs. Teachers = Mesosystem
    Teachers
    • Teachers vs. Jeremy = Microsystem
    • 6. Teachers vs. Peers = Mesosystem
    • 7. Teachers vs. Teachers = Mesosystem
    Peers
    • Peers vs. Jeremy = Microsystem
    • 8. Peers vs. Teachers = Mesosystem
    4
  • 9. Role Play Time
    5
  • 10. Problems & Solutions
    6
  • 11. Parents’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Authoritarian Parenting Style; High Expectations & Unresponsive
    Parents
    Ms. Low’s/Other teachers’ perception on his parent’s nonchalance
    Misalignment of expectations/ goals/rewards on Jeremy
    (Parents vs. Teachers)
    7
    Mesosystem
    Parents
    Teacher
    Microsystem
    Microsystem
    Jeremy
  • 12. Parents’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Examples in the Scenario
    Jeremy’s life is ruled by a timetable.He has to complete tasks by his parents and only gets to take a ‘break’ as he only has to attend enrichment classes like swimming and taekwondo. Even his holidays are packed. (Pg. 14)
    His parents spent huge monthly amounts on tuition and enrichment activities for Jeremy. (pg 14)
    Jeremy gets to see his maid more often than his parents and he has only one friend, a toy dinosaur named Dino. (pg 14)
    Jeremy’s parents blamed each other for Jeremy’s poor results and blamed the school teachers for contributing to the poor results (pg 16)
    Jeremy feared and dreaded the thought of his mum giving him more tuition and cancelling his swimming classes due to his poor results. Jeremy placed priority on home tasks and did well in them as compared to school tasks.
    8
  • 13. Parents’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Problem:
    Parenting Style Theory
    Authoritarian Parenting Style; High Expectations & Unresponsive
    Stress conformity to high expectations
    Detached and unresponsive
    Grades, motivation and relationships with teachers are affected negatively
    Rejecting and negative
    Non compromising
    Worry more about pleasing parents than solving problems
    Non encouraging
    Withdrawn and defiant
    Do not explain rules
    9
  • 14. Parents’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution: Parenting Style Theory (What?)
    Ms. Low could advise the parents to switch to Authoritative Style instead of their current Authoritarian Style
    Parents’ Behaviours
    Firm but caring. Explain reasons for rules, and are consistent. Have high expectations , give encouragement, recognition and praises.
    Impact on Jeremy’ s Learning Behaviours
    High Self-Esteem, Confident and Secure. Willing to take risks and are successful in school. Motivated in learning in school.
    10
  • 15. Parents’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution:Parenting Style (How?)
    Self-determination theory  To raise motivation in learning
    Promote autonomy by allowing Jeremy more freedom in planning his own activities
    Promote relatedness by allowing Jeremy to participate in class bonding activities and CCA
    Promote competenceby providing Jeremy opportunities to exercise his capacity to reason and to judge instead of using a “do as I say” approach
    11
  • 16. Parents’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution:Parenting Style (How?)
    Maslow ‘s hierarchy of needs To fulfil Jeremy’s sense of belonging to allow him to focus on attaining growth needs
    • Advise the parents to spend more quality time with Jeremy
    • 17. Give more love, affection and concern to Jeremy
    Low self-esteem and low self-efficacy
    Missing sense of belonging and love.
    Fulfilled due to wealthy family background and relatively stable living environment
    12
  • 18. Parents’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution:Parenting Style (How?)
    Suggests the parents to attend parenting workshops
    • Make parents aware of the impacts of different parenting styles on a child’s development
    • 19. Help them to be aware of their own parenting styles
    • 20. Help them to be aware of the steps they can undertake to become authoritative parents
    13
  • 21. Parents
    Parents’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Teachers
    Solution:Parenting Style (Why?)
    Meso & microsystem will impact Jeremy’s learning
    Ms Low and/or Jeremy’s parents adopt an authoritative style to complement each other (Teacher’s interactive style equally effective as to those of parents.)
    Jeremy
    14
  • 22. Ms. Low’s/Teachers’ Perception on his parent’s nonchalance
    Problem: Ms. Low’s/Teachers’ perception on his parent’s nonchalance
    Ms Low’s negative perception of Jeremy’s parents affects Ms Low’s attitude towards Jeremy which affects Jeremy’s learning process
    • Attribution Bias
    Mesosystem
    Teacher
    Vs.
    Parents
    Microsystem
    Microsystem
    Jeremy
    15
  • 23. Ms. Low’s/Teachers’ Perception on his parent’s nonchalance
    Solution: Ms. Low’s/Teachers’ perception on his parent’s nonchalance
    To improve communication/interaction with the parents to find out more on their difficulties so that Ms Low could understand and relate to the parents
    To remain objective and not to transfer her displeasure or bias towards the parents to Jeremy (Advises her colleagues who are teaching Jeremy to do the same)
    16
  • 24. Misalignment affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Problem: Misalignment of -
    Parent’s expectation on teacher’s role and teacher’s expectation on Parent’s role (Parents vs. School)
    Goals & rewards for Jeremy
    • Rewards from Teacher: Possibly none
    • 25. Rewards from Parents: Swimming, Taekwondo
    17
  • 26. Misalignment affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution: Ms Low & Jeremy’s parents are to:
    Work on commonly agreed goals and consistent rewards. (Why?)
    • Jeremy’s behaviour (Response)  Parents & Ms Low (Stimuli)
    • 27. Extrinsic motivation in Jeremy  intrinsic motivation
    • 28. Priority of Home Tasks over School  Equal Priorities
    18
  • 29. Misalignment affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution: Ms Low & Jeremy’s parents are to:
    Work on commonly agreed goals and consistent rewards. (How?)
    • Reducing tuition sessions if Jeremy performs well in school
    • 30. Increasing swimming and taekwondo sessions if Jeremy performs well in school
    • 31. Allowing Jeremy to participate more frequently in class gatherings and outings if he performs well in school
    19
  • 32. Today’s Checklist
    Theories identified to explain problems and to generate Solutions
    Identified Problems
    #
    Parents
    #
    Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model
    Ms. Low’s perception on the parents’ nonchalance
    Parenting Style Theory
    Misalignment of expectations, goals and rewards
    Parenting style
    Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
    Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory
    Peers
    Jeremy’s lack of security and sense of belonging
    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    Negative and abusive remarks towards Jeremy
    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
    Ostracization towards Jeremy
    Teachers
    Parenting style vs. Teaching Style
    Failure to establish a safe and supportive environment
    Inherent heuristic biases subjected to colleague’s influence
    20
  • 33. Role Play Time
    21
  • 34. Problems & Solutions
    22
  • 35. Peers’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    PowerPoint has new layouts that give you more ways to present your words, images and media.
    Peers
    23
  • 36. Peers’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Examples in the Scenario
    Jeremy wished he could leave the class immediately. He never felt belonged here and sat alone during recess. Alan: “Don’t bother asking our busy classmates lar. He has something on everyday!” (pg13)
    When Jeremy did not contribute to group work & gave the wrong answer ‘Nitrogen’ – Caleb says “You dumb or what?” & “ You stupid or what?” (pg13)
    Caleb: “Aiya! People’s family rich what! You jealous is it? You think everybody like us meh, have to work on weekends for our own pocket money?”
    (pg 14)
    Teacher did not prohibit the use of abusive language - “Stupid you” or “fat”
    (pg 13)
    Teacher threatened to decide the groupings for Jeremy, instead of helping him to integrate into the class (pg14)
    24
  • 37. Peers’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Problem :
    Lack of security & sense of belonging in the class environment
    Struggles to fulfill his deficiency needs
    Unable to reach for his growth needs (Academia)
    Low self-esteem and low self-efficacy
    Negative, abusive remarks and Ostracization towards Jeremy without the intervention of teachers
    Fulfilled due to wealthy family background and relatively stable living environment
    25
  • 38. Peers’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution:
    To create a supportive learning environment to increase Jeremy’s self-efficacy & to fulfill his social & self-esteem needs
    (Watson & Ecken, 2003)
    26
  • 39. Peers’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution:
    Social Cognitive Theory (Albert Bandura)
    - Learnt observations
    27
    Positive Role Modelling
    Social Persuasion
    Positive comments -> positive expectations -> high self-efficacy
    How?
    Deter teachers & classmates from casting negative remarks
    Encourage positive comments to be directed to Jeremy
    Ms Low to display positive attitude towards Jeremy
    How?
    Avoid negative comments, in front of his classmates
    Take initiative to communicate with Jeremy
  • 40. Peers’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution:
    Behaviorist Learning Theory (Skinner)
    -To foster a supportive learning environment
    Presentation Punishment:
    Students who say negative remarks will be warned and sent to the discipline master.
    Removal Punishment: Students who refuse to co-operate as a group positively will get their recess cut.
    Positive Reinforcement: Encouraging, praising and acknowledging Jeremy and the peers’ attempt in engaging / helping each other.
    28
  • 41. Peers’ Attitude affects Jeremy’s Learning
    Solution:
    29
    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    -To promote sense of belonging and self esteem
    Sense of belonging:
    Teachers should assign groupings to ensure that Jeremy will be in a supportive group
    Implementing buddy systems; pairing Jeremy up with classmates such as Misha who are more accepting
    Self-Esteem & Self Efficacy
    Encourage Jeremy by helping him to set specific, challenging while realistic goals
    Design tasks based on Jeremy’s ability level to provide him chances to succeed
            
    Provide extra guidance and scaffolding to help Jeremy succeed in tasks
  • 42. Today’s Checklist
    Theories identified to explain problems and to generate Solutions
    Identified Problems
    #
    Parents
    #
    Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model
    Ms. Low’s perception on the parents’ nonchalance
    Parenting Style Theory
    Misalignment of expectations, goals and rewards
    Parenting style
    Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
    Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory
    Peers
    Jeremy’s lack of security and sense of belonging
    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    Negative and abusive remarks towards Jeremy
    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
    Ostracization towards Jeremy
    Teachers
    Parenting style vs. Teaching Style
    Overlapped with Parents’ and Peers’ Sections due to the close interaction between the three parties.
    Failure to establish a safe and supportive environment
    Inherent heuristic biases subjected to colleague’s influence
    30
  • 43. Desired Outcome:
    With the cooperation of parents, teachers and peers in creating a supportive learning environment, MsLow aims to increase Jeremy’s self-efficacy in order to improve his learning and positively shape his learning behaviours.
    31
  • 44. Summary
    Thank You
    Solutions are not mutually exclusive
    Generating Solutions
    Identifying Problems
    Quadripartite Relationship
    32
  • 45. References
    • Bandura, A. (1989). Social Congnitive Theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol.6, pp. 1-60). Greenwich, CT:JAI Press.
    • 46. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York:  Freeman.
    • 47. Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory. In Annual Review of Psychology. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Review.  
    • 48. Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56-95.
    • 49. Brantley, D.C., & Webster, R.E. (1993). Use of an independent group contingency management system in a regular classroom setting. Psychology in the Schools, 30(1), 60-66.
    • 50. Bronfenbrenner. U. (1989). Ecological Systems Theory. In R. Vasta (ed.), Annals of child development, vol.6. 
    • 51. Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E.M. & Bornstein, M.H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55, 218-232 .
    33
  • 52. References
    • Gill, M., Achton, P., & Algina, J. (2003). Authoritative Schools: A test of a model to resolve the school effectiveness debate. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 389-409
    • 53. Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, September). Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved September 19th, 2011 from http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.htm
    • 54. Maccoby, E.E, & Martin, J.A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family. Parent-child interation. In P.H. Mussen & E.M. Hetherington, Handbook of child psychology: Vol.4. Socialization, personality and social development (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.
    • 55. Maccoby, E.E (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006-1017..
    • 56. Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a psychological of being (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand.
    • 57. Maslow, A. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.) New York: Harper & Row.
    34
  • 58. References
    • Piaget, J. (1969). Science of education and the psychology of the child. New York: Viking.
    • 59. Piaget, J. (1968). Six psychological studies. New York: Vintage.
    • 60. Piaget, J. (1964). Development and learning. In R. Ripple and V.Rockcastle (Eds), Piaget rediscovered (p. 78-119). Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Education, National Science Foundation.
    • 61. Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behaviour. New York: The Free Press.
    • 62. Skinner, B.F. (1968). The Technology of Teaching. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    • 63. Skinner, B.F. (1974). About behaviourism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    • 64. Watson, Merilyn & Ecken, Laura (2003) Learning to Trust: Transforming Difficult Elementary Classrooms Through Developmental Discipline. San Francisco, CA: Joey-Bass.  
    • 65. What Is Sociocultural Theory? By Kendra Cherry, About.com Guide
    35
  • 66. References
    • Mcleod, S.A. (2007). Vygotsky. Retrieved 19 September 2011, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html.
    36