• Anatomy is a big subject.
• The Human Body is studied in different
ways and aspects.
• We can study this Human Body region
wise or system wise.
• We can see the development of the
Human Being. How the body develops.
How it looks like at different stages.
• We can see the microscopic structure of
human tissues and organs.
• We can see different radiographs,
ultrasounds, MRI etc. to study the human
• So Anatomy is a broad science, and the
study of the human body becomes more
meaningful when specific aspects of this
science are considered.
• It is the study of structures that can be
examined without the use of a
So it is also called Macroscopic Anatomy.
• It is based upon observations through
dissection on cadaver.
So we can call it Cadaveric Anatomy also.
• Gross anatomy has following two main
• Systemic anatomy
• Regional Anatomy
• It is the study of specific systems of the
• There are three main groups of systems
present in the body.
• Somatic or voluntary systems
• They are
• osteology (bones),
• arthrology (joints),
• myology (muscles) and
(skin and its appendages)
• Visceral or involuntary systems
• These include
• alimentary tract,
• respiratory tract,
• urinary tract and reproductive tract
• The study of these systems is called
splanchnology (study of viscera)
• Operative or regulatory systems
• These systems regulate the activities of
somatic and visceral systems.
• These are
• nervous system,
• endocrine system and
• cardiovascular system
Somatic or voluntary systems
• The skeletal system (osteology)
It is composed of bones and cartilage. It
is responsible for providing support to
the body and protection of vital organs
such as the heart, lungs, brain etc. The
muscular system acts on it to produce
• The articular system (arthrology)
Its components are joints and their
ligaments. Joints are responsible for
connecting the body parts. They provide
locations where movements occur.
• The muscular system (Myology)
it consists of muscles
that contract and
cause movements of bones at joints
• Locomotor system
• The bones, joints and muscles taken
together are termed as the ‘locomotor
system’ as they are responsible for
producing movement or ability to move
• Integumentary system (Dermatology)
• It consists of the skin and its associated
structures e.g. hair, nails, sweat glands
etc. the skin is not merely a protective
covering for our body. It is a sensory
organ and helps maintain our body
temperature. These are a few of the
many functions of the skin.
Visceral or involuntary systems
• The digestive or alimentary system
The organs which make up this system
perform following functions related to food
Elimination of faces (solid waste) remaining
after the absorption of the nutrients.
• The respiratory system (pulmonology)
• It is concerned with
• oxygen intake and carbon dioxide
• It consists of
• the air passages
• and lungs
• The urinary system (urology)
• Its components are
• Kidneys (filtration of blood,
production of urine)
• Ureters (transport of urine)
• Urinary bladder (storage of urine)
• Urethra (elimination of urine
• The reproductive or genital system
• The main function of this system is
• This is obviously different in two sexes
• Female reproductive system (gynecology)
• It consists of
ovaries; uterus and external genitalia
• Male reproductive system (andrology)
• It consists of
testes and external genitalia
Operative or regulatory systems
• The nervous system (neurology)
It controls and coordinates the functions
of all the systems of the body. It has a
“central” part consisting of brain and
spinal cord and a ‘peripheral’ portion
made up of cranial and spinal nerves.
Both systems function in harmony.
• The circulatory system (angiology)
It has 2 parts (a) the cardiovascular system,
made up of heart and blood vessels which
send the blood all over the body (b) lymphatic
system, which is a network of lymphatic
vessels which withdraw excess tissue fluid
(lymph) from the body inter cellular
compartment. Later, it filters it by lymph nodes.
Ultimately, all the fluid returns to the blood
• The endocrine system (endocrinology)
It is a diffuse system consisting of ductless
(endocrine) glands located in different parts of
human body. These secrete chemicals known
as hormones, which are carried by the
circulatory system to all parts of body.
Hormones affect many processes of the body
which are vital to life. Pituitary gland is one
example, the secretions of which control
growth, reproduction, water balance etc. other
endocrine glands are thyroid, parathyroid,
pineal and adrenal glands.
• Study of the specific regions of the body is
called regional anatomy.
• It is also known as topographical anatomy
(topography = a detailed account of
superficial features of a tract or country,
description of a place)
• There are three main regions.
• Upper and Lower limbs
• Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis
• Head and Neck including Brain
• The body is studied region by region
employing cadaver dissection.
• This is very common practice in almost all
medical colleges. Students dissect upper
limb, lower limb, thorax, abdomen, pelvis,
head and neck.
• In each region,
• all different types of structures (fascia
muscles, arteries, veins, nerves and
• and organs of different systems are
studied in relation to one another
• Another method is “prosection”
• where carefully prepared dissections, to
display anatomical structures, are used.
• The computer is a very useful tool in
teaching regional anatomy. It can display
the images obtained by Computed
Tomography (CT scans) and Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (MRI). It can also
create three-dimensional effects, which
can be manipulated.
• This is the study of the structure of human
body that includes the use of several
imaging techniques, such as radiography,
radioisotope studies, computed
tomographic scanning (CT Scanning) and
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
• These are peculiar orientation of the body
or part of the body in front of the
radiographic machines from which
radiographic films are taken only for
clinical interest. The study of radiographs
• It is the transmission of ultrasonic waves in the
body planes and gathered by a machine and a
computer image is constructed from that.
Based upon the echogenic intensity of these
waves the computer can differentiate between
bone, soft tissue and fluid.
[Gr. echo a returned sound] repetition of a
sound or reflection of ultrasonic, radio and
These are ultrasound waves particularly
directed toward heart and associated
• The act of examining visually, different isolated
areas, in detail.
• The act of examining visually by regularly
• Scan is shortened form of scintiscan.
• Scintiscan is a two-dimensional map or
representation of a gamma rays emitted by a
radio-isotope, revealing its varying concentration
in a specific tissue or organ of the body.
• It may be brain scan or kidney scan or thyroid
• It is the production of a two-dimensional picture (
scintiscan or scan) representing the gamma rays
emitted by a radioactive isotope concentrated in
a specific tissue such as brain or thyroid gland.
• Radio-labeled dye or other chemicals are
injected into the body where they concentrate
according to their distribution to specific tissues.
Later on they are imaged. Example is radio-
labeled iodine will differentially accumulate in
• Tomo- [Gr. tomē a cutting] a combining form
denoting relationship to a cutting or to a
designated layer, as might be achieved by
cutting or slicing.
• Graphy [Gr. graphein to write, to record] the act
of writing or recording, or a method of recording.
• Tomograph is an x-ray apparatus which makes a
roentgenogram of a layer of tissue at any depth.
• Tomography is the roentgenogram of a layer of
tissue at any depth.
• Computerized and tomographic scanning
• CT scan is relatively low intensity X-rays,
which is made to pass through a particular
part of the body from all directions. Latter
on the data is assimilated by a computer
and the body planes of that particular part
are presented in cut sections of 2mm
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
• MRI is based upon the fact that if strong
magnetic fields are generated around body it
brings temporary changes in magnetic field of
the body. When magnetic fields are turned off
the body fields return to its original, generating
changes easily picked up by computer and
represented in cut sections.
• It is safer than CT SCAN as there is less danger
of radiation exposure but it is too costly.
• It is the identification and study of the form
(morphology) and markings of various
structures in the living person on the surface of
• It enables to “visualize” deeper structures by
observing the surface and employing different
landmarks (soft tissue & skeletal), which can be
easily identified. The knowledge of their
relationship to the different landmarks helps in
“mapping out” their location.
• It helps to enhance the knowledge acquired
through dissection of the cadaver. It is helpful
both in health and disease and is daily used in
• Surface anatomy helps the clinician in ascribing
the cause of different signs and symptoms to a
certain structure in performing diagnostic
procedures, in ascertaining damage done as a
result of injury and in planning incisions for
exploring a certain area of the body.
• It is the Study of development of human body
from the fertilized egg to adult form. The study
of development of human being inside the
uterus is normally called Embryology, but in
fact it is the study of development from the
fertilized egg to the eighth week in utero. Rest
of the development in the uterus is the fetal
development and can be given the name
fetology. In fact a sequence of studies in the
changes that take place from a fertilized egg to
the old age and death of human being is
• It is the study of the structure of organs tissues
and cells under the microscope. There are two
main branches of microscopic anatomy
depending upon the use of:
• Light microscope
• Electron microscope
• The study of the structure of cell with the help
of microscope is given a special name
• Clinical anatomy is concerned with the
correlation of structure to function. This
emphasizes the relation of structure and
function to medical practice. This correlation is
important in understanding various alterations
that occur in injury or disease. It is based on
the knowledge gained by studying regional and
systemic anatomy. Clinical problem solving in
an interesting approach by applying anatomical
knowledge to real life case histories.
• It is the direct application of facts of
human anatomy to medicine and surgery.
• So applied and clinical anatomy are same.
• Comparative anatomy is the study of
anatomy of various animal groups and
helps to understand and correlate the
morphological differences between
different animal groups and the human
• Ha-Mim. The revelation of this book is from ALLAH,
The All-Mighty, The All-Wise. The fact is that there are
countless Signs in the heavens and in earth for those
who believe. And in your own creation and in the
animals, whom ALLAH is scattering (all over the
earth), there are signs for those who affirm Faith. And
in the difference of night and day, and in the
provisions that ALLAH sends down from the heaven,
whereby HE revives the earth after its death, and in
the circulation of winds, there are many signs for those
who use there common sense. These are the
revelations of ALLAH, which WE are rehearsing to you
accurately. Then what is there after ALLAH and HIS
revelations in which they will believe.
• Al-JASIYAH 45, 1-6. Part 25.
• By the fig and the olive and the Mount Sinai
and this city of peace (Makkah), WE have
indeed created insan in the finest of moulds,
then WE reversed him to the lowest of the low,
except those who believed and did good works.
For them there is a reward unending.
Therefore, (O Prophet) who can belie you after
this concerning the rewards and punishments.
Is not ALLAH the best of all judges?
• At-Teen, 95. Part 30.
• It does not reflect the evolutionary trends
among various animal forms. Rather it
makes clear that every thing is created by
ALLAH The Creator.
• Comparative anatomy is also to study the
body structure of female and male, then
compare their forms with each other.