Foundations of Group Behavior

Presented by: Atta Ullah
Afridi
attaullah1075@gmail.com
Contents
Defining Group
Stages of Group Development
Group Properties
Group Decision Making
Group Decision-Making Technique...
What is Group?
Stephen P. Robins:
“Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent,

who have come together to ach...
What is Group?
Fred Luthans says:
If a group exists in an organization, its members:
1.

Are motivated to join

2.

Percei...
Classification of Groups

Formal Group:
“A designated work group
defined by the organization’s
structure”
Example:
Six mem...
Sub Classification of Groups
1.
2.
3.
4.

Command Group
Task Group
Interest Group
Friendship Group

Atta Ullah Afridi
Stages Of Group Development

Forming

Storming

Norming
Performing

Adjourning
Atta Ullah Afridi
Group Properties

Roles

Status

Norms

Size

Cohesiveness

Atta Ullah Afridi
Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness,
Performance Norms And Productivity:
Cohesiveness

Low

Performance Norms

High

H...
Group Decision Making
 What Is Decision?
 What Is Decision Making?

Atta Ullah Afridi
Group Decision Making
Strengths & Weaknesses of Group Decisions:

Broad Representation
More Ideas Generated
Evaluation Of ...
Group Think & Group Shift
Group Think:
 Imposing unpopular view
 Opposing Popular view

Group Shift:
 Exaggerating less...
Group Decision-Making Techniques

Interacting
Groups

Brainstorming

Nominal
Group
Techniques

Electronic
Meeting

Atta Ul...
Evaluating Group Effectiveness

Effectiveness Criteria

Interacting Brainstorming

Nominal

Electronic

No. & of Quality o...
Conclusion
Illustration of Group by
(CEO of Continental Airline)
“ We are like a wristwatch-lots of different parts, but t...
In other words group is all about Teamwork.

Atta Ullah Afridi
Atta Ullah Afridi
Forming
Activities

Characteristics
Members tend to
be:

•
•
•

Tentative
Polite
Having little
conflicts

Team needs to
•
...
Storming
Characteristics
Members tend to:

•
•
•

Activities
Members need to

Exhibit increased
conflict
Less conformity
“...
Norming
Characteristics
Demonstrate an:

•
•
•

Activities
Members must

Improved ability
to complete tasks
Solve problems...
Performing
Characteristics

•
•
•
•
•
•

Energetic
Creative
Participative
Motivated
Show high levels
of loyalty
Group deci...
Adjourning
Characteristics

•
•
•

Purpose achieved
Ready to move on to new
things
A positive feeling about the
group achi...
Group Properties - Roles
A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to
someone occupying a given position in a social ...
Group Properties - Status
A socially defined position or rank given to groups or
group members by others.
Status Equity
Gr...
Group Properties - Status
Status Characteristics Theory
1. The Power a person wields over others
2. A person’s ability to ...
Group Properties - Norms
Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared
by the group’s members.
Performan...
Group Properties - Size
The size of a group affects the group’s overall behavior.
 Social Loafing:
The tendency for indiv...
Group Properties - Cohesiveness
Degree to which group members are attracted to each other
and are motivated to stay in the...
Command Group
“A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a
given manager.”
Example:
An army officer and h...
Task Group
“Task group Represents those working together to complete a
job task.”
Example:
A panel of employers to conduct...
Interest Group
“Those working together to attain a specific objective with which
each is concerned.”
Example:
Employees wh...
Friendship Group
“Those brought together because they share one or more
common characteristics.”
Example:
Groups based on ...
Electronic Meeting

Atta Ullah Afridi
Nominal Group Techniques

Atta Ullah Afridi
Brainstorming

Atta Ullah Afridi
Interacting Groups

Atta Ullah Afridi
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Organization behaviours

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Organization behaviours

  1. 1. Foundations of Group Behavior Presented by: Atta Ullah Afridi attaullah1075@gmail.com
  2. 2. Contents Defining Group Stages of Group Development Group Properties Group Decision Making Group Decision-Making Techniques Conclusion Atta Ullah Afridi
  3. 3. What is Group? Stephen P. Robins: “Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives” Atta Ullah Afridi
  4. 4. What is Group? Fred Luthans says: If a group exists in an organization, its members: 1. Are motivated to join 2. Perceive the group as a unified unit of interacting people 3. Contribute in various amounts to the group processes (that is, some people contribute more time or energy to the group than do others) 4. Reach agreements and have disagreements through various forms of interaction Atta Ullah Afridi
  5. 5. Classification of Groups Formal Group: “A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure” Example: Six members crew making up an airline flight. Informal Group: “A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact” Example: Three students who regularly go to school together. Atta Ullah Afridi
  6. 6. Sub Classification of Groups 1. 2. 3. 4. Command Group Task Group Interest Group Friendship Group Atta Ullah Afridi
  7. 7. Stages Of Group Development Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Atta Ullah Afridi
  8. 8. Group Properties Roles Status Norms Size Cohesiveness Atta Ullah Afridi
  9. 9. Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms And Productivity: Cohesiveness Low Performance Norms High High Low High productivity Moderate productivity Low productivity Moderate to low productivity Atta Ullah Afridi
  10. 10. Group Decision Making  What Is Decision?  What Is Decision Making? Atta Ullah Afridi
  11. 11. Group Decision Making Strengths & Weaknesses of Group Decisions: Broad Representation More Ideas Generated Evaluation Of Options Coordination Quality Decision Atta Ullah Afridi Time Consuming Level of Trust Dominated Personalities Capabilities of Members Ambiguous Responsibility
  12. 12. Group Think & Group Shift Group Think:  Imposing unpopular view  Opposing Popular view Group Shift:  Exaggerating less important view  Avoiding more important view How to minimize Group Think? Monitor Group Size Impartiality of Leader Seeking View From Each Member Atta Ullah Afridi
  13. 13. Group Decision-Making Techniques Interacting Groups Brainstorming Nominal Group Techniques Electronic Meeting Atta Ullah Afridi
  14. 14. Evaluating Group Effectiveness Effectiveness Criteria Interacting Brainstorming Nominal Electronic No. & of Quality of Ideas Low Moderate High High Money Costs Low Low Low High speed Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Commitment to solution High Not applicable Moderate Moderate Group Cohesiveness High High Moderate Low Atta Ullah Afridi
  15. 15. Conclusion Illustration of Group by (CEO of Continental Airline) “ We are like a wristwatch-lots of different parts, but the whole has value only when we all work together. It has no value when any part fails.” Gordon Bethune Atta Ullah Afridi
  16. 16. In other words group is all about Teamwork. Atta Ullah Afridi
  17. 17. Atta Ullah Afridi
  18. 18. Forming Activities Characteristics Members tend to be: • • • Tentative Polite Having little conflicts Team needs to • • • Identify its purpose Group processes Develop group norms Forming Atta Ullah Afridi
  19. 19. Storming Characteristics Members tend to: • • • Activities Members need to Exhibit increased conflict Less conformity “Jockeying” for power. learn • • • • How to resolve conflict Clarify their roles Power Structure Storming Atta Ullah Afridi
  20. 20. Norming Characteristics Demonstrate an: • • • Activities Members must Improved ability to complete tasks Solve problems Resolve conflict. • • • • Exhibit good behaviors Mutual trust Motivation Open communication Norming Atta Ullah Afridi
  21. 21. Performing Characteristics • • • • • • Energetic Creative Participative Motivated Show high levels of loyalty Group decisionmaking. Activities • • • Self-directing in development of plans Strategy to meet their goals Carry out work Performing Atta Ullah Afridi
  22. 22. Adjourning Characteristics • • • Purpose achieved Ready to move on to new things A positive feeling about the group achievement. Adjourning Atta Ullah Afridi
  23. 23. Group Properties - Roles A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.     Role identity Role perception Role expectation Role Conflict Atta Ullah Afridi
  24. 24. Group Properties - Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Status Equity Group Member Status Group interaction Group Norms Atta Ullah Afridi
  25. 25. Group Properties - Status Status Characteristics Theory 1. The Power a person wields over others 2. A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals 3. An individual’s personal Characteristics Atta Ullah Afridi
  26. 26. Group Properties - Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members. Performance Norms Appearance Norms Classes of Norms Social Arrangement Norms Allocation of Resources Norms Atta Ullah Afridi
  27. 27. Group Properties - Size The size of a group affects the group’s overall behavior.  Social Loafing: The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Other Conclusions: • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Atta Ullah Afridi
  28. 28. Group Properties - Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.  Suggestions to Encourage Group Cohesiveness: Make the group smaller Encourage agreement Give rewards Stimulate competition Increase interaction Isolate the group Increase the status Atta Ullah Afridi
  29. 29. Command Group “A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.” Example: An army officer and his subordinate soldiers form a command group. Atta Ullah Afridi
  30. 30. Task Group “Task group Represents those working together to complete a job task.” Example: A panel of employers to conduct interviews for the new post Atta Ullah Afridi
  31. 31. Interest Group “Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned.” Example: Employees who band together to support a peer who has been fired. Atta Ullah Afridi
  32. 32. Friendship Group “Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.” Example: Groups based on similar age, heritage etc. Atta Ullah Afridi
  33. 33. Electronic Meeting Atta Ullah Afridi
  34. 34. Nominal Group Techniques Atta Ullah Afridi
  35. 35. Brainstorming Atta Ullah Afridi
  36. 36. Interacting Groups Atta Ullah Afridi

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