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Atta assignment


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  • 1. COMMUNICATION Presented to Dr. Ali Mohammad Presented by group B Organizational communication
  • 2. Contents        Definition of communication Effective and process of communication Theories of communication Types of communication Organizational communication Barriers to communication Current issues to communication
  • 3. communication The transference and the understanding of meaning.
  • 4. Effective communication Such communication in which the communicator achieve its objectives / goals.
  • 5. Communication Process Model Communication Process The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning.
  • 6. Theories of communication Electronic theory Social environmental theory Rhetorical theory
  • 7. Electronic theory • • • One very influential theory is called the mathematical or electronic theory of communication. This idea emphasized the technical problems of transmitting a message from a sender to a receiver. It is based on, and uses
  • 8. Social communication theory We must consider the situation, the social context in which we will work Social environment is helpful because it adds the important dimension of the specific social situation
  • 9. Rhetorical communication theory It is not just sending a message to be received, but producing response. communication is not linear but circular
  • 10. Direction of Communication Downward Messages flow downward through the chain of command—i.e., from manager to employee.
  • 11. Direction of Communication Downward Upward Messages flow upward through the chain of command—i.e., from employee to boss.
  • 12. Direction of Communication Horizontal Downward Upward Messages flow laterally between people of the same rank.
  • 13. Interpersonal communication 1) Oral communication: It includes speeches, seminars, group discussion etc. Advantage is speed and Feedback. Disadvantage is potential Distortion
  • 14. Interpersonal communication 2) W ritten communication: It includes memos, letters, fax, email etc. Advantages are tangible, verifiable, permanent record and good for lengthy and complex messages. Disadvantages are delayed feedback and no guarantee of proper interpretation.
  • 15. Interpersonal communication 3) Nonverbal communication: It is a signal language, it include body language, appearance, posture and gestures etc.
  • 16. Organizational Communication • Our 1. 2. 3. The transference and the understanding of meaning within and outside the organization is called organizational communication. focus here will be on Formal small-group networks The grapevine Computer-aided communication
  • 17. Formal Small-Group Networks Can be very complicated • they can for instance include hundreds of people or more 1. Chain: •Rigidly follows the formal chain of command. •Approximates the communication channels you might find in
  • 18. Three Common Formal SmallGroup Networks 2. W heel: • Relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all the group’s communication. • Facilitates the emergence of a leader. 3. All Channel: • Permits all group members to actively communicate with each other. • All group members are free to contribute & no one person takes on a leadership role.
  • 19. Small Group Networks & Effectiveness Criteria No single network will be best for all occasions. •The effectiveness of chain is high if accuracy is most important. •Wheel facilitates the emergence of a leader. •All-channel network is best if you are concerned with having high members satisfaction.
  • 20. The Grapevine  Grapevine Characteristics Informal, not controlled by management. • Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. • Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. Results from: • Desire for information about important situations • Ambiguous conditions •
  • 21. Computer-Aided Communication E-mail  Advantages Quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution  Disadvantages Information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal
  • 22. Emoticons: Showing Emotion in E-Mail
  • 23. Computer-Aided Communication (cont’d)  Intranet – A private organization-wide information network  Extranet – An information network connecting employees with external suppliers, customers, and strategic partners  Videoconferencing – An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video links
  • 24. COMMUNICATION BARRIER • Filtering • Selective perceptive • Emotion • Information Over load • Semantic barrier • Cultural barrier • Socio Psychological Barrier • Physical Barrier • Mental Barrier • Mechanical Barrier
  • 25. FILTERING • A sender’s manipulating of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver.
  • 26. SELECTIVE PERCEPTION • People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interest, background, experience and attitude. EMOTIONS • How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication will influence how the message is interpret.
  • 27. INFORMATION OVERLOADED • A Condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity.
  • 28. SOCIO PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIER • Problem that arise out of an individual’ understanding, interpretation and response to communication due to socially learnt attributes and due to personal attributes.
  • 29. CULTURAL BARRIER • Same category of words, phrases, symbol, actions, colors means different thing to people of different counties / cultural background.
  • 30. SEMANTIC BARRIER • Languages • Poor vocabulary • Lack of knowledge of any language • Poor communication skills
  • 31. PHYSICAL BARRIERS •ENVIRONMENTAL DISTURBANCES: • a) Loud Speaker • b) Unwanted noise • 2. PHYSICAL HEALTH • ability to receive
  • 32. MECHANICAL BARRIER • Absence of means of communication • Faulty instrument
  • 33. GUIDE LINES FOR OVERCOMING BARRIERS • using feedback techniques (e.g. use questions to clarify understanding) • using repetition - repeat the same message in different ways that suit the learner. Draw it. Speak it. Write it • being positive (i.e. use positive language/words) • selecting an appropriate location (i.e. eliminate distractions and protect privacy) • using active listening skills.
  • 34. Continued …… • Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized. Use of ambiguous words and jargons should be avoided. • Listen attentively and carefully.   • He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered
  • 35. Gender Differences
  • 36. Communication Barriers between Men & Women: • • • • Difference in style of conversation. Both have different mind set, priorities and principles. Ways of dealing with the same situation are very different. A research shows that Men use to talk to emphasize status whereas women use it to create connection
  • 37. Cultural Differences
  • 38. Cross Cultural Communication • • • • • Barriers caused by differences among perception. Barriers caused by tone difference. Barriers caused by semantics. Same word mean different things to different people. Barriers caused by word connotations. Words imply different things in different languages.
  • 39. Culture Contexts  Cultures differ in how much the context makes a difference in communication. – High-context cultures • Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal cues in communication. – • Low-context cultures Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.
  • 40. High- vs. Low-Context Cultures
  • 41. Politically Correct Communication How do you describe a person who is ‘wheelchair bound’ (as handicapped or physically challenged) Similarly, a blind or visually impaired, Elderly or senior, We must be sensitive of others feelings. Should choose politically correct word. Words might have the same
  • 42. Silence as Communication • • Defined as an absence of speech or noise Not necessarily inaction—can convey: – Thinking to a question – Anxiety about speaking – Agreement or anger • Individuals should be aware of what silence might mean in any communication. Page 45