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CC 606 : HYDROLOGY

Chapter 2 :Type Of Rainfall

NAME :

REG NO :

NORFARHANA AIN BINTI ZAINAL ARIFF

01DKA10F2036

ZURHAY...
Introduction
• Artificial rainfall is also known as Cloud Seeding.

• Cloud seeding is a weather modification system that ...
1st Stage
The first stage is Agitation. That is using chemicals to
stimulate the air mass upwind of the target area to ris...
2nd Stage

The second stage is called Building-up stage. Here the
cloud mass is built up using chemicals such as kitchen
s...
3rd Stage
In the third stage of bombardment chemicals such as super-cool
agents:
silver iodide and dry ice are used to rea...
THESE RADDARS
KEEP UPTO
DATE
INFORMATION
OF
THE WEATHER
CHANGES.
Disadvantages
[1]

The Chemicals used in the production of artificial rain could affect
climatic patterns, ecosystem, wate...
Convectional
Rain(olakan)
INTRODUCTION
• Convection occurs when the Earth's surface,
mainly in the equatorial region, within a
conditionally unstabl...
• The word "orographic" means that it is related to mountains.

• Orographic rainfall is when a parcel of air containing w...
 At mountainous regions, air drops down over the
high ground, gaining temperature and increasing the
amount of water it c...
What is Frontal Rainfall?
 Frontal rainfall can be defined as the rising of a warm air mass over a
cool air mass. This is...
Frontal Rainfall occurs when

Two air masses meet, one a warm air mass and one a cold air mass.
The lighter, less dense,...
Stage 1.
An area of warm air meets and area of cold air.
Stage 2.
The warm air is forced over the cold air
Stage 3.
Where ...
What is Cyclonic Rainfall???

Cyclonic or 'frontal' rain occurs where two
air masses meet and form a 'front'. The
warmer, ...
Where does frontal/cyclonic rain fall occur?

"Frontal/Cyclonic rain is caused by cyclonic activity and
occurs along fron...
As the warm air rises, it expands and cools and
condenses to form clouds (altostratus). The rain falls
steadily for a few...
Cyclones form in which month?

from May till June and then from
September till October
 monsoon season

 15 April to 15...
DESTRUCTIVE ELEMENTS IN TROPICAL CYCLONES

Cyclone producing heavy rainfall and
high winds

A mosque is submerged after Cy...
Fully formed tropical cyclone with an eye, eyewall, and
circulating rain bands
References
• http://www.ask.com/question/what-isfrontal-rainfall
• http://www.winapedia.org/2013/04/types-ofrainfall-front...
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
Type of rainfall (Hydrology)
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Type of rainfall (Hydrology)

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Transcript of "Type of rainfall (Hydrology)"

  1. 1. CC 606 : HYDROLOGY Chapter 2 :Type Of Rainfall NAME : REG NO : NORFARHANA AIN BINTI ZAINAL ARIFF 01DKA10F2036 ZURHAYATI BINTI MAT ESA 01DKA10F2041 NURUL HUSNA BINTI MOHAMED ROSHIDI 01DKA10F2043 SOLEHUDDIN BIN JAMAL ABD NASER 01DKA10F2045 NORSYAMIMI BINTI KHOSIDI 01DKA10F2047 SITI RASHIDAH BINTI ABD RAZI 01DKA10F0270
  2. 2. Introduction • Artificial rainfall is also known as Cloud Seeding. • Cloud seeding is a weather modification system that aims to boost precipitation or rain by introducing condensation nuclei such as salt or dry ice
  3. 3. 1st Stage The first stage is Agitation. That is using chemicals to stimulate the air mass upwind of the target area to rise and form rainclouds. The chemicals used during this stage are calcium chloride, calcium carbide, calcium oxide, a compound of salt and urea, or a compound of urea and ammonium nitrate. These compounds are capable of absorbing water vapor from the air mass , thus stimulating the condensation process
  4. 4. 2nd Stage The second stage is called Building-up stage. Here the cloud mass is built up using chemicals such as kitchen salt, the T.1 formula, urea, ammonium nitrate, dry ice, and occasionally also calcium chloride to increase nuclei which also increase the density of the clouds
  5. 5. 3rd Stage In the third stage of bombardment chemicals such as super-cool agents: silver iodide and dry ice are used to reach the most unbalanced status which builds up large beads of water (Nuclei) and makes them fall down as raindrops. The process is called seeding
  6. 6. THESE RADDARS KEEP UPTO DATE INFORMATION OF THE WEATHER CHANGES.
  7. 7. Disadvantages [1] The Chemicals used in the production of artificial rain could affect climatic patterns, ecosystem, water sources and the soil. [2] Once started this process is uncontrollable. [3] Cloud Seeding causes Flood's, Hurricane's and Thunderstorm's which result's in loss of many lives.
  8. 8. Convectional Rain(olakan)
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION • Convection occurs when the Earth's surface, mainly in the equatorial region, within a conditionally unstable, or moist atmosphere, becomes heated more than its surroundings, leading to significant evaporation. • It falls as showers with rapidly changing intensity. • Convective precipitation falls over a certain area for a relatively short time, as convective clouds have limited horizontal extent.
  10. 10. • The word "orographic" means that it is related to mountains. • Orographic rainfall is when a parcel of air containing water vapor gets to a mountain ,it is then forced upwards (the mountain blocking its way ). As the parcel of air is forced upwards, it expends (adiabatic expansion ) and also cools. As it cools ,it becomes saturated because the amount of water it can hold decreases ,so the water vapor begins to condense and finally falls as rain.
  11. 11.  At mountainous regions, air drops down over the high ground, gaining temperature and increasing the amount of water it can hold.  That is why the flat regions below mountains hardly experience rain, and this area is known as rain shadow.
  12. 12. What is Frontal Rainfall?  Frontal rainfall can be defined as the rising of a warm air mass over a cool air mass. This is then followed by condensations and felling of rainfall.  Frontal rain is rain that occurs as a result of meeting the hot air mass and cold air mass.
  13. 13. Frontal Rainfall occurs when Two air masses meet, one a warm air mass and one a cold air mass. The lighter, less dense, warm air is forced to rise over the denser, cold air. This causes the warm air to cool and begin to condense. As the warm air is forced to rise further condensation occurs and rain is formed. Frontal rain produces a variety of clouds, which bring moderate to heavy rainfall.
  14. 14. Stage 1. An area of warm air meets and area of cold air. Stage 2. The warm air is forced over the cold air Stage 3. Where the air meets the warm air is cooled and water vapour condenses. Stage 4. Clouds form and precipitation occurs
  15. 15. What is Cyclonic Rainfall??? Cyclonic or 'frontal' rain occurs where two air masses meet and form a 'front'. The warmer, moisture laden air rises over the colder air as a 'warm front'. As the air rises it cools, and its relative humidity increases. Clouds form as water vapour condenses, and then fall as rain
  16. 16. Where does frontal/cyclonic rain fall occur? "Frontal/Cyclonic rain is caused by cyclonic activity and occurs along fronts.  It is formed when two air masses of different temperature, humidity and density meet such as the meeting of a tropical maritime air mass and a polar air mass. A zone called a front separates them. At the warm front, the lighter warm air rises gently over the heavier cold air which remains close to the ground.
  17. 17. As the warm air rises, it expands and cools and condenses to form clouds (altostratus). The rain falls steadily for a few hours to several days. At the cold front, the cold air forces warm air up aggressively, causing it to rise quickly and condense, forming cumulonimbus clouds. The heavy rain that falls is of short duration. Such rain is usually associated with temperate depressions (temperate cyclones).
  18. 18. Cyclones form in which month? from May till June and then from September till October  monsoon season  15 April to 15 Julyand also after its withdrawal that is 15 September to 15 December
  19. 19. DESTRUCTIVE ELEMENTS IN TROPICAL CYCLONES Cyclone producing heavy rainfall and high winds A mosque is submerged after Cyclone Yemyin made landfall in Balochistan
  20. 20. Fully formed tropical cyclone with an eye, eyewall, and circulating rain bands
  21. 21. References • http://www.ask.com/question/what-isfrontal-rainfall • http://www.winapedia.org/2013/04/types-ofrainfall-frontal-rain.html • http://www.scool.co.uk/gcse/geography/weather-andclimate/revise-it/rainfall-types
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