Solid Waste Management


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Solid Waste Management

  1. 1. CC 604 : Environment Pollution & Control Chapter 5 : Solid Waste Management + Case Study Class : DKA 5E Members of Group Registration Number Norfarhana Ain Binti Zainal Ariff 01DKA10F2036 Nurul Husna Binti Mohamed Roshidi Siti Rashidah Binti Abd Razi 01DKA10F2043 01DKA10F2070
  3. 3. Sources, Types, Composition, Quantities and Main Elements in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management
  4. 4. Solid waste are wastes that are not liquid or gaseous The term solid waste means : Material such as household garbage, food wastes, yard wastes, and demolition or construction debris What Is Solid Waste Solid wastes are all the discarded solid materials from municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities
  5. 5. Objective Of Solid Waste Management The objective of solid wastes management to control, collect, process, dispose of solid wastes in an economical way consistent with the public health protection
  6. 6. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public Definition Of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) All wastes, resulting from population, residential and non residential buildings, as well as transport vehicles Municipal solid waste (MSW) commonly known as: trash or garbage refuse or rubbish
  7. 7. Sources Of MSW Residential Industrial Commercial Institutional Construction/Demolition Municipal Services Process (Manufacturing) Agriculture
  8. 8. Industrial waste Sewage treatment residue Dead animals Type Of MSW Garbage Rubbish Demolition Wastes Construction waste
  9. 9. It is estimated that solid waste generated in small, medium and large cities and towns is about 0.1 kg, 0.3 – 0.4 kg and 0.5 kg per capita per day respectively Quantity Of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) In Malaysia Total municipal solid waste (MSW) collected in the country increased every year The average per capita generation has increased from 0.67 kg/person/day in 2001 to 0.8 kg/person/day in 2005 In 2008 it is reported increase at 60 – 70 %. Current MSW generation has reached 1.3 kg/person/day
  10. 10. Element Of MSW Management • Waste generation • Waste handling, sorting, storage, and processing at the source • Collection • Separation, processing and transformation of solid wastes • Transfer and transport • Energy Generation • Disposal
  11. 11. Strategies for Effective and Environmental Friendly • Minimize waste generation • Maximize waste recycling and reuse • Educate people on different ways of handling waste • Systematic solid waste management
  12. 12. Understand The Characteristics, Composition and Components of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
  13. 13. Physical Characteristic Moisture content : increase the weight of solid waste , so the cost of collection & transportation will increasing Density : used to assess volume of transportation vehicle & size of the disposal facility Characteristic of MSW Chemical Characteristic is essential in understanding the behavior of waste all through the waste management system and also in selecting and determining the efficiency of any treatment process
  14. 14. Composition Components
  15. 15. Understand The Process of Generation and Handling of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW))
  16. 16. Waste Generation Waste generation include activities in which material identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown away or gathered together for disposal.
  17. 17. Collection Elements of collection, includes not only the gathering of solid waste and recyclable material, but also the transport of these materials after collection, to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied.
  18. 18. Factor Influence Generation of MSW • Socio-economic background: – The buying power – Income level • Cultural background • Locality: – Urban – Rural setting
  19. 19. Handling and Separating Municipal Solid Waste • Waste handling and separation involves activities associated with waste management until the waste is placed in storage containers for collection. • Handling also include the movement of loaded containers to the point of collection. Separating different types of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source.
  20. 20. Understand The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Collection Activities)
  21. 21. Collection Activities • The most common collection services are curb/alley, set out/set back pickup, and backyard pickup. • The collection services provided to large apartment buildings, residential complexes, commercial and industrial activities typically in centered around the use of large movable and stationary containers and large stationary compactors.
  22. 22. Curb or Alley Pickup • The quickest and most economical point of collection. • Using standard container that has been design by city council.
  23. 23. Set-out, Set-back Pickup • Collectors have to enter property. • Set out crew carries full containers from resident storage location to curb/alley before collection vehicle arrives. • Set back crew return the container to storage area.
  24. 24. Backyard Pickup • Usually accomplish by the use of tote barrels. • The collector enter the resident’s property, dumps the container into a tote barrel, carries it to the trucks and dumps it.
  25. 25. Transfer and Transport • Transfer and transport refers to the facilities used to transfer of wastes from one location to another. - Small collection vehicles are transferred to larger vehicles that are used to transport the waste over extended distances to disposal sites.
  26. 26. Understand The Various Kinds of MSW Disposal Methods Such as Land Filling, Incineration and Organic MSW Composting
  27. 27. Sanitary Land Filling   The controlled disposal of solid waste on the upper layer of the earth mantle in a manner the environmental hazards is minimized. Important technical aspects in the implementation of sanitary landfills include:  Site selection.  Land filling methods and operation.  Occurrence of gasses and leachate.  Movement and control of gases and leachate.
  28. 28. Incineration •The process of burning waste in large furnaces at high temperature is know as incineration. •It is used to dispose of solid liquid and gaseous waste .Incineration facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. •At the end of the process all that is left behind is ash.
  29. 29. Incinerators System
  30. 30. Composting • Compost Is the product resulting from the controlled biological decomposition of organic material. • The starting material for composting are commonly referred to a feed stocks
  31. 31. Explain the environmental, social , economical, and political information available for municipal solid waste (MSW) a)The disposal site shall be capable of being characterized , modeled, analyzed and monitored. b)The disposal site shall be generally well drained and free of areas of flooding or frequent bonding. c)Depend on the type of accommodation, terrace houses , flats , commercial area or factories d)Collection service route
  32. 32. Effect of incineration sanitary landfill and composting to the environment • Release hundreds of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere; • Disposal of the ash (The toxic substance are more concentrated in the ash); • Highly related to the economic condition; • A classic short-term solution potentially useful (recyclable or compostable) (it destroys material by turning it into toxic ash);
  33. 33. Know 4R’s Concept and Justify Aspects and Issues related to recycling and composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)
  34. 34. Describe waste reduction ,reuse, recovery and recycling concepts. • Method of waste reduction, waste reuse, and recycling are the preferred options when managing waste. • 4R’s stand for: Reduction Reuse Recovery Recycling
  35. 35. Reduction • By reducing, consumer and industry can save natural resources and reduce waste management costs. Reuse • Large production companies such as Electronic, appliances and gadgets, should establish the collection centre, where damaged items can be repaired and reuse. Recovery • Energy or material can be recovered from waste that are not reused or recycled Recycling • Recycling turns materials that would otherwise become waste into valuable resources
  36. 36. Identify the impact of reuse /recycle /reduction on landfill design and operation. • • • • saves natural resources. reduces toxicity of waste. reduce cost. helps sustain the environment for future generations. • reduces the need for land filling and incineration.
  37. 37. Explain on conventional and innovative waste utilization /recycling technologies. 1.Conventional Two types of composting process: 1. Aerobic composting 2. Anaerobic composting Factor that influence Aerobic composting process : i. Particle size 25 to 75mm for the optimum chemical reaction to occur ii. The ratio of C:N (Carbon to nitrogen ratio) iii. Moisture content should be in the range 50-60% iv. Temperature the optimum temperature for the composting process is 50 to 70˚C v. PH control the optimum for micro activity is 6.5-7.5 to prevent loss of nitrogen as ammonia (NH₃) gas , pH should not exceed 8.5 vi. Mixing process to prevent dehydration on the surface of the compost vii. Air requirements 2.Innovative i. Will improve public health and safely achieve ii. Non-toxic gases, which are created, are stored in special containers (gas cylinders) and used as fuel and energy creators. iii. Method takes place in a close system, without releasing ashes, waste remnants, dusts and toxic gases into environment.
  38. 38. CASE STUDY :
  39. 39. • Garbage collecting is not follow work schedule especially involves area housing CAUSES
  40. 40. cause the occupants had to take the easy way to remove the debris and solid waste in open areas, including the roadside and at major crossroads on the road remove debris and solid waste in open area away from the house This Is because garbage and solid waste loaded in the barrel, in front of their homes are full ACTION RESIDENTS IN THE AREA
  41. 41. THE EFFECTS animals eat like cats and dogs, garbage lifted late in the barrel at the front door of his house will be wormy and rotten and then overflowing into the road shoulder. not lasting the nauseating smell that permeates the house, every time you open the door until cause of the health and appetite. experiencing severe odor pollution as wormy and rotting garbage in the trash lifted by garbage trucks. Waste water overflowing from the truck in the road surface. Affected neighborhoods wedding contaminate views raises displeasure
  42. 42. Impacts of solid waste on environment Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane, a potent greenhouse gas Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable Garbage disposal, due to waste pollutions, illegal dumping, leaching : is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them
  43. 43. Nausea and vomiting Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high levels of mercury Increase in hospitalization of diabetic residents living near hazard waste sites Low birth weight Impacts of solid waste on health Cancer Chemical poisoning through chemical inhalation
  44. 44. Population growth Increase in industrials manufacturing Urbanization Causes of increase in solid waste
  45. 45. Preventive measures Systematic solid waste management Involving public in plans for waste treatment and disposal Educate people on different ways of handling waste Household level of proper segregation of waste, recycling and reuse Process and product substitution example use paper bag instead of plastic bags garbage collection according to the schedule set
  46. 46. References Internet 1. Wikipedia. Municipal Solid Waste. September 19, 2013, from 2. Slide Share. Solid Waste. September 18, 2013, by Wali Memon, from 3. Silde Share. Minicipal Solid Waste. September 19, 2013, By Muhammad Fahad Ansar ,