Ventricular system of brain final
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  • nice preparations not clear the images, and anatomy
    but good review
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  • very well explanation by Dr. imad but atlas pictures are not clear bcz in black and white .jazak Allah
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  • Lateral ventricle
  • Brain stem
  • Thalamostriate groove
  • Posterior pitutary
  • Tela choroidea (double fold of pia)

Transcript

  • 1. Ventricular system of brain Dr. Syed Imad FCPS, MRCS
  • 2. VENTRICULAR SYSTEM
    • What are the ventricles ?
    • How do they develop ?
    • What do they contain ?
  • 3. VENTRICULAR SYSTEM
    • Communicating system of cavities
    • Cavity of neural tube that persists
    • Ependyma, a single epithelial-like layer of cells.
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  • 4. Neural tube
  • 5. VENTRICULAR SYSTEM
  • 6. VENTRICULAR SYSTEM
    • Comprises of:
      • two lateral ventricles
      • the third ventricle
      • the cerebral aqueduct
      • and the fourth ventricle
  • 7. VENTRICULAR SYSTEM from the right from above Central canal
  • 8.  
  • 9. VENTRICULAR SYSTEM
    • Is CSF stagnant or it circulates ?
      • What is the path of CSF flow ?
      • Where does it come from ?
      • Where does it go ?
  • 10. VENTRICULAR SYSTEM
    • Interventricular foramen (of Monro) --- leads from the lateral into the third ventricle.
    • Ventricles communicate with subarachnoid spaces and cisterns via apertures of the fourth ventricle.
  • 11. External CSF circulation Internal CSF circulation Interventricular foramen 3rd Ventricle Choroid plexus Venous Sinus Lateral ventricle Subarachnoid space
  • 12. Subarachnoid space and cisterns
  • 13.  
  • 14. Choroid Plexus
    • The lining ependyma of each ventricle comes into contact with the surface pia mater allowing the invagination of a mass of blood capillaries --- combination of these capillaries , pia and ependyma constitutes the choroid plexus .
  • 15. Choroid Plexus
    • lateral ventricles
      • continuous through Interventricular foramen with the small plexus in the third ventricle.
      • secretes the bulk of the CSF
    • fourth ventricle
      • separate from that in the third and lateral ventricles
      • only makes a small contribution to the total amount of CSF
  • 16.  
  • 17. CSF
    • CSF is clear, colorless, and odorless fluid
    • produced within the ventricles secreted by the Choroid plexus
    • provides mechanical support – protection from pressure changes.
    • In adults, the total volume of CSF is about 150 ml
    • Between 400 and 500 mL of CSF is produced and reabsorbed daily.
  • 18. CSF Flow
  • 19. MENINGES & SPACES
  • 20. VENOUS SINUSES OF THE DURA MATER
    • Venous sinuses are network of channels that receive all the venous blood from the brain
    • Venous sinuses lie b/w the inner and outer layers of the dura ---- Inferior sagittal and straight sinuses are the exceptions
    • Arachnoid granulations also project into the venous sinuses to return CSF to the bloodstream
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Dural venous sinuses
  • 24. Lateral ventricles
  • 25. Central canal
  • 26. Lateral ventricles
    • C-shaped cavity
    • within each cerebral hemisphere
    • Consists of:
      • anterior horn - frontal lobe
      • body --- parietal lobe
      • posterior horn ---- occipital lobe
      • inferior horn ---- temporal lobe
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Lateral ventricles
    • Anterior horn and Body:
      • Roof:
        • Corpus callosum and the fornix
      • Medial surface:
        • Septum pellucidum (thin partition between the fornix and corpus callosum)
  • 31.  
  • 32. Thalamus and Basal ganglia Brain stem
  • 33. Thalamus Thalamus and Basal ganglia Brain stem
  • 34. Amygdaloid body Thalamus Tail of Caudate nucleus Head of Caudate nucleus Lentiform nucleus Body of Caudate nucleus
  • 35. Lateral ventricles
      • Anterior horn and Body:
        • Floor:
          • Caudate nucleus, thalamus
  • 36. Fibers of Internal capsule Corpus callosum Left thalamus and basal nuclei, viewed from behind
  • 37. Lateral ventricles
    • Posterior horn
      • is the most variably developed and may even be absent.
  • 38. Lateral ventricles Cingulate sulcus Posterior horn of lateral ventricle Collateral eminence Collateral sulcus Splenium of corpus callosum Tapetum of corpus callosum Optic radiation Callosal radiation
  • 39. Lateral ventricles
      • Posterior Horn
      • Roof and lateral wall
        • Tapetum of the corpus callosum
        • Optic radiation lying against the tapetum in the lateral wall.
      • Medial wall --- two convexities:
        • Upper (bulb of the posterior horn)
          • Splenium of the corpus callosum
        • Lower (Calcar avis)
          • Calcarine sulcus.
          • If Calcar avis is well developed, it obliterates the posterior horn.
      • Floor
        • Collateral eminence, produced by the collateral sulcus
  • 40.  
  • 41. Lateral ventricles Inferior horn -- Largest horn
  • 42. Lateral ventricles
      • Inferior Horn
      • Floor
        • medially
          • hippocampus
        • laterally
          • collateral eminence
      • Roof
        • tail of the caudate nucleus, amygdaloid body
      • Lateral wall
        • Tapetum of corpus callosum
  • 43. Lateral ventricles
    • Convexities within Lateral ventricles:
    • The grey matter at the bottom of a sulci indents the cavity
    • Such sulci are
      • Parahippocampal
      • Calcarine
      • Collateral
    • Caudate nucleus and thalamus also project into the cavity
    • Elsewhere the walls of the cavity are formed by white matter of the cerebral hemisphere
  • 44. Third Ventricle
    • Cavity within Diencephalon
    • slit-like space, lying in the sagittal plane
  • 45. Neural tube
  • 46. Third Ventricle
    • Comprises of:
      • Anterior wall
      • Two side walls
      • Floor
      • Roof
  • 47. Third Ventricle
  • 48. Third Ventricle
  • 49. Third Ventricle
    • Anterior wall:
      • lamina terminalis
      • anterior commissure
    • Floor:
      • optic chiasma
      • tuber cinereum median eminence
      • infundibulum
      • mamillary bodies
      • posterior perforated substance
      • tegmentum of the cerebral peduncles
    • Two side walls:
      • Thalamus Interthalamic adhesion (60% of brains)
      • Hypothalamus Supraoptic nucleus – ADH
      • Paraventricular nucleus – Vasopressin/Oxytocin
      • Subthalamus Subthalamic nucleus
  • 50. Tuber cinerum Median eminence Infundibulum Posterior pitutary
  • 51. Third Ventricle
  • 52. Aqueduct (of Sylvius)
    • Cavity within midbrain
    • Continuous above with third ventricle
    • leads through the midbrain into the cavity of the fourth ventricle
  • 53.  
  • 54. Choroid fissure
    • C-shaped slit in the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere
    • convexity – fornix
    • concavity – thalamus, tail of the caudate nucleus
    • Invaginated by choroid plexus of lateral ventricle
  • 55.  
  • 56. Tela choroidea (double fold of pia) Pitutary stalk (solid) Infundibulum (hollow )
  • 57. Tela choroidea
    • Reflection of two layers of pia matter
      • Medially b/w interventricular foramina
      • Laterally across the upper surface of thalamus
  • 58. Fourth ventricle
  • 59.  
  • 60. Blood-Brain Barrier
    • Collectively, the blood vessels within the brain have a very large surface area that promotes the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, amino acids, and sugars between blood and brain.
    • The blood-CSF barrier is formed by active transport from the blood vessels to the brain- Epithelial cells of joined by tight junctions, form a continuous layer that selectively permits the passage of some substances but not others.
    • Why do we need this?
  • 61.
      • no blood/brain barrier
      • corpora amylacea --- calcify ---- after the age of forty years they normally throw a shadow in radiographs of the skull
      • displaced calcified pineal indicates a space-occupying lesion above the tentorium
      • melatonin (a hormone related to serotonin), which in animals and probably in man also has an antigonadotrophic action.
    • part of the tuber cinereum at the base of the infundibulum is the median eminence — highly important as the site of the neurosecretory cells that control the anterior pituitary, and one of the few regions with no blood/brain barrier
  • 62. Clinical correlates
    • Hydrocephalous
    • Arnold Chiari malformation
    • Intraventricular hemorrhage
    • Ependymal tumors
    • Subarachnoid hemorrhage