The cerebellum demo

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The cerebellum demo

  1. 1. THE CEREBELLUM
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Largest part of the hindbrain. </li></ul><ul><li>Situated in the posterior cranial fossa behind the pons and medulla. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an infratentorial structure. </li></ul>
  3. 3. RELATIONS OF CEREBELLUM
  4. 4. EXTERNAL FEATURES <ul><li>Two cerebellar hemispheres . </li></ul><ul><li>Median vermis. </li></ul><ul><li>Two surfaces ----superior and inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior and posterior cerebellar notches </li></ul><ul><li>Vallecula separating the right and left hemispheres. </li></ul><ul><li>3 fissures…fissura prima,horizontal fissure and posterolateral fissure </li></ul><ul><li>3 lobes in each hemisphere .. anterior , posterior and flocculonodular. </li></ul>
  5. 5. EXTERNAL FEATURES
  6. 6. FISSURES AND LOBES
  7. 7. MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL DIVISIONS
  8. 8. GREY MATTER OF THE CEREBELLUM <ul><li>Consists of the cortex and the nuclei. </li></ul><ul><li>4 pairs of nuclei … n.dentatus n.emboliformis,n.globosus,and n.fastigii (lateral-medial… D on’t E at G reasy F ood) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Horizontal section showing grey matter
  10. 10. CONNECTIONS <ul><li>Fibres are grouped to form 3 peduncles ;superior ,middle and inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the cerebellum to midbrain ,pons and medulla. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle and inferior are afferent </li></ul><ul><li>Superior is efferent in nature. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Peduncles of the cerebellum
  12. 12. CONSTITUENTS OF THE PEDUNCLES <ul><li>SUPERIOR PEDUNCLE : </li></ul><ul><li>Afferent tracts : </li></ul><ul><li>ant. spinocerebellar Tectocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>dentatoolivary </li></ul><ul><li>fastigoreticular </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent tracts : </li></ul><ul><li>cerebellorubral </li></ul><ul><li>dentatothalamic </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>MIDDLE PEDUNCLE </li></ul><ul><li>mainly afferent: pontocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>Largest of the 3 peduncles. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>INFERIOR PEDUNCLE : </li></ul><ul><li>Afferent tracts </li></ul><ul><li>post.spinocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>cuneocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>olivocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>parolivocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>reticulocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>vestibulocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>ant.ext. arcuate fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Stria medullaris </li></ul><ul><li>trigeminocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent tracts </li></ul><ul><li>cerebellovestibular </li></ul><ul><li>cerebelloolivary </li></ul><ul><li>cerebelloreticular </li></ul>
  15. 15. Blood supply of cerebellum <ul><li>Superior cerebellar A. </li></ul><ul><li>Ant.inf. Cerebellar A. </li></ul><ul><li>Post.inf.Cerebellar A. </li></ul><ul><li>The first two are branches of the Basilar artery ,while the last is a branch of the Vertebral A. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Functions of the cerebellum <ul><li>Coordination of voluntary movements …….dysfunction causes incoordination of movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of tone,posture,and equilibrium….. </li></ul><ul><li>lesions will cause hypotonia and disturbances of equilibrium. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Cerebellar syndrome : </li></ul><ul><li>S/S are : </li></ul><ul><li>muscular hypotonia </li></ul><ul><li>intention tremors </li></ul><ul><li>adiodochokinesia </li></ul><ul><li>nystagmus </li></ul><ul><li>ataxic gait </li></ul><ul><li>scanning speech </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>AND FINALLY….……. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>THE END!!! </li></ul>

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