Cerebrum Dr.Fauzia
Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest part of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Situated in the anterior and middle cranial fossa </li></ul>
Cerebral hemispheres   <ul><li>General Appearance: </li></ul><ul><li>Separated by a deep midline sagittal fissure –  longi...
Surfaces of Cerebral Hemisphere <ul><li>Three surfaces: </li></ul><ul><li>Superolateral surface </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior...
Lobes of Cerebral Hemispheres <ul><li>Cerebral hemispheres are divided into lobes by the  central, parieto-occipital, late...
Main sulci <ul><li>Central sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Indents the superior medial border of the hemisphere, 1 cm behind the ...
Main sulci  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Lateral sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Deep cleft on the inferior and lateral surfaces of the cereb...
Main sulci  (Cont’d) <ul><li>Parieto-occipital sulcus: </li></ul><ul><li>Begins on the superior medial border of the hemis...
Superolateral surface <ul><li>Frontal lobe  – anterior to central sulcus and superior to lateral sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>...
Superolateral surface <ul><li>Temporal lobe  – inferior to lateral sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Two sulci and three gyri </li>...
Superolateral surface <ul><li>Parietal lobe  –  posterior to central sulcus and superior to lateral sulcus, extends upto t...
<ul><li>CORTICAL AREAS   </li></ul>
Longitudinal Fissure Transverse Fissure Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Central Sulcus http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/ima...
Frontal Lobe - Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary Motor Cortex /Brodmann,s area 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Precentral Gyrus  –  it ...
Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus Broca’s  Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Olfactory Bulb Modified from:  http://www.bioon....
<ul><li>secondary motor area/6,8,44 and 45 </li></ul><ul><li>Precentral gyrus,sup,middle,inf frontal gyri   </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Broca’s Area  –44,45 </li></ul><ul><li>Inf.frontal gyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Brings about the formation of words. </...
<ul><li>Frontal eye field 6,8,9   </li></ul><ul><li>Middle frontal gyrus  </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary eye movements and th...
Parietal Lobe - Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary sensorymotor Cortex 1,2,3(Postcentral Gyrus)  – Site involved with proces...
Primary Somatosensory Cortex/ Postcentral Gyrus Primary Gustatory Cortex Somatosensory Association Cortex Regions Modified...
Occipital Lobe – Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary Visual Cortex  – This is the primary area of the brain responsible for V...
Primary Visual Cortex Visual Association Area Regions Modified from:  http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8....
Temporal Lobe – Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary Auditory Cortex  –41,42  mostly hidden in the lateral sulcus  </li></ul><...
Temporal Lobe – Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary Olfactory Cortex  –  sense of smell  (Not visible on the superficial cort...
Primary Auditory  Cortex Wernike’s Area Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep) Conducted from Olfactory Bulb Regions Modified fro...
 
dominant hemisphere <ul><li>95-left </li></ul><ul><li>Broca </li></ul><ul><li>90% right handed </li></ul>
BLOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>Anterior  and middle cerebral artery (internal carotid artery) </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior cerebral a...
 
<ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
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Cerebrum

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Cerebrum

  1. 1. Cerebrum Dr.Fauzia
  2. 2. Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest part of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Situated in the anterior and middle cranial fossa </li></ul>
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Cerebral hemispheres <ul><li>General Appearance: </li></ul><ul><li>Separated by a deep midline sagittal fissure – longitudinal cerebral fissure </li></ul><ul><li>In the depth of the fissure, the corpus callosum connects the hemispheres across the midline </li></ul><ul><li>Gyri – the folds of the surface of hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Sulci – the fissures separate the gyri </li></ul>
  5. 5. Surfaces of Cerebral Hemisphere <ul><li>Three surfaces: </li></ul><ul><li>Superolateral surface </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior surface </li></ul><ul><li>Medial surface </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lobes of Cerebral Hemispheres <ul><li>Cerebral hemispheres are divided into lobes by the central, parieto-occipital, lateral and calcarine sulci </li></ul><ul><li>Lobes are named according to the cranial bones under which they lie </li></ul><ul><li>Lobes are: </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul>
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Main sulci <ul><li>Central sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Indents the superior medial border of the hemisphere, 1 cm behind the mid-point </li></ul><ul><li>It runs downward, forward and toward the lateral sulcus across the lateral aspect of the hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>The central sulcus is the only sulcus that indents the superior medial border </li></ul>
  10. 10. Main sulci (Cont’d) <ul><li>Lateral sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Deep cleft on the inferior and lateral surfaces of the cerebral hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of a short stem and three rami </li></ul>
  11. 11. Main sulci (Cont’d) <ul><li>Parieto-occipital sulcus: </li></ul><ul><li>Begins on the superior medial border of the hemisphere, about 5 cm anterior to the occipital pole </li></ul><ul><li>It passes downward and anteriorly on the medial surface to meet the calcarine sulcus </li></ul>
  12. 12. Superolateral surface <ul><li>Frontal lobe – anterior to central sulcus and superior to lateral sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Superolateral surface of frontal lobe is divided by three sulci into four gyri </li></ul><ul><li>Precentral sulcus and gyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Superior and inferior frontal sulci </li></ul><ul><li>Superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri </li></ul>
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Superolateral surface <ul><li>Temporal lobe – inferior to lateral sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Two sulci and three gyri </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe – small area behind the parieto-occipital sulcus </li></ul>
  15. 15. Superolateral surface <ul><li>Parietal lobe – posterior to central sulcus and superior to lateral sulcus, extends upto the parieto-occipital sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Two sulci and three gyri </li></ul>Lateral sulcus
  16. 16. <ul><li>CORTICAL AREAS </li></ul>
  17. 17. Longitudinal Fissure Transverse Fissure Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Central Sulcus http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg http://www.dalbsoutss.eq.edu.au/Sheepbrains_Me/human_brain.gif Specific Sulci/Fissures:
  18. 18. Frontal Lobe - Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary Motor Cortex /Brodmann,s area 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Precentral Gyrus – it cntrols all voluntary movements of the contralateral side of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Site where movements of the various parts of the body are initiated </li></ul><ul><li>Recieves sensory input from cerebellum and thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>The body is represented upside down along the precentral gyrus </li></ul>
  19. 19. Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus Broca’s Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Olfactory Bulb Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg Regions Investigation (Phineas Gage)
  20. 20. <ul><li>secondary motor area/6,8,44 and 45 </li></ul><ul><li>Precentral gyrus,sup,middle,inf frontal gyri </li></ul><ul><li>It programs the activity of the PMA </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger stimulation is required to produce the same degree of movement </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Broca’s Area –44,45 </li></ul><ul><li>Inf.frontal gyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Brings about the formation of words. </li></ul><ul><li>Located on Left Frontal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Broca’s Aphasia – Results in the ability to comprehend speech, but the decreased motor ability (or inability) to speak and form words </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Frontal eye field 6,8,9 </li></ul><ul><li>Middle frontal gyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary eye movements and the accomodation pathway </li></ul><ul><li>also controls eyelid movements </li></ul><ul><li>Prefrontal cortex9,10,11,12 </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with the makeup of the individual , s personality </li></ul><ul><li>Head rotation area </li></ul>
  23. 23. Parietal Lobe - Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary sensorymotor Cortex 1,2,3(Postcentral Gyrus) – Site involved with processing of tactile and proprioceptive information. </li></ul><ul><li>Somatosensory Association Cortex -5,7 sup parietal assists with the integration and interpretation of sensations. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Gustatory Cortex 43 </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior part of the post central gyrus– Primary site involved with the interpretation of the sensation of Taste. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Primary Somatosensory Cortex/ Postcentral Gyrus Primary Gustatory Cortex Somatosensory Association Cortex Regions Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
  25. 25. Occipital Lobe – Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary Visual Cortex – This is the primary area of the brain responsible for Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Association Area – Interprets information acquired through the primary visual cortex. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Primary Visual Cortex Visual Association Area Regions Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
  27. 27. Temporal Lobe – Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary Auditory Cortex –41,42 mostly hidden in the lateral sulcus </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Its anterior part recieves low freq sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Post part –high freq sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. Auditory Cortex 22 </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of sounds </li></ul>
  28. 28. Temporal Lobe – Cortical Regions <ul><li>Primary Olfactory Cortex – sense of smell (Not visible on the superficial cortex) </li></ul><ul><li>Wernicke’s Area superior and middle temporal gyri </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of speech </li></ul>- Wernicke’s Aphasia – Words and sentences are not clearly understood, and sentence formation may be inhibited.
  29. 29. Primary Auditory Cortex Wernike’s Area Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep) Conducted from Olfactory Bulb Regions Modified from: http://www.bioon.com/book/biology/whole/image/1/1-8.tif.jpg
  30. 31. dominant hemisphere <ul><li>95-left </li></ul><ul><li>Broca </li></ul><ul><li>90% right handed </li></ul>
  31. 32. BLOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>Anterior and middle cerebral artery (internal carotid artery) </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior cerebral artery (basilar artery) </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
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