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Brainstem demo neww

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  • 1. BRAINSTEM
  • 2. BRAIN STEM
    • 3 PARTS :
    • MIDBRAIN
    • PONS
    • MEDULLA OBLANGATA
    • HAS 3 BROAD FUNCTIONS –
      • Serves as a conduit for the ascending & descending tracts
      • Contains important reflex centers(RS.CVS)
      • Control of consciousness
      • Contains cranial nerves nuclei (CN3-CN12)
    Brainstem occupies the posterior cranial fossa of the skull
  • 3.  
  • 4. MIDBRAIN
  • 5. MIDBRAIN VENTRAL SURFACE Crus cerebri of midbrain Optic tract Mammillary body Posterior perforated substance Oculomotor nerve Trochlear nerve Interpedencular fossa
  • 6. MIDBRAIN ( Dorsal surface)
  • 7. BLOOD SUPPLY OF MIDBRAIN
    • ARTERIAL SUPPLY :
    • Posterior cerebral artery.
    • Superior cerebellar artery.
    • VENOUS PLEXUS:
    • Basal vein.
    • Great cerebral vein.
  • 8. PONS
  • 9. PONS(Ventral view) Basilar groove Motor root of trigeminal nerve Sensory root of trigeminal nerve Abducent nerve Roots of facial nerve vestibulocochlear nerve
  • 10. PONS (dorsal view) Trochlear nerve Superior medullary velum Floor of 4 th ventricle Striae medullaris Median sulcus Medial eminence Facial colliculus Sulcus limitans Vestibular area Hypoglossal triangle Vagal traingle
  • 11. BLOOD SUPPLY OF PONS
    • ARTERIAL SUPPLY:
    • Pontine branches of basilar artery.
    • Superior cerebellar artery.
    • Anterior inferior cerebellar artery.
    • VENOUS SUPPLY:
    • Basilar venous plexus.
    • Inferior petrosal sinuses.
  • 12. MEDULLA OBLANGATA
  • 13. THE ANTERIOR SURFACE (medulla)
    • On the anterior surface of the medulla is the anterior median fissure ( Continuous with the AMF of the spinal cord )
    • PYRAMIDS
    • ( decussation of the pyramids)
    • in lower portion.
    • OLIVES ( Inferior olivary nuclei lies beneath them )
    • INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE
    • HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE (XII) ( groove between the pyramids & olives )
  • 14. THE ANTERIOR SURFACE (medulla)
    • From the grove between the olives & the inferior cerebellar peduncle, emerge the nerve roots of :
      • Glossopharyngeal (IX)
      • Vagus (X)
      • Accessory nerve (XI) – Cranial roots
  • 15. THE POSTERIOR SURFACE (medulla)
    • Superior half : FLOOR OF THE 4 TH VENTRICLE
    • Inferior half : POSTERIOR MEDIAN SULCUS ( PMS )
    • GRACILE TUBERCLE (Produced by underlying gracile nucleus )
    • CUNEATE TUBERCLE (Produced by underlying cuneate nucleus )
  • 16. BLOOD SUPPLY OF MEDULLA
    • ARTERIAL SUPPLY :
    • Medullary br. of vertebral artery.
    • Medullary br. Of basilar artery.
    • Posterior inferior cerebellar artery.
    • Anterior spinal artery.
    • VENOUS SUPPLY:
    • Basilar venous plexus.
    • Inferior petrosal sinus.
    • Occipital sinus.
  • 17. FUNCTION OF THE BRAINSTEM
    • Midbrain:
    • Visual & auditory processing and reflexes
    • Fine-tuning of voluntary movements
    • Pons:
    • Relay station for cerebellum
    • Control of sub-conscious movement
    • Medulla Oblongata:
    • Control of cardiovascular functions
    • Control of respiration
    • Control of gastrointestinal functions
  • 18. What brainstem structures are visible here? MID BRAIN PONS MEDULLA
  • 19. Cranial Nerves
  • 20. THANK YOU