TCP/IP Model

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TCP/IP Model

  1. 1. TCP/IP Model<br />There are four layers in TCP/IP model<br />Application Layer<br />Transport Layer<br />Internet Layer<br />Network Access Layer<br />
  2. 2. Application Layer (AL):<br />Application Layer (AL), contains those protocols which provides services to users.<br />Web browsing, e-mail, encryption, session establishment all these things happen in application Layer which uses protocols such as,<br />HTTP, SMTP, DNS, TELNET, FTP, NFS, DFS, IMAP4, POP3, NNTP, SSH, SSL, GOPHER.<br />Application Layer (AL), defines network application services like file transfer, network management.<br />Identification of services is done using port numbers. Ports are nothing but socket i.e. entry & exit point to the layer.<br />Application layer, Presentation layer, Session layer of OSI model<br />Responsible for converting data into standard format ex: ASCII, JPEG, MIDI, MP3.<br />Encoding-decoding, encryption-decryption, compression, NFS, RPC (remote procedure code).<br />
  3. 3. Transport Layer (TL):<br />Two important protocols are used in Transport layer (TL). They are TCP and UDP<br />Transport layer (TL), deals with actual manipulation of data and prepares it for delivery through network.<br />If data is too large for the single frame, then TL breaks it into smaller pieces and assigns sequence number.<br />It ensures that all the data is received in the right order than it was sent.<br />TL is responsible for ensuring data is sent and received successfully.<br />TL is responsible for verifying delivery of packets.<br />Identification services, sequencing, flow control, error correction, segmentation, reassembling is done here.<br />
  4. 4. Internet Layer (IL):<br />Internet layer (IL), deals with, finding the way to the destination.<br />Internet layer (IL) defines, IP addressing, routing, switching.<br />It determines where the data should go on the physical network.<br />It is responsible for routing each packet to its destination.<br />Defines network address.<br />Protocols that are used in this layer are routing protocol-OSPF, RIP, IGRP, EIGRP Routed protocols-IP, IPX, Appletalk. And DDP (datagram delivery protocol), ICMP, IPSec.<br />This layer is also known as network layer in OSI model.<br />IL provides best path to the data to reach destination.<br />Device working in this layer is Router.<br />
  5. 5. Network Access Layer:<br />It is responsible for putting frames (packets) on the wire.<br />Responsible for setting bits & bytes, electrical signals and impulses back and forth across the wire (coaxial or twisted pair).<br />Deals with wire, connectors, signals, pulses, modems, fiber optic cable (in for of light).<br />“Doors between worlds” connecting physical aspect of network (cables & Digital pulses).<br />Describes specifications for topology.<br />Devices used here are- HUB, Switch, Repeater, Bridges, and NIC.<br />MAC – it talks about physical address<br />LLC – it talks about wan protocols like ppp, hdlc, and frame relay.<br />Responsible for error detection.<br />

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