3.2 Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations.
4.1 According to Brundtland, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the of future generations to meet their own needs.
4.2 It contains within it two concepts of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which over-riding priority should be given; the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organizations on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.
4.3 Michael Radclift (1987) argues that: sustainable development, if it is to be an alternative to unsustainable development, should imply a break with the linear model of growth and accumulation that ultimately serves to undermine the planet’s life systems.
5.1 Development is too closely associated in our minds with what has occurred in western capitalist societies in the past, and a handful of peripheral capitalist societies today.
5.2 Brundtland’s concept of sustainable development emphasize the links between development and environmental problems, and to promote political and economic change locally, nationally and globally to tackle the problems.
i) a concern about the relationship between resource use, population growth and technological development and advancement:
ii) a concern about production and distribution of resources of food, energy and industry amongst the developed, developing and underdeveloped nations of the world;
ii) a concern about uneven development about the gross imbalance between the rich and poor nations, about economic dominance and ideological differences and a concern about environmental degradation and ecological disaster.
6. Evolution of SD Concept: Rio to Johannesburg
6.1 The landmark event in the evolution of the concept of sustainable development had been the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment convened by the United Nations, the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED),
6.2 Our Common Future and the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) or Rio Earth Summit as it is commonly referred to. The many activities between successive landmark events sought to build on the outcome of the previous event, to clarify issues, and to provide inputs into the preparatory process of the following events.
6.3 The UN established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) in December 1992 to ensure an effective follow-up of UNCED and to monitor and report on the implementation of the Earth Summit agreements at the local, national, regional, and international levels.
6.4 A (Rio+5) Special Session of the General Assembly, held ion June 1997, adopted a comprehensive programme for further implementation of Agenda 21 as well as the work programme of the CSD for 1997-2002.
6.5 The Kyoto Protocol adopted in December 1997 and the Conferences of the Parties (COPs), held over the years, have made some advances relating to clarification of various aspects of financing and implementing sustainable development globally.
8.12 The term ‘sustainable development’ is by comparison a newcomer, and yet to be acquired its own range of activities by overlapping and sometimes conflicting associations.
8.13 In the North, sustainable developments has two main issues. Firstly, there is a view that poverty alleviation is a more serious problem than environmental protection.
8.14 Secondly, there is the view that poverty is a cause not just a symptom of environmental degradation: poor people are forced to degrade their environment because they have no other means to survive.
9.1 Ecocentric approach aims at reducing human numbers because population growth is seen to ‘magnify environmental degradation and therefore impair the overall quality of human life’ as well to have negative impact on the ‘nonhuman community’
9.2 Ecocentric environmentalism suffers from essentialism in relation to both women and environments. Women are conceived of as a unitary category with universal characteristics which transcend the time, place and circumstances of their lives.
9.3 The technocentric perspective sees sustained growth and scientific and technological advancement as the only way of dealing with global development and environmental issues.
9.4 The market-based approach to sustainable development and the environment was formulated in the North and starts from the principle that growth and technical advancement in a free market economy are the keys to sustainable development in the future for the South
9.5 The neo-Marxist approach indicates the inequality which exists between North and South. This approach offers a fundamental structural analysis of the relationship of economic dependency between developed and developing nations
Development is a changing Phenomenon with the change of human numbers. There is a sea change in the use of both non-renewable and renewable resources. Sustainable Development depends on the scientific and efficient use of the resources (natural and manufactured). Future is on the hands of the people. More researches are needed for finding policy and tools of Sustainable Development.