Gender inequality is getting more and more attention…
1. LECTURE:05 GENDER ISSUES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT M. A. Kamal, Ph.D Director General National Academy for Planning and Development
2. Out Line <ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gender Issues Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>5. Gender Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>6. Gender Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>7. Sex and Gender: How do they differ? </li></ul><ul><li>Gender inequality </li></ul><ul><li>9. A GENDER Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>10. Women and the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Global Initiatives for Sustainable Gender development </li></ul><ul><li>Some gender concerns and gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Good Practice </li></ul><ul><li>15. Conclusion </li></ul>
3. 1. Introduction 1.1 A major economic crisis has swept through much of the developing world in recent years and millions of people have been rudely thrust into the ranks of the unemployed. 1.2 A disproportionate number of the new jobless are women – some of whom had only recently joined the labour force. 1.3 Consciously the environmental problems affect women in very specific ways related to water, sanitation and energy.
4. two thirds of the world’s working hours, and Produce half of the world’s food, yet earn only ten percent of the world’s income, and own less than one percent of the world’s property. Women work Two thirds of children denied primary education are girls and 75 percent of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women. Women hold only 14 percent of parliamentary seats worldwide, and only eight percent of the world’s cabinet ministers are women. Domestic violence is the biggest cause of injury and death to women. 2.1 Women Work Force
6. <ul><li>3. Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Sex indicates the biological/physical differences between men and </li></ul><ul><li>women that we are born with, based on our sexual and reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex is universal and is generally unchangeable. </li></ul><ul><li>The terms male and female are used to describe the sex of an individual. </li></ul>Sex refers to the biological characteristics which define humans as female or male. These sets of biological characteristics are not mutually exclusive as there are individuals who possess both, but these characteristics tend to differentiate humans as males and females . (WHO)
7. <ul><li>4. Gender </li></ul>Gender Gender indicates the socially-created differences between men and women and is changeable in societies, cultures and even families over time. Gender refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female. Societies create and assign gender attributes, roles and relationships to girls and boys, women and men, and there is often considerable social pressure to conform to these ideas about behavior.
8. 5. Gender Awareness Gender awareness is an understanding that there are socially determined differences between men and women based on learned behavior, which affect through gender analysis in projects, programs, budgets and policies. Gender Issue A gender issue arises out of an identifiable gender gap. A gender issue is caused by the socially determined roles of women and men .
9. 6. Gender Sensitivity <ul><li>Gender sensitivity encompasses the ability to acknowledge and highlight existing gender differences, issues and inequalities in projects, programmes, budgets and policies and to incorporate these into strategies and actions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is to be properly aware of the different needs, roles and responsibilities of women and men, and to understand that these differences can result in inequality between them in: </li></ul><ul><li>Access to and control over resources ; and </li></ul><ul><li>Level of participation in and benefit from resources and development. </li></ul>
10. 7. Sex and Gender: How do they differ? SEX – biological characteristics of a person that indicate whether one is male or female GENDER – socially constructed roles and socially learned behaviors and expectations associated with females and males. These roles and behaviors are: LEARNED Changeable over time Have wide variations within and between cultures
11. The belief is that these should be addressed by advocacy not policy. But part comes from “real (or feigned) ignorance about the nature of gender disparities and the costs of these disparities to people’s well-being and countries’ prospects for development.” <ul><li>Gender inequality </li></ul><ul><li>“ has undermined the effectiveness of development policies in fundamental ways”. </li></ul>But why has the gender issue remained marginal in policy dialogue and decision-making? In part “the neglect comes from the policymakers’ reluctance to deal with what they deem inextricably associated with societal norms, religion or cultural traditions.”
12. 9. A GENDER Perspective <ul><li>Takes into serious account the existing belief system, roles and responsibilities of men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women do not necessarily have the same access to resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Open-mindedness is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim is to ensure the fullest possible participation of both men and women. </li></ul>
13. 10. Women and the Environment Human beings are at the center for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature … <ul><li>Involve women actively in environmental decision-making at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate gender concerns and perspectives in policies and programs for sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen or establish mechanisms at the national, regional and international levels to assess the impact of development and environmental policies on women </li></ul>
14. 10.2 Clean Air and Women’s Health: 10.2.1 Women are particularly vulnerable to chemical pollutants… 10.2.2 Most of these chemicals are toxic, non-biodegradable, and bioaccumulative… 10.2.3 They have been proven more harmful to women, as they accumulate in fatty tissues which are more abundant in women’s bodies. They also have grave effects on pregnant women, as they can be passed on to the unborn (Allsopp, Costner, and Johnson 2000).
15. 11.1 Beijing + 10 Celebrating Gains, Facing New Challenges: A Report of Philippine NGOs (2005) “ There is still a need to research on the implications of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), fertilizers, and pesticides in farmers’ fields and plantations for the environment and health, in general, and for women, in particular.” 11. Global Initiatives for Sustainable Gender development
16. 11.2 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) <ul><li>Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve universal primary education </li></ul><ul><li>Promote gender equality and empower women </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce child mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Improve maternal health </li></ul><ul><li>Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other disease </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure environmental sustainability: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a global partnership for development </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020 </li></ul>By year 2015, all 191 UN member states have pledged to:
17. 11.3 Agenda 21 : (1992 UNCED Earth Summit and Conference) Principle 20 of the Rio Declaration “ Women have a vital role in environmental management, their full participation is essential to achieve sustainable development…”
18. 11.4 World Bank update (1994) on Mainstreaming Gender in their projects showed encouraging findings, namely: <ul><li>Projects with gender-related actions achieved their overall objectives more often than similar projects without gender actions approved in the same years. </li></ul><ul><li>Projects that explicitly incorporated gender goals into the main project objectives were the most likely to achieve their gender objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The design quality of gender-related actions in projects approved in fiscal year (FY) 1994-95 showed a significant improvement over the design quality of gender-related activities in completed projects approved FY 1987-1991. </li></ul>
19. 12. Some gender concerns and gaps 12.1 Survey samples to determine potential impacts of project on the community: 12.2 Household heads interviewed predominantly males 12.3 Impacts on women not specified 12.4 Community consultations should be gender- neutral
20. 13. Addressing Issues: These concerns were later addressed ensuring that women and men’s perspectives were incorporated: data were sex-disaggregated, a gender focal person designated and the Gender and Development (GAD) budget allocated, etc.
21. Women police officers in India formed a national forum to fight sexual harassment and discrimination from their male colleagues. Bangladeshi women take part in a protest demanding equal rights in Dhaka.
22. 14. GOOD PRACTICES Sex-Disaggregation of data Presence of a Gender Focal Person Support for Gender Training and Advocacy from NGOs and Local Agencies Use of a Community-based Participatory Strategy Identification of Gender Issues or Gender Dimensions of the Development Issues in the Project Inception Stage Inclusion of Gender Questions in Supervision and Monitoring Visits
23. Women don’t need charity. Women want Education and Opportunity 15. Conclusion