1.1 Energy is central to sustainable development and poverty reduction efforts.
1.2 It affects all aspects of development --social, economic, and environmental-- including livelihoods, access to water, agricultural productivity, health, population levels, education, and gender-related issues.
1.3 None of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) can be met without major improvement in the quality and quantity of energy services in developing countries.
1.4 Provision of energy services, from the supply side to transmission/distribution and use, must include management, and good management requires tools. Energy planning is a tool for managing the community energy system through assessing and balancing supply and demand.
2.1 Right from the beginning in the 1980s, when the term ‘sustainable development’ came into global consideration, energy was seen as an important aspect.
2.2 The key role of energy in future development is emphasized in the book ‘Our Common Future’ (1987), reflecting its relationship with environmental, economic, social and institutional aspects, as well as the dilemmas associated with its contribution to a sustainable future.
2.3 Sustainable energy is the provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their needs .
3.1 The primary energy sources that are used for providing these services are mainly non-renewable (oil, natural gas, coal, peat). Utilization of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, hydro power, wood, tidal, etc.) has also been developed over the last decades; however, their share in total primary energy supply is still low.
3. ENERGY SOURCES
Hydropower Uranium Coal Natural Gas Oil Biomass Wind Source: MME / BEN, 2007 3.2 ENERGY RESOURCES
Natural Gas 20,9% *Other 0,7% Combustable Renewables & waste 9,8% Hydro 2,2% Nuclear 5,9% Coal/ peat 26,5% Coal/peat 26,5% 3.3 According to the International Energy Agency, the total share of renewable energy sources was about 12.7% in 2007.
Energy efficiency : "Any energy generation, efficiency & conservation source where: Resources are available to enable massive scaling to become a significant portion of energy generation, long term, preferably 100 years.." – Invest, a green technology non-profit organization.
Energy Intensity is the amount of energy consumed per unit of service or activity. Embodied energy may be reduced by designing durable, adaptable products and buildings which are made from local, renewable materials.
7.1 Energy planning is known as a means to manage community energy systems. It has been(and still is)applied in many countries as a tool for setting up future energy policies ranging from national to local levels.
7.2 Energy planning and sustainability aspects has two theoretical pillars:
Principles of Sustainable Development
8. Energy Planning Framework Planning Theory Energy Planning Sustainable Development Planning Discipline Environmental Planning Science Social Planning System Economic Planning Process Institutional
11.1 The energy crisis of the 1970s has increased the need for application of energy planning as a tool for better management of community energy systems.
11.2 Adding the term ‘sustainable development’ into the political agenda in 1980s has increasingly engaged environmental, economic and social issues in decision-making and has also influenced planning processes.
11.3 These changes, together with technological developments, have added to the complexity of community energy systems.
11.4 New approaches to existing energy planning methods have been taken to be able to deal with the new circumstances (or in order to adapt them for the new sustainability paradigm) by, e.g., increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy supply systems, focusing on more efficient energy production i.e. co-generation and CHP utilization, etc.
12.Characteristics of sustainable energy planning
12.1 Integration of the sustainability dimensions in energy planning
12.2 Institutional guidelines
12.3 Sufficient public private participation
12.4 Long-term planning perspectives
12.5 Flexibility against unexpected changes
13. Energy and the Millennium Development Goals
13.1 Many of the LDCs are off-track in meeting the Millennium Development Goals(MDGs). The crisis is most severe in sub-Saharan Africa where there is continuing food insecurity, disturbingly high child and maternal mortality, growing numbers of people living in slums and an overall rise in extreme poverty. In South Asia there has been little progress in meeting the MDGs and a majority of the population is living below the poverty line.
13.2 The energy challenges that underlie MDG achievement are best illustrated by the number of people who do not have access to modern energy services. It is estimated that worldwide there are 2.5 billion people who rely on traditional fuels such as wood, charcoal, and dung as their principal source of energy for cooking and heating.
13.3 Almost 1.6 billion people have no access to electricity. In light of these daunting figures, energy’s important role in underpinning MDG achievement is now being recognized by the international development community. This is due to the fact that energy is a prerequisite for meeting all of the MDGs because of its inherent linkage with poverty alleviation, education, gender equity, health, and the protection of the environment
Recommendations for LDC to Overcome the energy crises are:
Integrate energy considerations into MDG-based national development strategies
Mobilization of investments
Develop institutional capacity
15.1 Energy Security 15.2 Reasonable Tariff Policy 15.3 Attendance Services for Entire Population 15.4 Minimum Cost Expansion considering Social-environmental Constraints 15.5 Strengthening of Planning 15.6 Matrix Diversification 15.7 National Integration 15.8 National Energy Sources Fostering, Renewable and Competitive 15.9 National Technology Development 15. PRINCIPLES AND GOALS OF ENERGY POLICY
16.1 The world is changing. There is no denying this reality because we come face to face with it every day—every time we swipe our debit cards at the grocery store or at the gasoline pump and especially as we sit back in the comfort and confines of our homes and watch the evening news in a state of constant apprehension. 16.2 As the world transforms before our eyes, global trepidation over climate change and our energy use grows. 16.3 Energy consumption is of particular concern because energy supports our economies and lifestyles; we need energy to enjoy all the benefits and conveniences of modern life especially in developed nations. 16.4 Everything we consume and produce requires energy. It is inevitable to search for Sustainable Energy to continue the rhythm of life in the world. 16. Conclusion