Tenses in English‫زمانی‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ژبه‬ ‫لیسي‬ ‫ان‬ ‫په‬‫ې‬ ‫ګ‬
Tense: tense is the state which shows the time of an action gen...
4) Simple present tense: can be used in the newspapers headlines to shows a past, present or
future action.
a) When it is ...
Negative interrogative: Doesn’t + subject + verb + object / complement?
Example: Doesn't she have a magazine?
2) Plural:
A...
prefer and etc.
4. Verbs of thinking: think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember,
forget, know, understand,...
Structure: Subject + have/has + verb of 3rd
form + object/complement.
1) Present Perfect Tense: expresses an activity or s...
Note: the present perfect tense is formed with the auxiliary verb (have) in the corresponding
form of the subject of the s...
The most important thing to remember about the present perfect tense is that, that it can never be
used with adverbs which...
Interrogative: Has + subject + been + verb-ing + object / complement?
Example: Has she been working in the ministry all th...
Structure: Subject + verb 2nd
form + object / complement.
1) Simple Past Tense: Expresses an action or activity that is st...
Example: He didn’t write a letter.
Interrogative: Did + subject + 1st
verb + object / complement?
Example: Did he write a ...
Example: Wasn't I writing a letter to my friend?
Plural:
2. Affirmative: Subject + were + verb-ing + object / complement.
...
1. Affirmative: Subject + had + 3rd
verb + object / complement.
Example: They had finished their homework.
Negative: Subje...
They had been watching TV. He/she/it had been watching TV.
Note: Past perfect progressive tense has four states, they are;...
Example:
They will win the game.
We will be tired.
She will leave soon.
I will go there next month.
2) Simple future tense...
Negative: Subject + won’t + verb + object / complement.
Example: We won't go soon.
Interrogative: Will/shall + subject + v...
continuous tense; this combination is a complex sentence to show a conditional state.
Example:
If he studies hard, he will...
Negative interrogative: Won’t + subject + be + verb-ing + object/complement?
Example: Won't they be waiting in the campus ...
Note: Future Perfect Tense has four states, they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and
negative interrogative.
1. ...
They will have been studying. He/she/it will have been studying.
There is no future perfect progressive form for the "be" ...
He said; that he would write the book.
I should write a letter.
All told me that he would come to the university at 9:00 o...
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English Tenses

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  1. 1. Tenses in English‫زمانی‬ ‫ک‬ ‫ژبه‬ ‫لیسي‬ ‫ان‬ ‫په‬‫ې‬ ‫ګ‬ Tense: tense is the state which shows the time of an action generally we have three main tenses in English language (Present, Past and Future), each of them is divided in four categories as follow: 1: The Present Tense ‫زمانه‬ ‫حال‬ a) Simple present tense ‫زمانه‬ ‫ساده‬ ‫حال‬ b) Present progressive tense‫زمانه‬ ‫جاري‬ ‫حال‬ c) Present perfect tense‫زمانه‬ ‫مکمله‬ ‫حال‬ d) Present perfect continuous tense ‫زمانه‬ ‫جاري‬ ‫مکمله‬ ‫حال‬ a) The Simple Present Tense Structure: Subject + Verb + object / complement. 1) Simple Present Tense: expresses a habitual action in the present time an action which is done habitually and they are frequently signaled by time expressions such as follow; ‫او‬ ‫ایی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫رسی‬ ‫سرته‬ ‫ول‬ ‫عدتی‬ ‫په‬ ‫چ‬ ‫عملونه‬ ‫هغه‬ ‫یعنی‬ ‫عملونه‬ ‫عادتی‬ ‫ک‬ ‫زمانه‬ ‫حاله‬ ‫په‬ :‫زمانه‬ ‫ساده‬ ‫حال‬‫ښ‬ ‫ږ‬ ‫ډ‬ ‫ې‬ ‫ې‬ ‫لکه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫کی‬ ‫ودل‬ ‫واسطه‬ ‫په‬ ‫استلحاتو‬ ‫د‬ ‫وخت‬ ‫د‬ ‫دلندی‬ ‫ه‬ ‫تو‬ ‫تکراري‬ ‫په‬ ‫دوی‬‫ږ‬ ‫ښ‬ ‫ګ‬ : Often Every week Every holiday All the time Rarely Every year Every hour Always Sometimes Most of the time Every month Every class Usually Never Every semester Every day 2) Simple Present Tense: expresses general truth. Example: God is one. The sky is blue. The earth is round. 3) Simple present tense: expresses state of being. Example: She is happy. They are boys. Plural Singular We walk I walk You walk You walk They walk He, She, it walk We are I am You are You are They are He, she, it is Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  2. 2. 4) Simple present tense: can be used in the newspapers headlines to shows a past, present or future action. a) When it is followed by simple form of the verb shows a past action. Example: The people elect the president. b) While being used with (ing) form of the verb shows the present action. Example: The people electing the president c) When it is used with (to + verb) indicates future action. Example: The people to elect the president next month 5) Simple present tense: expresses future event with a fixed timetable or fixed program. Examples: The match starts at 9:00 o'clock. The train leaves at 5:30. 6) Simple present tense: in exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there to express what is actually taking place in the present. Example: Here comes the bus! There she goes! 7) Simple present tense: is used instead of the simple future tense in clause of time and condition. Example: If it rains we shall get wet. I shall wait till you finish your lunch. 8) Simple present tense: is used to introduce quotations. Example: Ahmad says, "A thing of beauty is a joy for ever" Note: simple present tense has four states; they are affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: 1) Singular: Affirmative: Subject + verb (s or es) + object / complement. Example: She has a magazine. Negative: Subject + doesn’t + verb+ object / complement. Example: She doesn't have a magazine. Interrogative: Does + subject + verb + object / complement? Example: Does she have a magazine? Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  3. 3. Negative interrogative: Doesn’t + subject + verb + object / complement? Example: Doesn't she have a magazine? 2) Plural: Affirmative: Subject + verb + object / complement. Example: We have an intelligent teacher. Negative: Subject + don’t + verb + object / complement. Example: We don't have an intelligent teacher. Interrogative: Do + subject + verb + object / complement? Example: Do we have an intelligent teacher? Negative interrogative: Don’t + subject + verb + object / complement? Example: Don't we have an intelligent teacher? b) The Present Progressive Tense Structure: Subject + verb(ing) + object / complement. 1) Present Progressive Tense: expresses activities that are in actual progress at the moment of speaking, the activities begin a short time before and are expected to end a short time after the moment of speaking. Example: Question Answer What are you doing? I am washing the dishes. What is she doing? She is doing her assignment. What are they fixing? They are fixing their car. 2) Present progressive tense: expresses a temporary action which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking. Example: I am reading a novel (but I am not reading at this moment). 3) Present progressive tense: expresses simple future when time expression is mentioned. Example: My brother is arriving tomorrow. She is going to India tonight. Note: some of the verbs on account of their meaning are not normally used in continuous form. 1. Verbs of perception: see, hear, smell, notice, recognize and etc. 2. Verbs of appearing: appear, look, seem and etc. 3. Verbs of emotion: want, wish, desire, feel, like, love, hate, hope, refuse, Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  4. 4. prefer and etc. 4. Verbs of thinking: think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember, forget, know, understand, imagine, mean, mind and etc. 5. Verbs of possession: have, own, posses, belong to, contain, consist of (except when used in passive). Note: Present progressive tense has four states they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: 1) Affirmative: Subject + to be (is, am, are) + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: The sun is shining. Negative: Subject + to be (is, am, are) + not + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: The sun isn't shining. Interrogative: To be (is, am, are) + subject + verb-ing + object / comple? Example: Is the sun shining? Negative interrogative: To be (is, am, are) +not + verb-ing +object/complement? Example: Isn't the sun shining? 2) Affirmative: Subject + to be (is, am, are) + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They are studying English grammar. Negative: Subject + to be (is, am, are) + not + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They aren’t studying English grammar. Interrogative: To be (is, am, are) + subject + verb-ing + object / comple? Example: Are they studying English grammar? Negative interrogative: To be (is, am, are) +not + verb-ing +object/complement? Example: Aren’t they studying English grammar. Plural Singular We are walking I am walking You are walking You are walking They are walking He/she/it is walking We are being I am being You are being You are being They are being He/she/it is being c) The Present Perfect Tense Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  5. 5. Structure: Subject + have/has + verb of 3rd form + object/complement. 1) Present Perfect Tense: expresses an activity or situation that occurred or did not occurred at some unspecified time in the past. Example: He has already eaten lunch. We have done our work. It has already been fine. 2) Present perfect tense: expresses activities that are repeated many times in the past. Example: I have eaten lunch at this hotel several times. We have studied this chapter many times. 3) Present perfect tense: is used with {since and for} to express an action that is started in the past and may continue to the present or even may go to the future. Example: She has been in Germany since 1999. I have been in London for three years. They have collected coins for many years. Margaret has studied magazine since he was a child. In the following examples the activities have existed or have occurred sometime in the past before the moment of speaking, but the exact time of the activity is either not known or not indicated. Example: I have done my homework. 2.I already have translated the Pashto book to English. 4) Present perfect tense: shows an action which has been started in the past and completed in the past, the effect of the action or activity still exist in the present time. Example: Ahmad has painted the wall. I have cut my finger (it is bleeding now). Jawad has drawn this picture. Our teacher has signed the homework. 5) Present perfect tense: is used with (just) to show near or immediate past. Example: They have just come here. She has just gone out. I have just had a cup of coffee. They have just returned from trip to America. We have just finished the last problem. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  6. 6. Note: the present perfect tense is formed with the auxiliary verb (have) in the corresponding form of the subject of the sentence, followed by the participle of the main verb. The present perfect tense has four states, they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: Singular: 1. Affirmative: Subject + has + 3rd form of verb + object / complement. Example: She has washed the dishes. Negative: Subject + hasn’t + 3rd verb+ object / complement. Example: She hasn't washed the dishes. Interrogative: Has + subject + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Has she washed the dishes? Negative interrogative: Hasn’t + subject + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Hasn't she washed the dishes? Plural: 2. Affirmative: Subject + have + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: They have done my homework. Negative: Subject + haven’t + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: They haven't done my homework. Interrogative: Have + subject + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Have they done my homework? Negative interrogative: Haven’t + subject + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Haven't they done my homework? Plural Singular We have slept I have slept You have slept You have slept They have slept He/she/it has slept We have been I have been You have been You have been They have been He/she/it has been Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  7. 7. The most important thing to remember about the present perfect tense is that, that it can never be used with adverbs which describe finished time periods such as; yesterday, five minutes ago or at three o'clock. If a time adverb is used with the present perfect tense, it would describe a time period which is unfinished. Example includes today and this week so we say: I have been to this shop twice already today. d) The Present Perfect Progressive Tense Structure: Subject +have / has +been + verb(ing) + object / complement. 1) Present Perfect Progressive Tense: expresses an action that is started at unspecified time in the past and is going on and continuing to the present and is going to the future. Example: He has been reading English book. I have been waiting here for three hours. He has been sitting on the chair all evening. I have been hearing bad news about the war in Afghanistan since 5 years. We have been going through my files this week. 2) Present perfect progressive tense: is used with (since) and (for) and is expressing an action started in the past and all the time is going to the future. Example: She has been teaching English grammar since 2003 (to date she is teaching). They have been watching TV since three o'clock (they are watching now). I have been working here for five years (still I am working). 3) Present perfect progressive tense: this tense sometimes refers to an action that has not finished. Example: I have been waiting for him for 13 minutes but he still hasn't arrived. He has been learning English language for three years and he still doesn't know very much. 4) Present perfect progressive tense: sometimes this tense refers to a series of an action. Example: I have been waiting to her regularly for a couple of hours. The company has been sending students to England for over twenty years. Note: The present perfect progressive tense has four states which are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: Singular: 1. Affirmative: Subject + has been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: She has been working in the ministry all the year. Negative: Subject + hasn't been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: She hasn't been working in the ministry all the year. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  8. 8. Interrogative: Has + subject + been + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Has she been working in the ministry all the year? Negative interrogative: Hasn’t + subject + been + verb-ing+object/complement? Example: Hasn’t she been working in the ministry all the year? Plural: 2. Affirmative: Subject + have been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They have been teaching English since 2004. Negative: Subject + haven’t been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They haven’t been teaching English since 2004. Interrogative: Have + subject + been + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Have they been teaching English since 2004? Negative interrogative: Haven’t + subject +been+verb-ing+object/complement? Example: Haven’t they been teaching English since 2004? Note: There is no present perfect progressive tense for the (to be verbs), (have been being) is expressed simply as (have been). Example: We have been successful in the exam. 2: The Past Tense a) Simple past tense b) Past progressive tense c) Past perfect tense d) Past perfect progressive tense a) The Simple Past Tense Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq Plural Singular We have been working. I have been working. You have been working. You have been working. They have been working. He/she/it has been working.
  9. 9. Structure: Subject + verb 2nd form + object / complement. 1) Simple Past Tense: Expresses an action or activity that is started and finished at a specified time in the past. Example: I went to school yesterday. They came to university last week. I did my homework last night. Example: I received his letter last week. She left school last year. 2) Simple past tense: this tense is used with (always) to show past habits. Example: He always studied at home. They always came to university. She always carried an umbrella. We always found our homework in the library. 3) Simple past tense: this tense is combined with another clause in the past with a relative adverb (when). Example: I ate lunch when she came. I wrote a letter when they entered to the room. She finished singing song when I came to hotel. Structure: subject + verb 2nd form + object / complement. Note: The simple past tense has four states they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: 1. Affirmative: Subject + 2nd verb + object / complement. Example: We went to Pakistan last week. Negative: Subject + didn’t + 1st form of the verb + object / complement. Example: We didn't go to Pakistan last week. Interrogative: Did + subject + 1st verb + object / complement? Example: Did we go to Pakistan last week? Negative interrogative: Didn’t + subject + 1st verb + object / complement? Example: Didn't we go to Pakistan last week? 2. Affirmative: Subject + 2nd verb + object / complement. Example: He wrote a letter. Negative: Subject + didn’t + 1st form of the verb + object / complement. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  10. 10. Example: He didn’t write a letter. Interrogative: Did + subject + 1st verb + object / complement? Example: Did he write a letter? Negative interrogative: Didn’t + subject + 1st verb + object / complement? Example: Didn’t he write a letter? Plural Singular We walked I walked You walked You walked They walked He/she/it walked We were I was You were You were They were He/she/it was b) The Past Progressive Tense Structure: Subject + was / were + verb (ing) + object / complement. 1) The Past Progressive Tense: This tense can express incomplete action or activities. Example: I was sleeping on the couch when Muqeem Shah smashed through the door. 2) Past progressive tense: this tense is also used to poke fun at or criticize an action that is periodic, but habitual in nature. Example: My father was always lecturing my brother. Note: Past progressive tense has four states, they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: Singular: 1. Affirmative: Subject + was + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: I was writing a letter to my friend. Negative: Subject + wasn’t + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: I was not writing a letter to my friend. Interrogative: Was + subject + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Was I writing a letter to my friend? Negative interrogative: Wasn’t + subject + verb-ing + object / complement? Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  11. 11. Example: Wasn't I writing a letter to my friend? Plural: 2. Affirmative: Subject + were + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They were listening to the teacher. Negative: Subject + weren’t + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They were not listening to the teacher. Interrogative: Were + subject + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Were they listening to the teacher? Negative interrogative: Weren’t + subject + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Weren't they listening to the teacher? Plural Singular We were working I was working You were working You were working They were working He/she/it was working c) The Past Perfect Tense Structure: Subject + had + verb 3rd form + object / complement. 1) Past Perfect Tense: Indicates an action which was completed or took place in the past before another action in the past. This tense is formed with the past tense form of have plus the past participle of the verb (which can be either regular or irregular in form). Example: I had never seen him before. He had walked two miles by lunch time. I had just finished watering the lawn when it began to rain. Note: (just) emphasizes that the activity occurred a relatively short time before the other activity. Example: I had just finished watering the lawn when it began to rain. Note: Past perfect tense has four states they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  12. 12. 1. Affirmative: Subject + had + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: They had finished their homework. Negative: Subject + had not + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: They had not finished their homework. Interrogative: Had + subject + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Had they finished their homework? Negative interrogative: Hadn’t + subject + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Hadn't they finished their homework? 2. Affirmative: Subject + had + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: He had written a letter. Negative: Subject + had not + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: He hadn't written a letter. Interrogative: Had + subject + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Had he written a letter? Negative interrogative: Hadn’t + subject + 3rd verb +object/ complement? Example: Hadn't he written a letter? d) The Past Perfect Progressive Tense Structure: Subject + had + been + verb (ing) + object / complement. 1) Past Perfect Progressive Tense: this tense expresses an action or activity that started at unspecified time in the past and then continued for a time in the past. This tense is formed with the model auxiliary (had) plus (been) the present participle of the verb with (ing) ending. Example: I had been writing my homework. He had been working in the garden all the morning. Ahmad had been painting his house for weeks. They had been corresponding regularly for many years before his death. Plural Singular We had been watching TV. I had been watching TV. You had been watching TV. You had been watching TV. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  13. 13. They had been watching TV. He/she/it had been watching TV. Note: Past perfect progressive tense has four states, they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: 1. Affirmative: Subject + had been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: I had been studying English grammar. Negative: Subject + had not been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: I had not been studying English grammar. Interrogative: Had + subject + been + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Had I been studying English grammar? Negative interrogative: Hadn’t + subj + been + verb-ing + object/complement? Example: Hadn't I been studying English grammar? 2. Affirmative: Subject + had been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: She had been teaching in the university all the day. Negative: Subject + had not been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: She hadn't been teaching in the university all the day. Interrogative: Had + subject + been + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Had she been teaching in the university all the day? Negative interrogative: Hadn’t + subj +been +verb-ing+ object/complement? Example: Hadn't she been teaching in the university all the day? 3: The Future Tense a) Simple Future Tense b) Future Progressive Tense c) Future Perfect Tense d) Future Perfect Progressive Tense a) Simple Future Tense Structure: Subject + will / shall + verb + object / complement. 1) Simple Future Tense: Expresses an action or activity that still not happened but will happen by the time in the future. The simple future tense employs the helping verbs (will) or (shall) with the base form of the verb. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  14. 14. Example: They will win the game. We will be tired. She will leave soon. I will go there next month. 2) Simple future tense: This tense is also formed with the use of a form of (go) plus the infinitive of the verb to show a strong decision. Example: We are going to play soccer. He is going to study. I am going to do my homework. They are going to go to USA next week. Note: the above sentences show that the action will happen with the strong decision, therefore we can say that (will) shows imagine but (going to) shows strong decision. 3) Simple Future Tense: The simple future tense is also joined by a connector (if) with simple present tense to show conditional state. Example: If I have money I will pay the bill. Or (I will pay the bill if I have money). If he studies hard, he will be a doctor. Or (He will be a doctor if he studies hard). She will get tired if she runs more. Or (If she runs more, she will get tired). The symbol (X) indicating the future activity could be placed anywhere on the extending from the moment of speaking in to the future. Below are some polite requests and typical responses. Responses Requests Yes, I will be glad to. Will you go with me? Certainly I am sorry. Will you please be quiet? Wait a minute, please. Shall I begin now? It is all right with me. Shall we leave now? Note: Simple future tense has four states, they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: 1. Affirmative: Subject + will/shall + 1st form of the verb + object / complement. Example: We will go soon. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  15. 15. Negative: Subject + won’t + verb + object / complement. Example: We won't go soon. Interrogative: Will/shall + subject + verb + object / complement? Example: Will we go soon? Negative interrogative: Won’t + subject + verb + object / complement? Example: Won't we go soon? 2. Affirmative: Subject + will/shall + verb + object / complement. Example: He will read the book tomorrow. Negative: Subject + won’t + verb + object / complement. Example: He won't read the book tomorrow. Interrogative: Will/shall + subject + verb + object / complement? Example: Will he read the book tomorrow? Negative interrogative: Won’t + subject + verb + object / complement? Example: Won't he read the book tomorrow? Note: The modal (will not) is contracted as (won’t), and it is mostly used than any other modals. b) The Future Progressive Tense Structure: Subject + will / shall + be + verb (ing) + object / complement. 1) Future Progressive Tense: expresses an action or activity that is in progress at some time in the future or future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future. Example: Dr. Jones will be presenting ongoing research on sexist language next week. She will be studying for oral exam. They will be swimming in the pool tomorrow. I will be doing my homework in the evening. I am going to be studying for exam tomorrow. The structure {subject + to be verb + going to + verb (ing) + object / complement} shows something that will be happening 95% at some specific time in the future. Example: I am going to be studying for exam tomorrow. He is going to be writing a letter. We are going to be washing the car. 2) Future progressive tense: An (if clause) may also be used with simple future tense and future Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  16. 16. continuous tense; this combination is a complex sentence to show a conditional state. Example: If he studies hard, he will be a doctor. Or: He will be a doctor if he studies hard. They will win the game if they practice hard. Or: If they practice hard, they will win the game. Note: Future Progressive Tense has four states, they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. Structures: 1. Affirmative: Subject + will/shall + be + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: She will be studying in the university next year. Negative: Subject + won’t + be + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: She won't be studying in the university next year. Interrogative: Will/Shall + subject + be + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Will she be studying in the university next year? Negative interrogative: Won’t + subject + be + verb-ing + object/complement? Example: Won't she be studying in the university next year? 2. Affirmative: Subject + will/shall + be + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They will be waiting in the campus tomorrow. Negative: Subject + won’t + be + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They won't be waiting in the campus tomorrow. Interrogative: Will/Shall + subject + be + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Will they be waiting in the campus tomorrow? Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq Plural Singular We will be teaching. I will be teaching. You will be teaching. You will be teaching. They will be teaching. He/she/it will be teaching. There is no future progressive form for "be" verb such as "will be being" it is expressed simply as "will be" for example "we will be happy".
  17. 17. Negative interrogative: Won’t + subject + be + verb-ing + object/complement? Example: Won't they be waiting in the campus tomorrow? c) The Future Perfect Tense Structure: Subject + will / shall + have + verb 3rd form + object / complement. 1) Future Perfect Tense: Is used to express the completion of an action or activity at a certain future time before another action in the future. Example: She will have died. I will have eaten lunch. He will have washed the car. They will have gone to London. We will have finished our homework by the time you get there. Or: By the time you get there, we will have finished our homework. She will have written a letter by the time the postman receives. Or: By the time the postman receives, she will have written a letter. They will have gone when we arrive. Or when we arrive, they will have gone. Note: In the future perfect tense we can not use (has) after he, she or it, because we have the auxiliary (will) and this tense is formed with (will + have + the past participle of the verb which can be either regular or irregular in form). Plural Singular We will have studied. I will have studied. You will have studied. You will have studied. They will have studied. He/she/it will have studied. We will have been. I will have been. You will have been. You will have been. They will have been. He/she/it will have been. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  18. 18. Note: Future Perfect Tense has four states, they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. 1. Affirmative: Subject + will have + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: She will have studied all the day in the school. Negative: Subject + won’t have + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: She won't have studied all the day in the school. Interrogative: Will + subject + have + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Will she have studied all the day in the school? Negative interrogative: Won’t + sub + have + 3rd verb + object/complement? Example: Won’t she have studied all the day in the school? 2. Affirmative: Subject + will have + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: Jawad will have done his homework. Negative: Subject + won’t have + 3rd verb + object / complement. Example: Jawad won't have done his homework. Interrogative: Will + subject + have + 3rd verb + object / complement? Example: Will Jawad have done his homework? Negative interrogative: Won’t + sub + have + 3rd verb + object/complement? Example: Won't Jawad have done his homework? d) The Future Perfect Progressive Tense Structure: Subject + will / shall + have + been + verb (ing) + object / complement. 1) Future Perfect Progressive Tense: is used to express or indicate an action represented as being in progress over a period of time that will complete at some point in the future. This tense is formed with the modal "will" plus the modal "have" plus "been" plus the present participle of the verb (with an – ing ending). Example: We will have been watching TV. I will have been working on this project for three years. She will have been teaching English. They will have been sleeping for one hour. Plural Singular We will have been studying. I will have been studying. You will have been studying. You will have been studying. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  19. 19. They will have been studying. He/she/it will have been studying. There is no future perfect progressive form for the "be" verb, such as "will have been being" it is simply expressed as "will have been". Note: Future perfect progressive tense has four states, they are; affirmative, negative, interrogative and negative interrogative. 1. Affirmative: Subject + will have been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: She will have been watching TV. Negative: Subject + won’t have been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: She won't have been watching TV. Interrogative: Will + subject + have been + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Will she have been watching TV? Negative interrogative: Won’t +subject + have been+ verb-ing +bject/comple? Example: Won't she have been watching TV? 2. Affirmative: Subject + will have been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They will have been writing their homework. Negative: Subject + won’t have been + verb-ing + object / complement. Example: They will not have been writing their homework. Interrogative: Will + subject + have been + verb-ing + object / complement? Example: Will they have been writing their homework? Negative interrogative: Won’t +subject + have been+ verb-ing + bject/ comple? Example: Won't they have been writing their homework? 4: Future in the Past a) Simple Future Tense in the Past b) Future Continuous Tense in the Past c) Future Perfect Tense in the Past d) Future Perfect Continuous Tense in the Past a) Simple Future Tense in the Past Structure: Subject + should / would + verb + object / complement. Simple future tense in the past expresses an action that happened in the past and it had the future concept than another action in the past is called future in the past. Example: Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq
  20. 20. He said; that he would write the book. I should write a letter. All told me that he would come to the university at 9:00 o'clock. b) Future Continuous Tense in the Past Structure: Subject + should / would + be + verb (ing) + object / complement. Future in the past continuous tense expresses an action that happened continuously in the past and had a future concept than another action in the past. Example: He should be writing a letter. He said; that he would be traveling to Greece the following month. They should be working for their benefits. c) Future Perfect Tense in the Past Structure: Subject + should / would + have + 3rd form of the verb + object / complement. Future perfect tense in the past expresses an action which would be completed before definite time in the past. Example: He said; that he would have finished the book by the next month. I should have written a story. We should have studied the grammar book. d) Future Perfect Continuous Tense in the Past Structure: Subject + should/would + have been + verb (ing) + object/complement. Future perfect continuous tense in the past indicates an action started continuously and will continue in the past. Example: They would have been working in their garden. We should have been drinking colas in the party. She would have been playing cricket in the stadium. Prepared by: Abdul Khaliq

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