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Stresses due to seismic waves
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Stresses due to seismic waves



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  • 1. Geology Presentationby :Faraz Haider(+92 336 8666897)
  • 2. Stresses Due ToSeismic WavesSeismic waves are waves of energy that travelthrough the Earths layers, and are a result ofan earthquake, explosion, or a volcano thatimparts low-frequency acoustic energy.
  • 3. Types Of Seismic Waves Body Waves :Primary Waves and Secondary Waves. Surface Waves :Love Waves and Rayleigh Waves.
  • 4. Body WavesBody Waves travel through the Interior of earth.They follow the ray paths refracted by thevarying density and modulus (Stiffness) of theearth interior.This effect is similar to the refraction of lightwaves.
  • 5. Types of Body WavesThese are the fastest moving waves. There aretwo types of Body Waves. P (primary) Waves or Compressional Waves. S (secondary) waves or Shear Waves.
  • 6. P (primary) WavesA longitudinal earthquake wave that travelsthrough the interior of the earth and is usuallythe first conspicuous wave to be recorded by aseismograph.
  • 7. S (secondary) wavesA transverse earthquake wave that travelsthrough the interior of the earth and isusually the second conspicuous wave toreach a seismograph.
  • 8. Surface WavesSurface waves are analogous to water waves andtravel along the earth’s surface.They Travel Slower then Body Waves because ofthere low frequency, long duration, and largeamplitude.They can be the most destructive type ofSeismic Waves.
  • 9. Types of Surface wavesThere are two main types of surface wavesRayleigh WavesLove Waves
  • 10. Impact Of Seismic WavesSeismicwaves result fromslip and rupture(breakage) ofrocks and plates ofearth along faults.
  • 11. Disasters ofSeismic WavesThese wavescauses problemsfor buildings andweakened theirstrength.
  • 12.  Earthquakes occur with the passage of largeseismic waves. In other words we can say that there is asequence of seismic waves following each other.
  • 13. There is a Question raised that,How can we reduce the effectand destructions of Seismic waves…..?
  • 14. Resistant TechniquesEarthquake may not be able to damage entirebuilding but it damage members of it.So special techniques are adopted :Base Isolation DevicesandSeismic Dampers
  • 15. Base Isolation Devices
  • 16. Seismic Dampers
  • 17. Resistant StructureRectangles aresuch structure ofbuilding on whichthe Seismic wavesare less effective.
  • 18. Rectangular Buildings
  • 19. Arches and TrianglesArches and triangles are also suchstructures of building on which theSeismic waves are less effective or noteffect just like other buildings.
  • 20. Arch Structures
  • 21. Triangular Structures
  • 22. PrecautionaryMeasurementsWe need different levels of resistance fordifferent classes of structures.Critical structures such as hospitals, powerplants, water-treatment, and chemical plants,dams, etc.
  • 23.  These buildings must not only survive theshaking, but must remain in operation.These structure require the largestinvestment of resources to insure thatthey can provide services following anearthquake.
  • 24. Thankyou…