Fara seminar series ii report dr jonathan williams
FARA and Mycotoxins Management in
FARA Seminar Series II
FARA Conference Room, Accra, Ghana
31 August, 2010
Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa
PMB CT 173, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana
12 Anmeda Street, Roman Ridge
Tel: +233 302 772823
Fax: +233 302 773676
Title: FARA and Mycotoxins Management in Africa
Presenter: -. Dr. Jonathan H. Williams, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences,
University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Coordinator, USAID supported Peanut Collaborative
Research Support Program (CRSP).
Chairperson: Dr. Ramadjita Tabo, the Deputy Executive Director, FARA.
Discussants: Emmanuel Tambi, Walter Alhassan, Emily Nwankwo, Jonas Mugabe, Oluwole
Fatunbi, Gbadebo Odularu, Alain Ange, and Robert Botchway.
Participants: (in addition to the aforementioned discussants) Tetsuji Oya, Gifty Battuta, Aimee
Nyadanu, Muna Osei Bonsu, Daina Amene Anyomi, Akouvi Legbeze, Francis Kpodo, Joelene
Anom, Ama Kesewa Ofori, Hawawu Adamu, Ernestina Assebri, Cynthia Nangsob, Cynthia
Doggu, Priscilla Agyemang, Noah Bakuuro, and Eunice Clark.
Mycotoxins and Public Health
Contaminants of commodities is normally neglected
by DC governments
Consequences are deferred – health v hunger
J H Williams Perceived risks (cancers) are not health priorities
relative to HIV, malaria, TB, child survival
UGA/ Peanut CRSP
Little economic incentive when trade is not involved.
The Scale of the Problem African AF Exposure
Lost markets As measured by market samples
W African Groundnut exports 20-40% maize, rice, peanut, dried cassava would be
Kenyan maize (2010) = 2.6 million bags at harvest. rejected in US market
Estimated 1 million HIV infections annually from As measured by 24 hour biomakers
fumonisin in SSAfrica 20-60% of mothers milk or urine samples are positive.
Maybe 2.5 million lives from aflatoxin impacts on As measured by 3 month markers
infectious diseases (world) 70-100% of blood samples are positive.
Nutritional burden not known
Full role of aflatoxin Aflatoxin and African Health
Liver cancer – later in life (>45years) Modulates 43% of the burden of diseases
Immune suppression Malaria
Chronic moderate exposure as in the most exposed half TB
of African populations Underweight children
Both direct and maternal impacts HIV likely increases progression (next slide)
Reflected in higher incidence of infectious diseases Vitamins (A, C, E) deficiencies exacerbated
More serious nutritional deficiencies Pregnancy outcomes
Less efficient food use Maternal Anaemia
Toxin prone foods related to
Immune Cell Function (Jolly at UAB)
Percentages of CD4+CD25+CD45RO+ regulatory T
cells WHO and FAO data were used to examine hypothesis
of immune diseases related to toxin prone food
NB other environmental co-factors
Rice with mosquitoes
Cassava with tropical disease cluster
High AFB1 Low AFB1 High AFB1 Low AFB1
HIV-infected Healthy controls
Maize and HIV Transmission
R2 (Mod A all data) = 0.48
R2 (Mod B ) = 0.67
R2 Social factors = 0.20
HIV and Mycotoxins Recommended approach
Model of HIV • Toxin
Transmission Use Agricultural technologies to minimize exposure
Progression Mycotoxins a FARA priority
– Aflatoxins Processing opportunities
Nutrition Food Additives
Opportunistic infections •*
– Aflatoxin * Education – creation of market forces but risk of
*confirmed unintended concentration on poor
# proposed Enforced food quality standards -
Fortification with entersorbing flow agents
Agricultural Technologies Technologies(continued)
Insect resistance for FN (maize) All Sorting
Natural and BT routes possible Fumonisin Milling
Fungal resistance for FN (maize) and AF Extraction of fumonisin with water
Needs marker assisted technologies Fortification with binding flow agents
Storage in anaerobic conditions
A lively discussion was raised among the following major issues:
What is the food value chain analysis of the impact of aflatoxins if the grains are fed to animals
before the animals are consumed by man?
What are the gender implications of your study? If gender is factored into the analysis, will it
change the findings of the study?
If a counterfactual analysis is carried out in Asia, will this change the findings of the study?
What will be the role of FARA in advocacy and awareness creation on the health and food
security implications of mycotoxins?
Aflatoxins have implications for three major components – public health, food security and
trade. Given the vital role of agriculture in the African economy as it relates to regional and
international market access for agricultural commodities, would you say that aflatoxins are
barriers or catalysts to promoting agricultural trade in Africa?