Fara seminar series ii report dr jonathan williams


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Fara seminar series ii report dr jonathan williams

  1. 1. FARA and Mycotoxins Management in Africa FARA Seminar Series II FARA Conference Room, Accra, Ghana 31 August, 2010 Seminar Report Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa PMB CT 173, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana 12 Anmeda Street, Roman Ridge Tel: +233 302 772823 Fax: +233 302 773676 Website: www.fara-africa.org August, 2010 1
  2. 2. Title: FARA and Mycotoxins Management in Africa Presenter: -. Dr. Jonathan H. Williams, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Coordinator, USAID supported Peanut Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP). Chairperson: Dr. Ramadjita Tabo, the Deputy Executive Director, FARA. Discussants: Emmanuel Tambi, Walter Alhassan, Emily Nwankwo, Jonas Mugabe, Oluwole Fatunbi, Gbadebo Odularu, Alain Ange, and Robert Botchway. Participants: (in addition to the aforementioned discussants) Tetsuji Oya, Gifty Battuta, Aimee Nyadanu, Muna Osei Bonsu, Daina Amene Anyomi, Akouvi Legbeze, Francis Kpodo, Joelene Anom, Ama Kesewa Ofori, Hawawu Adamu, Ernestina Assebri, Cynthia Nangsob, Cynthia Doggu, Priscilla Agyemang, Noah Bakuuro, and Eunice Clark. Presentations Mycotoxins and Public Health  Contaminants of commodities is normally neglected by DC governments  Consequences are deferred – health v hunger J H Williams  Perceived risks (cancers) are not health priorities relative to HIV, malaria, TB, child survival UGA/ Peanut CRSP  Little economic incentive when trade is not involved. The Scale of the Problem African AF Exposure  Lost markets  As measured by market samples  W African Groundnut exports  20-40% maize, rice, peanut, dried cassava would be  Kenyan maize (2010) = 2.6 million bags at harvest. rejected in US market  Estimated 1 million HIV infections annually from  As measured by 24 hour biomakers fumonisin in SSAfrica  20-60% of mothers milk or urine samples are positive.  Maybe 2.5 million lives from aflatoxin impacts on  As measured by 3 month markers infectious diseases (world)  70-100% of blood samples are positive.  Nutritional burden not known 2
  3. 3. Full role of aflatoxin Aflatoxin and African Health  Liver cancer – later in life (>45years)  Modulates 43% of the burden of diseases  Immune suppression  Malaria  Chronic moderate exposure as in the most exposed half  TB of African populations  Underweight children  Both direct and maternal impacts  HIV likely increases progression (next slide)  Reflected in higher incidence of infectious diseases  Vitamins (A, C, E) deficiencies exacerbated  More serious nutritional deficiencies  Pregnancy outcomes  Less efficient food use  Maternal Anaemia Toxin prone foods related to Immune Cell Function (Jolly at UAB) Percentages of CD4+CD25+CD45RO+ regulatory T diseases cells  WHO and FAO data were used to examine hypothesis of immune diseases related to toxin prone food 6 consumption CD4CD25CD45RO cells 5  NB other environmental co-factors Percentages of 4  Rice with mosquitoes 3  Cassava with tropical disease cluster 2 1 0 High AFB1 Low AFB1 High AFB1 Low AFB1 HIV-infected Healthy controls Maize and HIV Transmission R2 (Mod A all data) = 0.48 R2 (Mod B ) = 0.67 R2 Social factors = 0.20 3
  4. 4. HIV and Mycotoxins Recommended approach  Model of HIV • Toxin  Transmission  Use Agricultural technologies to minimize exposure – Fumonisin#  Progression  Mycotoxins a FARA priority  Immunity – Aflatoxins  Processing opportunities •*  Nutrition  Food Additives  Opportunistic infections •*  Policy – Aflatoxin *  Education – creation of market forces but risk of *confirmed unintended concentration on poor # proposed  Enforced food quality standards -  Fortification with entersorbing flow agents Agricultural Technologies Technologies(continued)  Resistance  Processing  Insect resistance for FN (maize)  All Sorting  Natural and BT routes possible  Fumonisin Milling  Fungal resistance for FN (maize) and AF  Extraction of fumonisin with water  Needs marker assisted technologies  Fortification with binding flow agents  Competitive fungi  Drying technologies  Storage in anaerobic conditions 4
  5. 5. Discussions: A lively discussion was raised among the following major issues: What is the food value chain analysis of the impact of aflatoxins if the grains are fed to animals before the animals are consumed by man? What are the gender implications of your study? If gender is factored into the analysis, will it change the findings of the study? If a counterfactual analysis is carried out in Asia, will this change the findings of the study? What will be the role of FARA in advocacy and awareness creation on the health and food security implications of mycotoxins? Aflatoxins have implications for three major components – public health, food security and trade. Given the vital role of agriculture in the African economy as it relates to regional and international market access for agricultural commodities, would you say that aflatoxins are barriers or catalysts to promoting agricultural trade in Africa? 5