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Plastic surgery (law012)

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plastic surgery presentation

plastic surgery presentation

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  • 1. BY GROUP 7 : NIK NUR SHUHADA NIK RASIDI 2012450886 NURSYAHIRA BAHARUDIN 2012453596 NURUL ‘AQILAH ZAKARIA 2012498636NOR FARAHANA SIDEK 2012451928 NUR FATIN IZZATI MAHAMUD 2012602446NIK NUR AISHAH NIK ABDUL AZIZ 2012463644 1
  • 2. TITLES PAGES WHAT IS PLASTIC SURGERY 3-5 TYPES OF PLASTIC SURGERY 6-12PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF LAW 13-16 PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF MORALITY 17-20 PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF EQUALITY 21-23 PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF JUSTICE 24-26 PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF 27-29 EQUALITY CONCLUSION 30 REFERENCES 31-32 2
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  • 4. Medical specialty concerned with the variouspurpose such as repair, restoration, or improvementof lost, injured, defective, or misshapen parts of thebody chiefly by transfer of tissues.The word plastic has nothing to do with the materialknown as plastic. It refers to molding and reshapingof tissues. 4
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  • 7. PLASTIC SURGERYReconstru Cosmetic ctive Surgery Surgery 7
  • 8. Reconstructive SurgeryTo correct : • functional impairments caused by burns • traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks • congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips • developmental abnormalities • infection and disease • cancer or tumors 8
  • 9. usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance. the most common reconstructive procedures are:• tumor removal• laceration repair• scar repair• hand surgery• breast reduction 9
  • 10. Cosmetic Surgery“Cosmetic surgery” (also known as “plastic surgery”) issurgery that is unnecessary from a medical perspective,but is carried out to improve appearance. Cosmeticsurgery is an ancient practice. Comprise many parts of human body such as: • Facial • Hair or head • Neck • Breast procedure • Abdomen 10
  • 11. • Buttock/butt,• Arm,• Foot,• Vaginal surgery 11
  • 12. Quick Facts: Highlights of the ASAPS 2010 Statistics on Cosmetic Surgery: • Since 1997, there has been over 155% increase in the total number of cosmetic procedures. Surgical procedures increased by more than 71%, and non-surgical procedures increased by 228%. • The top five cosmetic surgical procedures in 2010 were: -breast augmentation (318,123 procedures); -liposuction (289,016 procedures);- eyelid surgery (152,123 procedures);- abdominoplasty (144,929 procedures);- breast reduction (138,152 procedures). • The top five nonsurgical cosmetic procedures in 2010 were:- Botulinum Toxin Type A (2,437,165 procedures);- hyaluronic acid (1,315,121 procedures);- laser hair removal (936,270 procedures);- laser skin resurfacing (562,706 procedures);- chemical peel (493,896 procedures). 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. Legal (Shar`i) rules: It is permissible in Islamic law to undergo emergency or necessary plastic surgery for following purpose: a) Restoring the form of a part of the body to its original condition. b) Restoring the normal function to a part of the body. c) Correcting a congenital defect, such as cleft palate, severely deviated septum, birthmarks, extra fingers and teeth, conjoined fingers, if those will lead to significant material or moral harm. d) Correcting acquired defects from the effects of burns, accidents, and illness.e) Removing a severely misshapen feature that is causing the person psychological or physical harm. 14
  • 15. It is impermissible to undergo cosmetic surgery (aesthetic plastic surgery),which does not fall into the category of medical treatment, the aim of which isto change a persons natural appearance, following whims and the desire toimitate others.It is permissible to promote weight loss through reliable scientific methods,including liposuction, if excess weight is considered a medical condition andthere is no other solution besides surgery, on the condition that it will be[reasonably] risk-free.It is impermissible to remove wrinkles through surgery or injection as long asthis is not a medical condition, but even in such a case [treatment] wouldhave to be [reasonably] risk-free. 15
  • 16. • It is permissible to repair a hymen, which has been broken due to accident, rape or compulsion. However, it is impermissible to repair a hymen broken as a result of immoral acts, in order to block the means to immorality and deception. It is preferable for that procedure to be handled by female doctors.• The specialized physician should abide by the rules of Shari`ah concerning medical procedures and advise those seeking cosmetic surgery. 16
  • 17. PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF MORALITY 17
  • 18. In the perspective of morality the activity of plastic surgery is immoral.However in a certain reasons plastic surgery can be accepted as moral.According to Jacques Thiroux, morality can be understood as a ruleprescribing between what is right and what is wrong.Plastic surgery make someone look fake in front of the public. Plastic surgery is also immoral in the perspective of religious morality.Religious morality deals with a person‟s relationship with God. 18
  • 19. In Islam, plastic surgery is permissible since medication is legally prescribedand urged by Islam. However, cosmetic surgery used to change a personsnatural appearance for the purpose of beautification only is impermissible.Furthermore, such as the Prophet’s saying (peace and blessings be uponhim) in the hadith that was narrated by `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, “Allah hascursed women who tattoo or have themselves tattooed, who pluck eyebrowsor have them plucked, and women who separate their front teeth for beauty,altering what Allah has created.” (Al-Bukhari). The hadith shows that the one who does it is cursed because it involves twothings mentioned in the hadith: pursuit of beauty and changing what Allah hascreated. This is forbiden. Even from other religious point of view, the view on this plastic surgery isalmost the same which is immoral. 19
  • 20. “Plastic surgery for artistic development is a form of arrogance and vanity (particularly for men) and is illegal unless the patient meets certain criteria that allowed them to do the plastic surgery”. Jewish EthicsSo long as the action is beneficial and is not harmful to oneself aswell as to others, there is no valid reason to object. However, as forphysical enhancement (cosmetic surgery), there is the danger of theperson going overboard o be addicted and totally dependent on thismethod to maintain their beauty “forever”. 20
  • 21. PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF EQUALITY 21
  • 22. In equality, plastic surgery is legal for the certain people as society views.Article 7 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "All areequal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equalprotection of the law.” According to the United Nations, this principle isparticularly important to the minorities and to the poor. Thus, the law and the judges must treat everybody by the same lawsregardless of their gender, ethnicity, religion, socio-economic status, withoutprivilege. So, the minorities also defined to the people who does not has proper bodyfunctions like the other human being does. They are, who, the people has theright to get the equality to be like the others and to be treated by the peoplewho the majorities. As Ronald Dworkin write in his essay „ What is equality?‟, sees that equalityand liberty as joined or as two sides of a coin. People must be allowed to livefreely within the resources they have. 22
  • 23. As Ronald Dworkin write in his essay „ What is equality?‟, sees that equalityand liberty as joined or as two sides of a coin. People must be allowed to livefreely within the resources they have.Highlight the point of his essay, „People must allowed to live freely‟, so thepeople must be allowed to live freely and thus, as an equality to them, thepeople must be allowed to made this plastic surgery. 23
  • 24. PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF JUSTICE 24
  • 25. According to a scholar, Justinian, justice is the virtue which results in each person receiving his due. Thepurpose and aim of justice is to represent justice as moral / natural entitlement. According to another scholar,Jacques Thiroux, there are 4 basically ways in which goods van be distributed – as equally among people aspossible without regard to their abilities or merits, according to people‟s abilities , according to what they meritor deserve and according to their needs. In this case , people deserve to get what they want and what they needs in order to feel “normal” andaccepted by the society. According to Dr. Cutler , a plastic surgeon, plastic surgery is not about beauty, but,about identity. For a woman who feels trapped in a body whish does not fit her sense of who she is, plasticsurgery or cosmetic surgery becomes a way to renegotiate identity through her body. Plastic surgery orcosmetic surgery is about justice. For a woman whose suffering has gone beyond a certain point , plasticsurgery or cosmetic surgery can become a matter of justice – the only fair thing to do. Furthermore, according to Jacques Thiroux every people deserve to get what they needs. For example,accident victims , they undergo plastic surgery or to be specific reconstructive surgery because they have to.Instead of having this surgery for beauty reasons , patient have it for medical or health reasons. People who havebeen horribly disfigured in automobile accidents may have to have parts of their faces reconstructed. 25
  • 26. In addition , according to Dr. Steve Buchman, children with severe mental impairments undoubtedly benefitfrom plastic surgery and ultimately gain the functional tools that will help them lead a fuller life. Children whomare looked upon by their peers or teachers as something different from other kids , can experience things thatreally interfere with their development. Nevertheless, the more these children these are accepted by their peers ,teachers and society and the more interactions they have with others , the better they learn. Teachers may underestimated the intellectual abilities of children with facial deformities and havecorrespondingly low expectations for their achievements. By addressing the deformities , the subconscious biasof parents , teachers and society may diminish , giving the child a better chance to be exposed to positivefeedback and increase their learning capability. In a nutshell, plastic surgery , cosmetic surgery or even reconstructive surgery, is a method in order to helpthe unfortunate and unlucky people regardless of their gender and abilities. Plastic surgery is absolutely ajustice – the only fair thing to do for people who does not feel normal because of accident and lack of self –esteem. Furthermore, for children with mental disabilities and facial deformities, it will help them lead a fuller lifefor being normal. 26
  • 27. PLASTIC SURGERY IN PERSPECTIVE OF FREEDOM 27
  • 28. Freedom is a right, power, ability to decide or oneself what to do and how to live according to one interest,desire, taste determination or thought of the mind in order to realize one‟s aims. John Locke wrote in his book „Two Treatises of Government‟ (1689) that “ no one ought to harm another in hislife, health, liberty or possessions”. For Immanuel Kant (1724-1804),the German philosopher, morality arises andcan only arise from freedom. According to Dias, the word „freedom‟ brings 3 meanings, which are freedom frompower. For example, a freeman is one who is not under anyone‟s power. Next, freedom to act (liberty).Forexample, free speech implies the absence of duty not to speak. Lastly, freedom from disability (capacity, theacquisition of powers and liberties).For example, coming of age. There‟s no doubt that enhancing outer looks can help the inner beauty shine through since there is freedom tochoose anything. This freedom of choice which has led to an increase in the number of people choosing toundergo procedures like non-invasive cosmetic surgery treatments in order to help them feel their best. Theinstant results and confidence-boosting effects of these treatments, including teeth-whitening, Botox jabs andlaser-hair removal made people all over the world flocking to clinics for a boost. A recent study has revealed that women who chose to improve their looks out of their own accord experiencea boost in confidence and self-esteem. Many believe that their inner beauty and true personalities shine throughafter these confidence-boosting procedures, and that anyone should have the freedom to choose to look and feeltheir best. And it‟s not only women, as men are jumping on the surgery bandwagon for many reasons. A recent studyeven proved that men believe looking good will help them stay employed, as it will encourage confidence inclient meetings and in the boardroom. When it comes to freedom of choice, no one wants to be told what to do.Many magazines around the world have been proactive in promoting cosmetic surgery as a personal choice thatmany women will feel empowered by. Many people choose to oppose the freedom of choice to undergo cosmetic surgery. People decide what thebest for themselves. Whether that means a skin treatment or something more, like breast surgery, it‟s up to youto decide. 28
  • 29. Despite cosmetic surgerys rise in popularity in recent times, thehistory of these procedures dates back centuries. It was originallyused as a treatment of body parts damaged by injury or war. Themore society grew, the more important physical beauty began tobecome. There are only a few people who currently still hold to thebelief that beauty is merely on the inside. In contemporary terms,beauty is considered to include physical appearance, especiallyamong women. The fact that a strong majority of people now viewcosmetic surgery in a positive light, there are still a few that hold tothe idea that it is a trap to maintain societys unjust standards ofbeauty. The truth of the matter is, cosmetic surgery allows freedom ofchoice: the choice to change appearance, improve self-image, andcreate fantastic first impressions. Miami Cosmetic Surgery allowspeople that suffer anxiety based on societys standards of beauty tochoose to change their lives through cosmetic surgery. 29
  • 30. Jocelyn Wildenstein: a US$4 million monsterKnown by the press by the nickname of "The Bride of Wildenstein" --a reference to The Bride of Frankenstein--, Jocelyn Wildenstein has allegedly spent almost US$4,000,000 on cosmetic surgery over the years, ending up asone of the worst and most famous cases of plastic surgery addiction. But who did that happened?Once upon a time, in the late 70’s there was a beautiful women named Jocelyn Wildenstein. Jocelyn really had itmade. She was a fresh-faced mother of two and married to an extremely rich art dealer. That is until she caughther husband in bed with a 21 year old Russian model. Now, any normal person would just leave her husband andtake all of his money with her, right? Not Jocelyn Wildenstein! Instead she decided to win back her husbands loveand make herself more beautiful by going under the knife. Well, her husband left her anyways, but Jocelyn willalways have her plastic surgeon. 30
  • 31. In conclusion, plastic surgery goes against the perspectives of law, morality and equality but are supported in the perspective of justice and freedom.This is because plastic surgery is a change in persons natural appearance for the purpose of beautification and other reasons. 31
  • 32. REFERENCES• Mohd Syahar Barkat Ali, Suhaila Hj. Ismail, Nor Shahily Dahalan & Ahmad Junaidi Ali. (n.d). Pendidikan syariah islam. Batu Caves, Selangor: Pustaka Ilmi.• Aesthetic surgery and religion: Islamic law perspective. Retrieved from http://www.onislam.net/english/ask-the- scholar/morals- and-manners/178114.html?Manners=• Islamic view on plastic surgery . Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17968614 32
  • 33. • Plastic surgery. Retrieved from http://www.merriam- webster.com/ medical/plastic%20surgery.• Plastic surgery. Retrieved fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_surgery.• Plastic surgery records. Retrieved fromhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk /history/9396435/Pioneering- plastic-surgery-records-from- First-World-War-published.html.• Health care. Retrieved from http://issuu.com/lifehealthcare/ docs/life_spring_2011/search.• Types of plastic surgery. Retrieved from 33
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