Ensures correct procedures have been applied in
finding answers for the questions.
Unbiased and objective
i) Have taken each step
ii) Drawn each conclusion to the best of your
conclusion without your own vested interest.
The paradigms in research
• Your philosophical orientation may stem from
one of the two paradigms in research.
• How the natural sciences approach the
i.e. combining mainly deductive logic with
empirical and predominantly quantitative
methods in order to seek generally applying
Predominantly : mostly or mainly
Empirical : based on experience
• Assumes only the existence of a social world
external to the researcher which can be
accessed through the sense and research.
A process for collecting
, analysing and
to answer questions .
4. Valid and
In research process, we find out about the
“cause and effect relationships” . And it is
important to be able to link the effects
with the causes and vice versa.
2. Rigorous (be careful)
Must be extremely careful in ensuring that
the procedures followed to find answers to
the questions are ;
The procedures adopted to undertake an
investigation folllow a certain logical
4. Valid and verifiable
Whatever you conclude on the basis of your
findings is correct and can be verified by
you and others.
Means that , any conclusions drawn are
based upon hard evidence gathered from
information collected from real life
experiences or observation.
Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and
the methods employed, is crucial to a
research inquiry .
The process of investigation must be
foolproof and free from any drawbacks.
• Formulating a research problem is the
most important step in research
• The more specific and clear you are
• It is equally important to identify any
gaps in your knowledge of relevant
input such as statistic, required for
• It is the use of scientific methods.
• A research design should include:
The study design perse & the
The measurements procedures & the
The frame of analysis
The time frame
• Anything that becomes a means of
collecting information for you research
is called a ‘research tools’ or ‘research
• For example :
• The accuracy of your estimates largely
depends upon the way you select your
• The basic objective of any sampling
• Research proposal should contain:
A statement of
of the study
you are testing
design you are
for your study
tools you are
sample size &
An outline of
chapters for the
• After all the steps, next collect the data
from which you will draw inferences &
conclusion for your study.
• For example:
Mail out a questionnaire
• The way you analyze the information
you collected largely depends upon 2
The type of
The way you
want to write
The way to
• This report inform the world of what
you have done, what have you
discovered, what conclusions you have
drawn for your finding.
• Your report should be written in a
academic style(APA style), be divided
into difference chapters based upon
the main themes of your study.
• Purpose of the study is to describe a :
• Situation information is gathered
• Phenomenon through the use of
• Problem/event variables measured
• aims at understanding. It answers primarily to
• Examples :
Description of an observed situation.
The historical enumeration of events.
An account of the different opinions people have
about an issue.
A description of the living conditions of the
• You want to quantify :
• the variation in a
phenomenon, situation, problem/issue
• If the analysis is geared to ascertain the
magnitude of the variation.
• aims at (causal) explanation. It answers
primarily to why? –questions.
• You want to know “how many” and/or “how
• You want to profile a target audience by
determining what proportion of the audience
has certain behaviors, behavioral
intentions, attitudes, knowledge related, and
whether specific determinants predict
behaviors at a statistically significant level.
• Examples :
How many people have particular problem?
How many people hold a particular attitude?
aims at understanding.
It answers primarily to
Methods include focus
interviews, and reviews
describes a problem or
condition from the point
of view of those
aims at (causal)
explanation. It answers
primarily to why? –
More objective: provides
researchers) of a
program on a problem
Data is in the form of
words, pictures or objects.
Can be valid and reliable:
largely depends on skill
and rigor of the researcher
Data is in the form of
numbers and statistics.
Can be valid and reliable:
largely depends on the
measurement device or
• The linking of the terms
“action” and “research”
highlights the essential
features of this method:
trying out ideas in practice
as a means of increasing
knowledge about or
curriculum, teaching, and
(Kemmis & McTaggart, 1988)
To bring about the
development of the
practice of the educators
by analysing existing
practice and identifying
elements for change
To help educators feel in
control of their own
restructuring, and as an
To enhance educators
development through the
fostering of their capability
as knowledge makers,
rather than simply as
To develop a deeper
understanding of classroom
practice as basis for change
An alternative to teachers who
have been encouraged to look
to others, rather than to
themselves and their students,
for ways to help students
improve their quality of
For educator to better
understand the aspect of
his/her teaching that is of
interests or concerns
Done by teachers to
study the weakness in
their own teaching in
order to improve it
• It is not the usual things teachers do
when they think about their
teaching. Action Research is systematic
and involves collecting evidence on
which to base rigorous reflection.
• It is not just problem-solving. It is
motivated by a quest to improve and
understand the world by changing it and
learning how to improve it from the
effects of the changes made.
• It is not research on other
people. Action Research does not treat
people as objects.
• It is not the scientific method applied to
teaching. Action Research is not about
hypothesis-testing or about using data
to come to conclusions. It is concerned
with changing situations, not just
• the issue or problem is monitored and
described. Useful data is recorded and kept.
• observations are interpreted and shared so that
the issue or problem can be better understood.
• actions are proposed to address the issue or
the plan is implemented and the cycle starts
again as outcomes are
observed, recorded, and shared
focus on small
It should be
interesting to you –
you may need some
perseverance to see
the inquiry through!
It should be
It is not too disruptive of normal
routines. (Important here to think
not just of your own, but others’ that
your actions might affect).
• Research is one way of collecting &
understanding information and finding
answer to your questions.
• The differences between research and
other ways is that research you works
within a framework of a set of
philosophies, use methods that have
been tested validity &
reliability, attempt to unbiased &
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March, 2011, fromhttp://www.ehow.com/how_2053926_do-research.
• Ways to conduct accurate research, Retrieved 6March,2011,
• Action research? Anyone can!, Retrieved 6 March, 2011,
from drjj.uitm.edu.my/DRJJ/MATRIC2010/20 Anyone
• Themes in Education. Action Research, Retrieved 6 March , 2011,
from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/themes_ad/act research pdf
• Quantitative Methods, Retrieved 6 March, 2011,
• Qualitative versus Quantitative, Retrieved 6 March, 2011,
• Key concepts in social research, Retrieved 6 March,2011