Britain and The World


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Britain and The World

  1. 1. Chapter 17 Britain and the World <ul><li>December, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>100’s of free ppt’s from library </li></ul>
  2. 2. Britain and the World <ul><li>Britain’s primary overseas interests lay in three areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The Empire or Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><li>The special relationship with the USA </li></ul>
  3. 3. The British Empire <ul><li>Map on page 273 shows the extent of the Empire in 1919. These countries were the major markets for British exports and a source of cheap raw materials and food. </li></ul><ul><li>Late C19 Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and Ireland given Dominion status – internal self government and much freedom in their foreign relations. </li></ul><ul><li>1947 India given independence. </li></ul><ul><li>1950’s more of the colonies in the Caribbean and Africa gained independence. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Commonwealth <ul><li>Bears no resemblance to the Empire of the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Commonwealth is a voluntary free association of 54 independent sovereign states each responsible for its own policies but co-operating together in their common interests. </li></ul><ul><li>32 members of the Commonwealth are republics, e.g. India </li></ul><ul><li>17 are monarchies with Queen Elizabeth II as Head of State, e.g. Australia, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>5 have national monarchs, e.g. Fiji </li></ul>
  5. 5. Commonwealth Today <ul><li>The former colonies share many things in common </li></ul><ul><li>English as the official language of government </li></ul><ul><li>English law </li></ul><ul><li>Many people have British relatives, particularly in New Zealand, Australia, Canada and South Africa, where Britain is still referred to as the “mother country.” </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1960’s all commonwealth citizens were free to enter the UK. Although there are restrictions now, the number entering the UK is on the increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Long history of trade and economic links </li></ul><ul><li>A tradition of professional and academic links with many similar educational systems </li></ul>
  6. 6. Relations with Europe <ul><li>As part of Europe, Britain has always been influenced by, and had an influence on, other European countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally – there is a long common cultural heritage between many European countries. Many languages derive from the same background; religions are shared and there has been much inter-marriage including within the Royal families. </li></ul><ul><li>With the decline of the Empire, and joining the European Union, well over half the trade is now with the latter. See chart on page 280. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The European Union <ul><li>Founded in 1958 with 6 member countries, </li></ul><ul><li>France, West Germany, Italy, and Benelux </li></ul><ul><li>AIMS </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce and remove restrictions between the member countries: </li></ul><ul><li>by the removal of internal trade barriers, </li></ul><ul><li>by enabling the free flow of capital and a common currency, </li></ul><ul><li>by allowing citizens of all member countries to live and work in any other member country, </li></ul><ul><li>To Develop Common Policies on: </li></ul><ul><li>transport </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>external trade </li></ul><ul><li>taxation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Member Countries of EU <ul><li>Britain joined in 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>There are now 25 member countries </li></ul><ul><li>Germany is the largest with a population of 80M, with Malta and Luxembourg the smallest – around 300,000. </li></ul><ul><li>4 more countries are negotiating to join. </li></ul><ul><li>11 countries have formed a common currency – the Euro. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Britain and the EU <ul><li>There is no clear view </li></ul><ul><li>Euro-sceptics (including much of the conservative party) believe that closer links would inhibit Britain’s freedom to make its own decisions about its political and economic future. They are against joining the Euro. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-Europeans see it as essential to Britain’s national interest that Britain has a voice in the direction of policy in Europe, otherwise Britain will be left out of important decision making. Only the Liberal Democratic Party is fully in favour of close ties with Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The Labour Party has promised a referendum on whether or not to join the Euro as the common currency. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Special Relationship of Britain with USA <ul><li>Same language, and broadly similar cultures and religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign trade has been important to both countries </li></ul><ul><li>Close allies during World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Both countries have agreed upon their security interests </li></ul><ul><li>Close rapport between the leaders, e.g. Reagan and Thatcher, Blair and Clinton, and now Blair and Bush. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Defence <ul><li>Britain’s armed forces are entirely volunteer professional – there is no conscription </li></ul><ul><li>Army - 110,000 </li></ul><ul><li>RAF - 55,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Navy - 43,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Membership of NATO commits Britain to assist any other NATO member if attacked. </li></ul>