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    Choosing health chapter 12 Choosing health chapter 12 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 12 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Cancer Lecture Outlines by Sloane Burke East Carolina University © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Did You Know?  Statistics suggest that 1 out of every 3 children born in the U.S. in 2000 will eventually develop diabetes  Cardiovascular disease is the number 1 cause of death in both men and women in the U.S.  More than 1 million people develop skin cancer every year. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #1  How do the long term consequences of chronic disease impact individuals and society? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Influence of Four Key Behaviors  Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer share underlying physiological mechanisms and risk factors.  Four key behaviors increase risk: – Poor nutrition, especially a diet high in saturated and trans fats and low in fruits and vegetables. – Lack of physical activity. – Tobacco use—the single most avoidable cause of disease, disability, and death in the U.S. – Excessive alcohol consumption. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #2  Which of the four key behaviors is easiest for you to follow? Why? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Diabetes Terms  Diabetes mellitus: A group of diseases in which the body does not make or use insulin properly, resulting in elevated blood glucose.  Prediabetes: A persistent state of blood glucose levels higher than normal, but not yet high enough to qualify as diabetes.  Insulin: A hormone necessary for glucose transport into cells  Pancreas: An abdominal organ that produces insulin as well as certain compounds helpful in digestion. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Diabetes  Type 1 diabetes: A form of diabetes that usually begins early in life and arises when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin. – Blood sugar must be monitored and insulin injections are needed.  Type 2 diabetes: A form of diabetes that usually begins later in life and arises when cells resist the effects of insulin.  Hyperglycemia: A persistent state of elevated levels of blood glucose. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Diabetes  Gestational diabetes: Develops in a woman during pregnancy, usually disappearing after childbirth.  Type 1.5: Several varieties of diabetes blending aspects of type 1 and type 2. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #3  What are the symptoms of diabetes? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Long-Term Effects of Diabetes  Persistent high blood glucose can lead to – – – – Damage to blood vessels Kidney disease Loss of sensation and tissue breakdown High risk of non-healing wounds, which may require surgical amputation – Deterioration of vision  It is the seventh most common cause of death in the United States. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes      Overweight Disproportionately large waist Lack of exercise Genetic factors Metabolic syndrome: A set of unhealthy physical and metabolic characteristics linked to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other serious diseases. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Reduce Your Risk for Diabetes      Watch your weight and lose weight. Get moving. Eat a healthy diet. Get a physical exam. Be aware of the risks in your background. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Controlling Diabetes  Stabilizing blood glucose is the central goal.  Type 1 diabetes requires measurement of blood glucose levels throughout the day and regular doses of insulin.  Type 2 can be often be treated through improved diet and exercise habits. – Oral medication may be prescribed. – Deterioration of the condition can lead to treatment with insulin therapy. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)  A group of disorders that includes high blood pressure, coronary heart disease (including heart attacks), congestive heart failure, and stroke.  It is the leading cause of adult mortality in the U.S., responsible for more than 3 in 10 deaths. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Cardiovascular Terms  Arteries: Blood vessels that flow away from the heart, delivering oxygen-rich blood to the body periphery and oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.  Veins: Blood vessels that flow toward the heart, delivering oxygen-poor blood from the body periphery or oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.  Myocardium: Heart’s muscle tissue.  Atria: The two upper chambers of the heart, which receive blood from the body periphery and lungs.  Ventricles: The two lower chambers of the heart, which pump blood to the body and lungs. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #4  How does the cardiovascular system work? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Cardiovascular Disease  CVD can strike any part of the cardiovascular system, although the individual diseases rarely happen in isolation.  Coronary heart disease is the form of CVD responsible for the greatest percentage of deaths. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Deaths from Cardiovascular Disease in the U.S. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Cardiovascular Disease  Atherosclerosis: Condition characterized by narrowing of the arteries because of inflammation, scarring, and the buildup of fatty deposits. – The resulting buildup of plaque narrows the arteries enough to impair blood flow, leading to chest pain, weakness, shortness of breath, heart attack, and stroke. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Cardiovascular Disease  Hypertension (high blood pressure): A persistent state of elevated blood pressure. – Atherosclerosis can contribute to a rise in blood pressure. – Hypertension is generally a result of many contributing factors, possibly including age, weight, ethnic background, and diet. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #5  How are atherosclerosis and hypertension different? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Coronary Heart Disease  Also called coronary artery disease.  Plaque in the coronary arteries builds up to the point that it impairs the heart’s ability to function.  This is the single leading cause of death in the United States.  Angina pectoris: Chest pain due to coronary heart disease. – Angina is not life-threatening, but it does signal a greater risk of a life-threatening cardiac event.  Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Cardiac crisis in which a region of heart muscle is damaged or destroyed by reduced blood flow. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Coronary Heart Disease  Arrhythmia: Any irregularity in the heart’s rhythm. – Bradycardia: A slow arrhythmia. – Tachycardia: A fast arrhythmia.  Ventricular fibrillation: A life-threatening arrhythmia marked by ineffective pumping of the ventricles.  Sudden cardiac arrest: A life-threatening cardiac crisis marked by loss of heartbeat and unconsciousness. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Congestive Heart Failure  The heart can no longer pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs, so blood may pool in other areas of the body, leading to damage to those areas and inability to function properly.  Hypertension is the most common risk factor. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Stroke  A medical emergency in which blood flow to or in the brain is impaired.  Ischemic stroke: Caused by a blocked blood vessel.  Hemorrhagic stroke: A stroke caused by a ruptured blood vessel.  Transient ischemic attack (TIA): A temporary episode of stroke-like symptoms, indicative of high stroke risk. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #6  What are the symptoms of a stroke? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Detecting Cardiovascular Disease  Blood lipids: – Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): As this cholesterol-containing compound degrades, it releases its cholesterol load into the bloodstream; often referred to as “bad cholesterol.” – High-density lipoprotein (HDL): A cholesterol-containing compound that removes excess cholesterol from the bloodstream; often referred to as “good cholesterol.”  Electrocardiogram: A test that measures the heart’s electrical activity.  Stress test: An analysis of heart function during monitored exercise.  Invasive and non-invasive imaging tests can be performed. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #7  What can you do to lower your LDL and raise your HDL levels? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Reduce Your Risk of Heart Disease       Eat a healthy diet. Get enough exercise. Maintain a healthy weight. Don’t smoke. Limit alcohol intake. Manage stress and anger.  Get enough sleep.  Maintain good oral hygiene.  Monitor blood pressure and lipids.  If you have diabetes, control it. Age, sex, and genetics can’t be controlled, but do contribute to risk. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Controlling Cardiovascular Disease  Before a serious cardiac event, changes in diet and exercise habits will likely be recommended.  Medications or surgery may be recommended.  Statins: A group of cholesterol-lowering prescription medications.  Balloon angioplasty: An arterial treatment that uses a small balloon to flatten plaque deposits against the arterial wall.  Bypass surgery: A procedure to build new pathways for blood to flow around areas of arterial blockage. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Helping Someone in a CVD Emergency  Someone showing signs of a heart attack, cardiac arrest, or stroke needs to go to the nearest hospital.  Some steps can be taken to help before medical care is available. – Call 9-1-1 from a land line. – Wait with the person in distress. – If you suspect a heart attack, chewing aspirin or taking nitroglycerin could help. – If the person is unconscious, begin CPR. – If applicable, ask a bystander to locate an automated external defibrillator (AED). Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • What Is Cancer?  Cancer is a group of diseases marked by the uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal cells.  More people are surviving cancer now than ever before, but disparities exist in cancer rates. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Cancer Terms  Carcinogen: A substance known to trigger DNA mutations that can lead to cancer.  Oncogene: A mutated gene that encourages the uncontrolled cell division that results in cancer.  Tumor: An abnormal growth of tissue with no physiological function.  Benign tumor: A tumor that grows slowly, does not spread, and is not cancerous.  Malignant tumor: A tumor that grows aggressively, invades surrounding tissue, and can spread to other parts of the body; all cancers are malignant.  Metastasis: The process by which a malignant tumor spreads to other body sites. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #8  What are the four factors that increase the risk of cancer? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Detecting Cancer  No single test can detect all cancers.  Screening tests such as a mammogram and a colonoscopy can detect cancers at specific sites.  A biopsy is a test for cancer in which a small sample of the abnormal growth is removed and studied.  Lab tests of blood and other body fluids can detect the presence of tumor markers that suggest cancer.  Imaging technologies can be used to detect cancers. – Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • General Symptoms of Cancer  A thickening or lump in the breast or any other part of the body  A new mole or a change in an existing mole  A sore that does not heal  Hoarseness or a cough that does not go away  Changes in bowel or bladder habits Choosing Heath  Discomfort after eating  Difficulty swallowing  Weight gain or loss with no known reason  Unusual bleeding or discharge  Feeling weak or very tired © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Types of Cancer  Carcinoma: Cancer of tissues that line or cover the body.  Sarcoma: Cancer of muscle or connective tissues.  Central nervous system cancer: Cancer of the brain or spinal cord.  Lymphoma: Cancer of the lymph system.  Myeloma: Cancer of the bone marrow.  Leukemia: Cancer of blood-forming tissue.  Malignant melanoma: An especially aggressive form of skin cancer. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #9  Which cancer are YOU at greatest risk for? Why? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Cancer Treatment  Treatment can include methods to remove or shrink malignant tumors, stop or slow metastasis, or address cancerous DNA.  Surgery is used to remove tumors whenever possible.  Radiation therapy directs wavelengths of energy at a tumor to kill cancer cells or damage their DNA so that they can no longer reproduce.  Chemotherapy uses one or more drugs to eradicate cancer cells. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Question #10  How does race impact the incidences of chronic diseases? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.