Choosing health chapter 10 a

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Choosing health chapter 10 a

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Sexuality, Contraception, and Reproductive Choices Lecture Outlines by Sloane Burke East Carolina University © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Did You Know?  About 34% of college students report that they have never engaged in vaginal intercourse.  In a recent study, 20% of teens and 33% of young adults reported sending or posting nude or seminude photos or videos of themselves over their cell phones.  In the Unites States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned—about 3 million each year. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Sexuality  Sexuality is the biological, physical, emotional, and psychosocial aspects of sexual attraction and expression. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Preventive Care  Girls should have their first gynecologic visit between ages 13 and 15. – A pelvic exam will most likely not be performed.  Women should have their first pelvic exam and pap smear by age 21. – Most women under 30 should receive cervical screening once every two years. – Most women age 30 and older can wait 3 years between pap smears.  About half of all college-age women do not get screened regularly. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. Question #1  How do the sexual health problems of women and men differ? Be specific. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. Menstrual Cycle  Menarche is the first onset of menstruation.  Menstruation is the cyclical discharge of blood and tissue from the vagina.  Menopause is the time when a woman stops having menstrual cycles.  Menstrual phase is the phase of the menstrual cycle characterized by menstrual flow, the release of follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland to the brain, and the release of estrogen into the bloodstream. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. Menstrual Cycle: Menstrual Phase  The phase of the menstrual cycle characterized by – menstrual flow, – the release of follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland to the brain, and – the release of estrogen into the bloodstream. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. Menstrual Cycle: Proliferative Phase  Characterized by a thickening of the lining of the uterus and discharge of cervical mucus.  This phase ends when luteinizing hormone triggers the release of a mature egg. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. Menstrual Cycle: Secretory Phase  Characterized by – the degeneration of the follicle sac, – rising levels of progesterone in the bloodstream, and – further increase of the endometrial lining.  Ovulate: To release an egg from the ovary. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. Question #2  What are some disorders associated with the menstrual cycle? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11. The Sexual Response Cycle  Human sexual response cycle consists of distinct phases extending from the first moment of sexual desire until the calm after orgasm. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. The Sexual Response Cycle: Excitement  The first phase of the sexual response cycle, marked by – erection in men, and – lubrication and clitoral swelling in women. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13. The Sexual Response Cycle: Plateau  The second phase of the sexual response cycle, characterized by – – – – – intense excitement, rapid heartbeat, genital sensitivity, secretion of pre-ejaculatory fluid in men, and vaginal swelling in women. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. The Sexual Response Cycle: Orgasm and Resolution  Orgasm: The peak/climax of sexual response, characterized by – rhythmic muscle contractions of genitals and surrounding areas, and – ejaculation in men.  Resolution: The stage of the response cycle in which the body returns to normal functioning. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. Sexual Dysfunctions  Problems that can occur during any phase of the sexual response cycle.  At least one symptom of sexual dysfunction at some point has been experienced by an estimated 43% of women and 31% of men. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. Female Sexual Dysfunctions  Pain felt just before, during, or after intercourse – Experienced by 20% of women – Both physical and emotional issues can play a role  A persistently low sex drive – Can include physical and psychological reasons – Experienced by 5–15% of women  Inability to achieve orgasm – Can result from physical and psychological reasons – Affects 20% of women Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Male Sexual Dysfunctions  Erectile dysfunction (ED): The inability to obtain or maintain an erection firm enough for intercourse. – Most commonly results from physical injury or disease but can stem from other reasons. – Treatment includes lifestyle modifications and/or medication.  Premature ejaculation (PE): A condition in which a male ejaculates earlier than he or his partner would like him to. – Most commonly due to psychological factors. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. Abstinence and Celibacy  Abstinence refers to the avoidance of sexual intercourse. – It can be by active choice or as a matter of circumstance.  Celibacy: Long-term abstinence. – Some choose celibacy for religious or moral reasons. – Others choose it out of a desire to avoid becoming pregnant or developing a sexually transmitted infection. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. Sexual Intercourse  Vaginal intercourse is characterized by the insertion of the penis into the vagina. – Condoms are advised to avoid unintended pregnancy and reduce risk for STIs.  Anal intercourse is characterized by the insertion of the penis into a partner’s anus and rectum. – It has become increasingly acceptable, especially among younger generations. – It is one of the riskier sexual behaviors in terms of injury and transmission of infectious disease. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. Communicating About Sex  It’s important to communicate with a partner about what you’re comfortable with in terms of: – – – – – Sexual behaviors Frequency Contraception and safe sex Sexually transmitted infections Other potentially sensitive issues Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. 21. Sexual Orientation  Sexual orientation is romantic and physical attraction toward others.  Experts believe our tendency to be attracted to men or women is shaped by biological, environmental, and cognitive factors. – Sexual orientation is then neither a conscious choice nor something that can be readily changed. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  22. 22. Sexual Orientation: Heterosexuality  Heterosexuals are sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex.  The majority of people throughout the world describe themselves as heterosexual.  This is the only sexual orientation that receives full social and legal legitimacy in most countries.  Those with a heterosexist view think their orientation is the only normal one. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. Sexual Orientation: Homosexuality  Homosexuals are sexually attracted to people of the same sex.  Homophobia is the irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuals or homosexuality. – Criminal violence can erupt as a result of homophobia. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. Sexual Orientation: Bisexuality  Bisexuals are attracted to people of both the same and the opposite sex.  Some bisexuals choose not to act on impulses, and others have not had the opportunity to do so. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  25. 25. Gender Identity  Transgenderism is the state in which someone’s gender identity or gender expression is different from his or her assigned sex at birth.  Transsexual is a transgendered individual who lives as the gender opposite to their assigned sex. – Hormonal treatments and surgical procedures are sometimes used to complete the physical transformation from one sex to the other. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. Question #3  How does the media influence sexual behavior? Give an example to support your answer. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  27. 27. Conception  Conception: The fertilization of a female egg with male sperm.  Zygote: A fertilized egg.  Implantation: The lodging of a fertilized egg in the endometrium of the uterus. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  28. 28. Events Involved in Conception Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  29. 29. Contraceptive Options  Contraception: Any method used to prevent pregnancy. – Natural methods involve no pills or devices. – Barrier methods work to prevent sperm from reaching an egg. – Hormonal methods deliver hormones to a woman that prevent ovulation. – Surgical methods are the most permanent options. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  30. 30. Cost-Free Methods of Contraception  Intimacy without intercourse can be fulfilling but requires commitment, self-discipline, and cooperation.  Fertility awareness (rhythm or calendar method) is the tracking of a woman’s monthly menstrual cycle. – It may be used to prevent pregnancy if the woman tracks carefully and has regular periods, though is not fail-safe.  Withdrawal (coitus interruptus): The withdrawal of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation. – It is associated with a very high failure rate. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  31. 31. Question #4  Why are the cost free methods not very reliable? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  32. 32. Over-the-Counter Methods of Contraception  Condom: A thin sheath typically made of latex, polyurethane, or lambskin that is unrolled over the erect penis prior to vaginal penetration. – When used properly, it provides excellent protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection.  There is also a female condom available. – It can be inserted several hours before sex. – Some women find it awkward to insert, and it can cause discomfort during sex. – It is associated with a higher pregnancy rate than the male condom. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  33. 33. Over-the-Counter Methods of Contraception  Contraceptive sponge: A flexible foam disk containing spermicide, inserted in the vagina prior to sex. – Spermicide: A substance containing chemicals that kill or immobilize sperm.  Emergency contraception (EC; “morning after” pill): A pill containing levonorgestrel, a synthetic hormone used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  34. 34. Prescription Methods  Diaphragm: A flexible silicone cup filled with spermicide and inserted in the vagina prior to sex to prevent pregnancy.  Intrauterine device (IUD): A plastic, T-shaped device that is inserted in the uterus for long-term pregnancy prevention.  Birth control pills: These contain combinations of hormones that prevent pregnancy when taken regularly as directed. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  35. 35. Surgical Methods of Contraception  These methods permanently prevent conception by involving surgical manipulation of the reproductive organs.  Tubal ligation: A woman’s fallopian tubes are tied off or sealed; it can sometimes be reversed.  Hysterectomy: A woman’s uterus is surgically removed; it is a method of irreversible sterilization.  Vasectomy: A man’s vas deferens is tied off and cut on both sides of the scrotum; it is difficult to reverse. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  36. 36. Question #5  Why do you think that despite the availability of a variety of contraceptive methods, half of all pregnancies in the US are unintended? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  37. 37. Which Method Is Best?  This depends on the couple.  It is important to note the failure rate of the method. – Failure rate is the percentage of women who typically get pregnant after using a given contraceptive method for one year.  Continuation rate is the percentage of couples who continue to practice a given form of birth control. – Couples will often stop using a method, and before starting use of a new method, they will have unprotected sex. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  38. 38. Abortion  Abortion is a medical or surgical procedure used to terminate a pregnancy. – It involves removing the embryo or fetus from the uterus.  The number of abortions performed has declined in recent years. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  39. 39. Question #6  How do medical and surgical abortions differ? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  40. 40. Complications of Abortion  Physical complications can include minor infection, excessive bleeding, blood infection, injury to the uterus or cervix, or incomplete abortion.  Death due to abortion is rare, but is possible.  Psychological complications can include feelings of sadness or guilt.  There is no credible evidence that terminating a single unwanted pregnancy creates mental health problems for adult women. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  41. 41. Legal Status of Abortion  Restrictions exist on who can get an abortion, and when.  Rules exist related to minors, parental notification, mandatory waiting periods, types of abortion allowed during certain months of pregnancy, and restriction of federal funds used for abortion. – Federal Medicaid funds can be used for elective abortions when a pregnancy would endanger a woman’s life, or in cases of rape or incest. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  42. 42. Pregnancy  For a young, healthy couple having unprotected sex, there is a 20% chance that the woman will get pregnant during a menstrual cycle.  Pregnancies are divided into three trimesters, each lasting three months.  Women experience different symptoms during each stage of pregnancy.  A pregnancy test can be used to determine pregnancy. – An at-home test and a blood test are options. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  43. 43. Question #7  What can a woman do before becoming pregnancy to increase the chances of a healthy pregnancy? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  44. 44. Pregnancy: Early Signs – A skipped period – An extremely light “period” of implantation bleeding that occurs when a fertilized egg implants itself in the uterus – Frequent urination – Nausea – Swollen breasts – Fatigue – Food aversions or cravings – Mood swings – Abdominal bloating or pressure – Dizziness Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  45. 45. Pregnancy Terms  Embryo is the growing collection of cells that become a baby.  Placenta is tissue that connects mother and baby.  Umbilical cord links the bloodstream of the placenta to that of the baby and enables the exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes.  Amniotic fluid surrounds the developing fetus; it aids in temperature regulation and allows the baby to move freely.  Fetus: The name given to the developing embryo 8 weeks after fertilization. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  46. 46. Question #8  What are the key developmental events that occurs during the three stages of fetal development? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  47. 47. Pregnancy Terms: Complications  Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants within one of the fallopian tubes instead of the uterus; considered a medical emergency.  Miscarriage is a pregnancy that suddenly terminates on its own before the 20th week.  Preeclampsia is a serious health condition characterized by high blood pressure in pregnant woman.  Low birth weight = less than 5 lb, 8 oz. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  48. 48. Pregnancy Terms: Complications  Infant mortality rate: A calculation of the ratio of babies who die before their first birthday to those who survive until their first birthday.  Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of a seemingly healthy infant while sleeping. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  49. 49. Labor Terms  Labor: Physical processes involved in giving birth.  Transition is the final phase of the first stage of labor, characterized by the dilation of the cervix and strong, prolonged contractions.  Apgar score is a measurement of how well a newborn tolerated the stresses of birth, as well as how well he or she is adapting to the new environment.  Cesarean section (C-section) is a surgical procedure involving the incision of a woman’s abdominal and uterine walls in order to deliver the baby. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  50. 50. Question #9  What happens during each stage of labor? Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  51. 51. Infertility  12% of couples in the U.S., including 7.3 million American women, experience infertility, or the inability to conceive after trying for one year.  The problem becomes more prevalent with age.  Many treatment options are available. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  52. 52. Causes of Infertility  Women – – – – A failure of ovulation Blocked fallopian tubes Deformed uterus Uterine fibroids and other noncancerous growths  Men – – – – Low sperm count Incorrectly formed sperm or poor sperm motility Prior infection Environmental exposure to substances that disrupt hormones in the body Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  53. 53. Question #10  What are some options for infertile couples? Be specific. Choosing Heath © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

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