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The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the Area of Food and Agriculture
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The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the Area of Food and Agriculture

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  • 1. GTZ 19-12-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the The Agricultural Ontology Service:Area of Food and Agriculture A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the Area of Food and Agriculture Johannes Keizer Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 2. FAOs interest in Knowledge Management GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • We need to organize our own informationOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a production to enhance the productivity of FAO Knowledge Organisation officers in the worldFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture Slide 2 • We need to make FAOs information accessible to Decision Makers and Technical Specialists all over the world Johannes Keizer Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UN • We need to make all relevant Information Library and Documentation Systems Division Sources accessible in the World for FAO officers and stakeholders
  • 3. The main problems GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • Efficient resource discovery is only possible withOntology Service: A Proposal to human coded catalogues by specialists Create a Knowledge Organisation • Little domain interoperability, cross domainFramework in theArea of Food and searching needs high efforts Agriculture • The work of knowledge organization is done Slide 3 without coordination and by doubling efforts • Machine systems are inefficient or tend to be Johannes Keizer proprietary or closed in a specific application Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UN Library and Documentation • The new possibilities of the web and the Systems Division electronic availability of IOs are not fully exploited
  • 4. The Evolution of Knowledge Management GTZ Pre-Web Web Semantic Web 19-12-2001 The Agricultural Human indexing and document annotating Machine indexing and documentOntology Service: A Proposal to annotating Create a Knowledge Organisation Card and computer Web catalogues on the Machine readableFramework in the catalogues templates of trad. catlogs metadata (RDF)Area of Food and Agriculture Human reading, checking Full Text Searchengines Full Text Searchengines Slide 4 and ordering (Statistical text analysis) (Semantic text analysis) Implicit knowledge based Formal Knowledge based web portals web portals Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Card and computer Text Mining by RobotsOrganization of the catalogues UN Library and Documentation Systems Division Thesauri, Classification Schemes, Glossaries, Keyword Lists, Ontologies
  • 5. The view of an ideal world GTZ 19-12-2001 Ontology The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Portal Create a Knowledge Organisation PortalFramework in theArea of Food and Knowledge Agriculture Base Slide 5 Mining and Harvesting Agent Johannes Keizer Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UN RDF Layer RDF Layer Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 6. What is an Ontology GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • It is a buzz word, but also something very simpleOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a • Everyone creates “ontologies” Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the • A directory structure on a a HD is an ontologyArea of Food and Agriculture • A personal agenda is an ontology Slide 6 • A bibliographical catalogue is an ontology • But humans can survive without ontologies, but Johannes Keizer Food and humans have intuition AgricultureOrganization of the UN • Machine have no intuition Library and Documentation Systems Division • Machine need formal information
  • 7. Do we need Ontologies GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • An ontology is a formal knowledge organizationOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a (representation system). Knowledge Organisation • It contains concepts,Framework in theArea of Food and Agriculture • Information about these concepts Slide 7 • Relations between these concepts • and instances, Johannes Keizer Food and • And it contains information about the relations AgricultureOrganization of the UN between instances and concepts Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 8. In which areas Ontologies can help (1) GTZ 19-12-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: • Teaching machines to have some A Proposal to Create a Knowledge intelligence OrganisationFramework in the  Automatic indexing and text annotation toolsArea of Food and Agriculture  Better machine translation Slide 8  Text Mining on the Web (meaning-oriented access) Johannes Keizer  Full text search engines that create meaningful Food and Agriculture classification (FAO-Schwartz not related to FAO) (semantic clustering)Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 9. In which areas Ontologies can help (2) GTZ 19-12-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: • Better structure and organization of knowledge on the web A Proposal to Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and  Knowledge maps Agriculture Slide 9  Guided discovery of knowledge  Easy retrievability of information without using complicated Boolean logic Johannes Keizer Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 10. AOS: Possible Use... (1) GTZ 19-12-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Records found: 5 Create a Knowledge 1. xxxxxxxxxxx OrganisationFramework in the 2. xxxxxxxxxxxArea of Food and Agriculture 3. xxxxxxxxxxx Slide 10 4. xxxxxxxxxxx What would you like to view? 5. xxxxxxxxxxx Forest rights issues Johannes Keizer You may also be interested in... Parasites of forests Food and Biotopes Pesticides used in forests AgricultureOrganization of the Cropping systems using forests x Types of forest products UN Economics of forest production Uses of forest products Library and Forestry equipment Documentation Soil science You can further limit by: Systems Division Geographic area Africa Type of resource Web page
  • 11. AOS: Possible Use... (2) GTZ Use your right mouse button to learn more about an italicized word on the Agricultural Web Page 19-12-2001 page. The Agricultural Conservation agriculture Biosecurity:Ontology Service: management of all A Proposal to Farmers like it because it gives them a means of conserving, Create a improving and making more efficient use of their natural resources biological Knowledge and environmental risks Organisation About camels and llamasFramework in the associated with food andArea of Food and Descendants of the same rabbit-sized mammal, they have become agriculture, including Agriculture two of humanitys most versatile domestic animals forestry Slide 11 Agribusiness and small farmers and fisheries Well managed contract farming contributes to both increased income for producers and higher profits for investors See also: Toward biosecurity Biosafety Food Safety Johannes Keizer Biological and environmental risks associated with food and agriculture have intensified with economic globalization Risk Management Food and Agriculture Urban food marketingOrganization of the UN Or are you interested Library and In the “century of cities”, a major challenge will be providing in...: adequate quantities of nutritional and affordable food for urban Food Security Documentation Systems Division inhabitants Biological Diversity Crop science and ethics In order to continue their contribution to human development, crop scientists must regain credibility
  • 12. What is the starting point? GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • FAO maintains the multilingual thesaurusOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a AGROVOC since the early 80s Knowledge Organisation • Other consistent thesauri are maintained byFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture CABI in England and the National Agricultural Slide 12 Library in the States • Various other knowledge organization systems Johannes Keizer are scattered around the world Food and Agriculture • The existing systems are language biased withOrganization of the UN Library and English as the leading language Documentation Systems Division • None of the systems is satisfactory for resource description and discovery purposes
  • 13. Thesauri Contain Knowledge GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • Thesauri were mostly used only for indexing andOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a to help users in searching Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the • But thesauri are already knowledge organizationArea of Food and Agriculture systems Slide 13 • Not only the vocabulary of concepts, but also the defined relations (BT, NT, RT, UF …) contain Johannes Keizer Food and domain knowledge AgricultureOrganization of the UN • To leveradge this knowledge in the context of Library and Documentation Systems Division Web technologies we need to develop them further
  • 14. The Origin of the AOS - Project GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • Born as the AGROVOC Taxonomy ServerOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a • Agronomists were upset with the word taxonomy Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the • IT people were upset about the word serverArea of Food and Agriculture • After XML2000 the word ontology started to Slide 14 become sexy... And fundable • Now we are in the phase to define the project Johannes Keizer Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 15. Why an Agricultural Ontology Service (1) GTZ 19-12-2001 Existing Thesauri and Knowledge Dedicated KOSs The Agricultural Organization Systems (KOSs)Ontology Service: e.g., ASFA thesaurus A Proposal to Create a e.g., the Multilingual Knowledge Forestry Thesaurus OrganisationFramework in the e.g., the SustainableArea of Food and Agriculture Development website classification Slide 15 e.g., biological taxonomies such as NCBI and ITIS Other thematic thesauri Johannes Keizer Food and AgricultureOrganization of the Non-dedicated KOSs UN Library and CABI Thesaurus Documentation Systems Division AGROVOC NAL Thesaurus GEMET
  • 16. Why an Agricultural Ontology Service (2) GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • FAO can be a neutral point of co-ordinationOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a • Central access-point to domain knowledge Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the • Re-usability of domain knowledgeArea of Food and Agriculture • Involvement of a high number of subject Slide 16 specialists • Clear and distributed responsibilities for Johannes Keizer maintenance Food and AgricultureOrganization of the • Federation of Institutions to manage this service UN Library and Documentation • Possibility of business plan to assure Systems Division sustainability
  • 17. AOS: A reference point on the web GTZ 19-12-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Attributes Concept Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and Definitions Agriculture Slide 17 Labels URI, e.g., www.agri-ontology.org/2050.xml Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture RelationsOrganization of the UN Library and Documentation Responsible Party Systems Division ??????
  • 18. AOS: Iterative Knowledge Registration GTZ 19-12-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: KOS Components: terms, A Proposal to Create a KOS uses partner definitions, Knowledge relationships Organisation components to buildFramework in the an applicationArea of Food and Agriculture Slide 18 KOS Agricultural Ontology application Service (AOS) Federated storage and Johannes Keizer description facility Food and AgricultureOrganization of the Users search and browse Components: UN application using KOS terms, Library and Documentation components partner definitions, Systems Division relationships User feedback Discussions and choices for amendments to components
  • 19. AOS: The Next Steps (1) GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • The concept note has found interest in theOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a domain area -- comments are mostly Knowledge Organisation encouraging from both subject specialists andFramework in theArea of Food and ontology developers Agriculture Slide 19 • Participation in the first workshop: – FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) – CABI (CAB International) Johannes Keizer – Various FAO groups (Fishery, Forestry, Nutrition) Food and AgricultureOrganization of the – University of Florida (Agricultural Department) UN Library and – National Agriculture Research Center (Japan) Documentation Systems Division – Participants from the OntoWeb Initiative – GTZ – And many others...
  • 20. AOS: The Next Steps (2) GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural • A Launch Group (under participation of Uni Karlsruhe) hasOntology Service: A Proposal to been established at the first workshop Create a Knowledge Organisation • The Launch Group is in charge to write a definite projectFramework in theArea of Food and proposal and to define the possible collaborations and the Agriculture necessary management structures of the project Slide 20 • The next Launch Group meeting is on the 25 of January in Wallingford, hosted by CABI Johannes Keizer • Together with the Launch Group meeting there will be a Food and AgricultureOrganization of the workshop of possible AOS users UN Library and Documentation • The next Launch Group meeting will discuss a project Systems Division brief and an outline of a businessplan
  • 21. Involvement of GTZ in the project GTZ 19-12-2001 The Agricultural Influx of knowledge from specific GTZ areasOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a Participation in the consortium for funding Knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and Exchange of experience in the use of Agriculture knowledge organization tools Slide 21 Johannes Keizer Food and AgricultureOrganization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 22. Information and Contacts GTZ 19-12-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a http://www.fao.org/agris Knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and http://www.fao.org/agrovoc Agriculture Slide 22 johannes.keizer@fao.org frehiwot.fisseha@fao.org Johannes Keizer Food and J.Brooks@cabi.org AgricultureOrganization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division