Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Agricultural Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture

1,467

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,467
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation The Agricultural Ontology Service:Framework in theArea of Food and Agriculture A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation Framework in the area of Food and Agriculture Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 2. FAO’s interest in Knowledge Management Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • We need to organize our own information The AgriculturalOntology Service: production to enhance the productivity of FAO A Proposal to Create a officers in the world Knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture • We need to make FAO’s information accessible Slide 2 to Decision Makers and Technical Specialists all over the world Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN • We need to make all relevant Information Library and Documentation Systems Division sources accessible in the World for our member countries and FAO officers.
  • 3. The main problems Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • Information retrieval is inaccurate and The Agricultural incomplete.Ontology Service: A Proposal to Create a • Little domain interoperability, cross domain Knowledge Organisation searching needs high effortsFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture • The work of knowledge organization is done without coordination and by duplicating efforts Slide 3 • Machine systems are inefficient or tend to be Johannes Keizer proprietary or closed in a specific application Food and Agriculture Organization of the • The new possibilities of the web and the UN Library and electronic availability of Information Objects are Documentation Systems Division not fully exploited
  • 4. The Evolution of Knowledge Management Workshop Pre-Web Web Semantic Web Oxford 24-01-2001 Human indexing and document annotating Machine indexing and document The Agricultural annotatingOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a Card and computer Web catalogues on the Machine readable Knowledge catalogues templates of traditional catalogs metadata (RDF) OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture Human reading, checking Full Text Search engines Full Text Search engines and ordering (Statistical text analysis) (Semantic text analysis) Slide 4 Implicit knowledge based Formal Knowledge based web portals web portals Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Text Mining by Robots Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division Thesauri, Classification Schemes, Glossaries, Keyword Lists, Ontologies
  • 5. What is an Ontology? Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • It is a buzz word, but also something very simple The AgriculturalOntology Service: • Everyone creates “Ontologies” A Proposal to Create a Knowledge • A directory structure on a hard disk is an OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and ontology Agriculture • A personal agenda is an ontology Slide 5 • A bibliographical catalogue is an ontology Johannes Keizer Food and But: Agriculture Organization of the UN • Humans might survive without ontologies, but Library and Documentation humans have intuition Systems Division • Machine have no intuition • Machine need formal information
  • 6. Do we need Ontologies? Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • An ontology is a formal knowledge organization The AgriculturalOntology Service: (representation system). • It contains concepts A Proposal to Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the • Information about these conceptsArea of Food and Agriculture • Relations between these concepts Slide 6 • and instances, Johannes Keizer Food and • And it contains information about the relations Agriculture Organization of the UN between instances and concepts Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 7. Defining relations in an ontology- Important relationships that should be introduced in the AOS Workshop Oxford Classification Relations--class-subclass relations. 24-01-2001 Meronymic Relations--used to describe part-of The AgriculturalOntology Service: relationships. A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Temporal Relations--define the time interval and time point OrganisationFramework in the aspects of an ontology.Area of Food and Agriculture Spatial Relations--used to describe space relationships Slide 7 between objects. Johannes Keizer  Influence Relations--expresses an impact or effect one Food and object has on another. Agriculture Organization of the UN Dependency Relations--describes an objects dependency Library and Documentation on another. Systems Division Case Relations--provides ability to express a knowledge structure without which the relation cannot exist.
  • 8. Sample ontology for crop pest management Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture Slide 8 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 9. In which areas Ontologies can help (1) Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • Teaching machines to have some The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to intelligence Create a Knowledge  Automatic indexing and text annotation tools OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and  Better machine translation Agriculture  Text Mining on the Web (meaning-oriented Slide 9 access) Johannes Keizer  Full text search engines that create meaningful Food and Agriculture classification (FAO-Schwartz not related to FAO) (semantic clustering) Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 10. In which areas Ontologies can help (2) Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • Better structure and organization of The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a knowledge on the web Knowledge Organisation  Knowledge mapsFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture  Guided discovery of knowledge Slide 10  Easy retrievability of information without using complicated Boolean logic Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 11. Applications of ontologies Workshop Oxford 1. To build dynamic taxonomies (ordered 24-01-2001 classification) through automatic classification The AgriculturalOntology Service: operation A Proposal to Create a Knowledge eg. Crop OrganisationFramework in the agronomic cropArea of Food and Agriculture peanuts cotton Slide 11 fruit crop Johannes Keizer vegetable crop Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN 2. Support for Natural Language Processing through Library and Documentation concept matching and query processing Systems Division •locate a concept based on a description •find other similar objects in the ontology
  • 12. Information Management tasks that can be performed using an ontology Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: 3. To aid information retrieval through automatic A Proposal to Create a Knowledge document clustering OrganisationFramework in the ....closely associated documents tend to be relevant to theArea of Food and Agriculture same requests Slide 12 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 13. Steps in using ontology for Natural Language Processing- a simplified view Workshop Oxford 1.Expressing information needs using natural 24-01-2001 languages The AgriculturalOntology Service: Example: what insects damage soybean A Proposal to Create a leaves? Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the 2. Finding the concept in the ontologyArea of Food and Agriculture Insect Damage Soybean leaves Slide 13 3. Analysing the grammatical pattern with in the stated sentence (syntactic analysis) Johannes Keizer Food and 4. Mapping the grammatical structure into objects in the Agriculture Organization of the ontology (semantic analysis) UN Library and Documentation 5. Drawing inferences between the user’s query and Systems Division objects in the database 6. Displaying the results to the user
  • 14. AOS: Possible Use... (1) Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 The Agricultural Records found: 5Ontology Service: A Proposal to 1. xxxxxxxxxxx Create a Knowledge 2. xxxxxxxxxxx OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and 3. xxxxxxxxxxx Agriculture 4. xxxxxxxxxxx What would you like to view? Slide 14 5. xxxxxxxxxxx Forest rights issues Johannes Keizer You may also be interested in... Parasites of forests Food and Biotopes Pesticides used in forests Agriculture Organization of the Cropping systems using forests x Types of forest products UN Economics of forest production Uses of forest products Library and Forestry equipment Documentation Soil science You can further limit by: Systems Division Geographic area Africa Type of resource Web page
  • 15. AOS: Possible Use... (2) Workshop Use your right mouse button to learn more about an italicized word on the Agricultural Web Page Oxford page. 24-01-2001 Biosecurity: Conservation agriculture management of all The Agricultural Farmers like it because it gives them a means of conserving,Ontology Service: improving and making more efficient use of their natural resources biological A Proposal to and environmental risks Create a About camels and llamas Knowledge associated with food and Organisation Descendants of the same rabbit-sized mammal, they have become agriculture, includingFramework in the two of humanitys most versatile domestic animals forestryArea of Food and Agriculture Agribusiness and small farmers and fisheries Well managed contract farming contributes to both increased Slide 15 income for producers and higher profits for investors See also: Toward biosecurity Biosafety Food Safety Johannes Keizer Biological and environmental risks associated with food and agriculture have intensified with economic globalization Risk Management Food and Agriculture Urban food marketing Organization of the UN Or are you interested Library and In the “century of cities”, a major challenge will be providing in...: adequate quantities of nutritional and affordable food for urban Food Security Documentation Systems Division inhabitants Biological Diversity Crop science and ethics In order to continue their contribution to human development, crop scientists must regain credibility
  • 16. What is the starting point? Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • FAO maintains the multilingual thesaurus The AgriculturalOntology Service: AGROVOC since the early 80s • Other consistent thesauri are maintained by A Proposal to Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the CABI in England and the National AgriculturalArea of Food and Agriculture Library in the States Slide 16 • Various other knowledge organization systems Johannes Keizer are scattered around the world Food and Agriculture • The existing systems are language biased with Organization of the UN Library and English as the leading language Documentation Systems Division • None of the systems is satisfactory for resource description and discovery purposes
  • 17. Thesauri Contain Knowledge Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • Thesauri were mostly used only for indexing and The AgriculturalOntology Service: to help users in searching A Proposal to Create a Knowledge • But thesauri are already knowledge organization OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and systems Agriculture • Not only the vocabulary of concepts, but also the Slide 17 defined relations (BT, NT, RT, UF …) contain Johannes Keizer Food and domain knowledge Agriculture Organization of the UN • To leverage this knowledge in the context of Library and Documentation Systems Division Web technologies we need to develop them further
  • 18. The Origin of the AOS - Project Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • Born as the AGROVOC Taxonomy Server The AgriculturalOntology Service: • Agronomists were upset with the word taxonomy A Proposal to Create a Knowledge • IT people were upset about the word server OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and • After XML2000 the word ontology started to Agriculture become sexy... And fundable Slide 18 • Now we are in the phase to define the project Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 19. Why an Agricultural Ontology Service (1) Workshop Oxford Existing Thesauri and Knowledge Dedicated KOSs 24-01-2001 Organization Systems (KOSs) e.g., ASFA thesaurus The AgriculturalOntology Service: e.g., the Multilingual A Proposal to Forestry Thesaurus Create a Knowledge Organisation e.g., the SustainableFramework in the DevelopmentArea of Food and website classification Agriculture e.g., biological taxonomies such Slide 19 as NCBI and ITIS Other thematic thesauri Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the Non-dedicated KOSs UN Library and CABI Thesaurus Documentation Systems Division AGROVOC NAL Thesaurus GEMET
  • 20. Why an Agricultural Ontology Service (2) Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • FAO can be a neutral point of co-ordination The AgriculturalOntology Service: • Central access-point to domain knowledge A Proposal to Create a Knowledge • Re-usability of domain knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and • Involvement of a high number of subject Agriculture specialists Slide 20 • Clear and distributed responsibilities for Johannes Keizer maintenance Food and Agriculture Organization of the • Federation of Institutions to manage this service UN Library and Documentation • Possibility of business plan to assure Systems Division sustainability
  • 21. AOS: A reference point on the web Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 The Agricultural Attributes ConceptOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation DefinitionsFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture Labels Slide 21 URI, e.g., www.agri-ontology.org/2050.xml Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Relations Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Responsible Party Systems Division ??????
  • 22. An architecture for federated AOS Workshop Oxford OneFish Portal 24-01-2001 Forestry Portal Crop Portal (application on (application on (application on The Agricultural merged ontology)Ontology Service: merged ontology) merged ontology) A Proposal to Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in the Merged Ontology- THE AOSArea of Food and Agriculture Slide 22 Normalised Ontology Normalised Ontology Johannes Keizer Common data Food and model for Agriculture local ontologies Organization of the Local Ontology UN Local Ontology Library and Documentation Systems Division System 1 System 2 Ontology + Ontology metadata repository + metadata repository
  • 23. AOS: Possible Use... (3) Workshop Create your own ontologies using the AOS Oxford 24-01-2001 The AOS provides the necessary building blocks to create your own ontologies. The AgriculturalOntology Service: Follow the following simple steps to create your ontology instantly. A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Forest BioSecurit Organisation Domain Crops Others ry y FoodFramework in theArea of Food and Fisher Livestoc & Agriculture $ $ y k Nutriti on Slide 23 FAO $ CABI $ NAL $ Other Authority Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Ontology Concept Level Type of Relationships Organization of the Content & UN Library and Structure Documentation Systems Division Language DAML+OIL RDF XTM ASCII Representation Get me the ontology Cancel the Selection
  • 24. AOS: Iterative Knowledge Registration Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 KOS Components: terms, The AgriculturalOntology Service: KOS uses partner definitions, A Proposal to Create a components to build relationships Knowledge an application OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture KOS Agricultural Ontology Slide 24 application Service (AOS) Federated storage and Johannes Keizer description facility Food and Agriculture Organization of the Users search and browse Components: UN application using KOS terms, Library and Documentation components partner definitions, Systems Division relationships User feedback Discussions and choices for amendments to components
  • 25. AOS: where we are Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • The concept note has found interest in the domain area -- comments are mostly encouraging from all subject specialists, The AgriculturalOntology Service: ontology developers and users A Proposal to Create a Knowledge • A Launch Group has been established at the first OrganisationFramework in the workshop. The Launch Group is in charge to write aArea of Food and Agriculture definite project proposal and to define the possible collaborations and the necessary management structures Slide 25 of the project Johannes Keizer Food and • A proposal for a fundable project (6th framework) should Agriculture Organization of the be written UN Library and Documentation • Partnership of the most important stakeholders must be Systems Division established • Pilot projects are ongoing
  • 26. Information and Contacts Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: http://www.fao.org/agris/aos A Proposal to Create a Knowledge Organisation johannes.keizer@fao.orgFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture frehiwot.fisseha@fao.org Slide 26 J.Brooks@cabi.org Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division
  • 27. Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • Possibility of mapping to register quicker and to accept The Agricultural different terminologyOntology Service: A Proposal to • How can local content made available Create a Knowledge Organisation • We need examples about searches, at it is now and as itFramework in theArea of Food and would be with the AOS. Agriculture • The usage slides have to be integrated Slide 27 • Introduction of terminology precision….. Johannes Keizer • Microsoft for funding Food and Agriculture • Worldbank funding?? Organization of the UN • We need to do something (once, well, together) Library and Documentation Systems Division • Importance of bibliographical databases: there is a kind of illiteracy between undergraduates who do not consider material that is not online available.
  • 28. Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 The AgriculturalOntology Service: A Proposal to Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture Slide 28 •Informatio n •Information •AOS Managers •enduser Johannes Keizer • Services Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN •Search engines Library and •Services Documentation •Portals Systems Division •Provide Ontology •Topic maps •Input Ontology •Catalogues
  • 29. Workshop Oxford 24-01-2001 • Prototype Searchengine, that searches the web The AgriculturalOntology Service: in arabic or chineses, using agrovoc A Proposal to Create a Knowledge OrganisationFramework in theArea of Food and Agriculture Slide 29 Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and Documentation Systems Division

×