Reorienting open repositories to the challenges of the Semantic Web: Experiences from FAO’s contribution to the resource processing and discovery cycle in repositories in the agricultural domain

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Presentation at 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference (MTSR 2012) …

Presentation at 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference (MTSR 2012)

The use of widely-used metadata standards is essential to guarantee the visibility and retrieval of documents stored in open repositories. Attention should be paid to the creation and exchange of meaningful metadata to enhance interoperability amongst repositories and provide value added services. Since 2005 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) provides the agricultural information management com-munity with standards, services and tools to assist open reposito-ries in benefiting from the advantages offered by Semantic Web publishing. This paper presents the work that FAO carries out in recommending standards for the encoding and exchange of metadata while also reviewing techniques to help navigate within open repositories and services. It talks about how to improve the visibility of repository content and explains the benefits of inte-grating subject vocabulary tools expressed in SKOS. It concludes with a presentation of use cases integrating these recommenda-tions into DSpace and Drupal customizations.

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  • 1. Reorienting open repositories to the challenges of the Semantic Web: Experiences from FAO’s contribution to the resource processing and discovery cycle in repositories in the agricultural domain Imma Subirats*,Thembani Malapela*, Sarah Dister*, Marcia Zeng**, Marc Gooaverts***, Valeria Pesce****, Yves Jaques*, Stefano Anibaldi*, Johannes Keizer* *F.A.O of the United Nations; **** Kent State University (USA); *** Hasselt University Library (Belgium); **** Global Forum on Agricultural Research (Italy) MTSR 2012 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE Introduction to Open Repositories Open Repositories & the Semantic Web Recommendations to Open Repositories  Assuring Quality in Metadata Creation  Aids to Navigation and Visibility FAO’s experiences and use cases in selected IM Tools In Conclusion:- Open Repositories future possibilities 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 –C ádiz , Spain
  • 3. Introduction toOpenRepositories
  • 4. OPEN REPOSITORIES “a digital archive created and maintained to provide universal and free access to information … in … electronic format as a means of facilitating research and scholarship” (Reitz, n.d). http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/hanief2.htm “The real value of repositories is their potential to be connected in order to develop a network of repositories which enables unified access to an open, aggregated mass of scholarship and related materials that machines and researchers can work with in new ways” ( COAR, 2012) 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 –C ádiz , Spain
  • 5. GROWTH OF OPEN REPOSITORIES (1)Open Access Repository directories ( November 2012) Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) –2,573 Repositories OpenDOAR – 2,230 repositories Repository66 – 2,311 repositories
  • 6. GROWTH OF OPEN REPOSITORIES (2)Content of Repositories
  • 7. HOWEVER,..?? “… most repositories are invisible, for example Google Scholar had difficulty in indexing the contents of institutional repositories..” (Artlitsch and O’Brien, 2012) Low rankings of most repositories by Webmetrics Ranking. 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 8. OPEN REPOSITORIES & THE SEMANTIC WEB open repositories should not only publish localcontent globally, but also offer additional values toresearchers by harnessing participation from a broadcommunity of data providers (interoperability) The Semantic Web has further facilitated valueaddition to research out-puts through automaticdiscovery, linking and analysis MTSR 2012 6 Metadata and Semantics Research Conference th 28 -30th of November 2012 –C ádiz , Spai
  • 9. OPEN REPOSITORIES & THE SEMANTIC WEB MTSR 2012 6 Metadata and Semantics Research Conference th 28 -30th of November 2012 –C ádiz , Spain
  • 10. CURRENT STATE OF REPOSITORYINTEROPERABILITY INITIATIVES MTSR 2012 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 –C ádiz , Spain.
  • 11. FAO’s Recommendations to Open Repositories6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 12. FAO’S EXPERIENCES IN AGRIS –A BASELINEFOR METADATA STANDARDS FORAGRICULTURE From AGRIS Database (supported by AGRIS network) to AGRIS Repository  History , since 1975  Data providers and the need for common metadata sharing. The AGRIS Application Profile  Properties for AGRIS AP AGRIS AP’s Limitations 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 13. OPEN REPOSITORIES SHOULDENSURE… their content is stable (browsable, searchable, discoverable, and readable by both machines and humans) they use appropriate metadata standards to improve exchange across data silos; they use controlled vocabularies and ensure that these are integrated within document repository management systems 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 14. RECOMMENDATION ONE:- USE HIGHQUALITY METADATA IN OPENREPOSITORIES FAO re-oriented its approach by providing a set of recommendations with a full range of options for metadata encoding from which bibliographic content providers could choose according to their development stages, internal data structures, and the reality of their current practices. The recommendations allow any content provider to encode bibliographic data using properties from standardized namespaces, to use well-established authority data and controlled vocabularies available as linked data in agriculture and to publish data in RDF 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 15. LINKED OPEN DATA ENABLED BIBLIOGRAPHIC METADATA (LOBE BD) VERSION 2.0 LOBE BD provides flow chart to decide which properties to use, and answers 4 Questions:-  What kinds of entities and relationships are involved in bibliographic re-source descriptions?  What properties should be considered for publishing meaningful/useful Linked Open Data-ready bibliographic data?  What metadata standards should be used for preparing Linked Open Data-ready bibliographic data?  What metadata terms are appropriate in any given property for producing Linked Open Data-ready bibliographic data from a local database? 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 16. EXAMPLE : USING LOBE-BD INCHOOSING TITLE INFORMATION 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 17. RECOMMENDATION TWO : USE OF CONTROLLED VOCABULARIES IN REPOSITORIES  “ In the context of the Semantic Web it has been noted that the use of controlled vocabularies is useful in the retrieval and discovery of resources tagged with repository concepts” (Weller, K .2010)  In the Agricultural Domain, FAO recommends AGROVOC as a suitable controlled vocabulary for Agriculture & related sciences.http://aims.fao.org/standards/agrovoc/linked-open-data 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 18. AGROVOC : SUITABLE FOR INDEXING REPOSITORY CONTENTS IN REPOSITORIES AGROVOC LOD has proven to be appropriate in the indexing of repository contents in the semantic web environment. AGROVOC is aligned to more than 10 similar controlled vocabularies, is available in 20+ languages and 40,000 concepts. Each AGROVOC concept is:  uniquely identifiable with a web address;  linked to other concepts (both AGROVOC and external) using web addresses;  available both as "machine-readable" structured data and as "human-readable" web pages. 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 19. FAO’s experiences and use cases in selected IM Tools6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 20. c e sp a ce s p a -d n D ce an c ea g rio riOao. or g/ a A g im s .f w.aww Digital Repository Management Software
  • 21. USE CASE 1: AGRIOCEAN DSPACE (AOD)In 2010, the United Nations agencies of FAO and UNESCO-IOCannounced a joint initiative to provide a customized version ofDSpace:  to promote open access to scientific literature in the field of oceanography, agriculture and related sciences available in digital form;  to assure good metadata quality and the use of thesauri and other forms of authority control;  to develop sustainable repositories that are more accessible and visible;  The customization is branded AgriOcean Dspace (AOD), and integrates the previous developments of both UN agencies in one customized version of DSpace. 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 22. AOD : HIGH QUALITY METADATA Promotes the use of AGRIS AP and MODS Metadata, Separate metadata for each content type Batch import module for AGRIS AP, EndNote and Web of Science RIS Files Rich metadata in OAI-PMH  AGRIS AP crosswalk: to create a well formated XML for thesauri <ags:subjectThesaurus xml:lang=“en” scheme="ags:ASFAT“> Absolute food deficiency</ags:subjectThesaurus> <ags:subjectThesaurus scheme="ags:ASFAT“> http://aims.fao.org/aos/asfa/c_6 </ags:subjectThesaurus> <ags:subjectThesaurus xml:lang=“en” scheme=“ags:AGROVOC” > Agropisciculture</ags:subjectThesaurus> <ags:subjectThesaurus scheme=“ags:AGROVOC”> http://www.fao.org/aims/aos/agrovoc#c_212 </ags:subjectThesaurus> 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 23. AOD : HIGH QUALITY METADATA (2)  Authority Control on Journal Titles  Possibility to add besides the title an issn if not available in the authority list  ISSN is copied to dc.identifier.issn  title + volume + issue + start + end page > dc.identifier.citation 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 24. AOD : USE OF CONTROLLED VOCABULARY Each Installation comes with AGROVOC and ASFA thesaurus Work in progress on Ontology Plug in to add other ontologies and controlled vocabularies 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 25. l rupal pa agrid Dru ols/ gri /to A o. org s.fa // aimht tp: Content Management System
  • 26. USE CASE 2: AGRIDRUPAL In 2009, the FAO AIMS team initiated the project AgriDrupalas a suite of solutions for agricultural information managementand dissemination, built on the Drupal platform, with specialfunctionalities for repository management. AgriDupal has since been offered to agricultural informationmanagers as an integrated solution to manage different typesof information such as organizations, expert profiles, news,jobs, events, feeds, web pages, blog entries or forum topics.It has advanced features for managing Open Access documentrepositories in compliance with widely adopted librarystandards 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 27. AGRIDRUPAL FEATURES import and export functionalities using the AGRIS-AP XMLformat for bibliographic records and extended RSS for othertypes of records; ability to index any content with AGROVOC terms; exposure of bibliographic records through the OAI-PMHprotocol supporting two metadata formats (Dublin Core andAGRIS AP); support for implementing additional metadata standards; all the core Drupal Content Management features foradvanced management of any contents and customization ofthe look and feel 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 28. ...In Conclusion.6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 29.  Repositories should re-orient to fully meet the demands ofthe semantic web; Interoperability should be the aim for repositories; andinstitutional strategies that profit from the services madeavailable through interoperability initiatives should be investedin; There still remain an opportunity for further research intohow open repositories can be migrated into the semantic webby having them published as Linked Open Data. 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain
  • 30. Thank you for your attention thembani.malapela@fao.org 6th Metadata and Semantics Research Conference 28 -30th of November 2012 – Cádiz , Spain