It has become a triviality to state the difficulty of finding relevant information on the web
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It has become a triviality to state the difficulty of finding relevant information on the web

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It has become a triviality to state the difficulty of finding relevant information on the web Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction The Agricultural Ontology Service - project, a cooperative approach to improve organizationand retrieval of It has become a triviality to state the difficulty knowledge on the web. of finding relevant information on the web Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and DocumentationSystems Division21-03-2002Slide 1
  • 2. The Search Problem The Agricultural Ontology Service - project, a How to evaluate Search Results? cooperative approach to improve Number of Relevant Documents Identified organization Precisionand retrieval of knowledge on Total Number of Documents Identified the web. Number of Relevant Documents Identified Recall Johannes Keizer Number of Relevant Documents in the Collection Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and DocumentationSystems Division21-03-2002 Both parameters are ranking low today!Slide 2
  • 3. The Browse Problem The Agricultural Ontology Service - • Topic Trees from categorization schemes and thesauri are project, a rigid and not very expressive cooperative approach to improve organizationand retrieval of knowledge on the web. • Machine produced clusters are “flexible”, but very imprecise Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and DocumentationSystems Division21-03-2002Slide 3
  • 4. Ways to Resource Description and Discovery The Agricultural Ontology Service - • Statistical: project, a cooperative approach to using words as lexical terms, statistical analysis improve organization (word counts), most full text search engines workand retrieval of knowledge on like this the web. • Semantical: referring the information resource to a category or to Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of thesaurus terms the UN Library and DocumentationSystems Division  Statistic methods are unprecise by nature; semantic21-03-2002 methods depend on the knowledge organization systemSlide 4 used
  • 5. Knowledge Organization Systems now The Agricultural Ontology  Insufficientand Knowledge + Existing Thesauri subject Dedicated KOSs Service - Organization Systems (KOSs) project, a language coverage e.g., ASFA thesaurus cooperative e.g., the Multilingual approach to  Only very simple encoding Forestry Thesaurus improve organization of semantic the Sustainable e.g., relationsand retrieval of Development knowledge on the web.  Common concepts are website classification not declared e.g., biological taxonomies such as NCBI and ITIS  No or very limited Other thematic thesauri Johannes Keizer Food and interoperability Agriculture Non-dedicated KOSs Organization of the UN  Very limited machine CABI Thesaurus Library and Documentation readability AGROVOCSystems Division NAL Thesaurus21-03-2002  Severe maintenance GEMETSlide 5 problems
  • 6. Consequences The Agricultural Ontology Service - • No common topic trees in one domain, no cross project, a cooperative navigation between applications in a specific domain approach to improve organizationand retrieval of • Keyword searches are based on statistical textanalysis knowledge on the web. • Automatic indexing systems show mostly poor results Johannes Keizer • Web crawlers and harvesters do good jobs only on Food and Agriculture already structured information sources Organization of the UN Library and DocumentationSystems Division • The semantic Web is very far away21-03-2002Slide 6
  • 7. But there is a solution… The Agricultural Ontology Service - • Development of Application and Domain project, a cooperative approach to Ontologies to assure: improve organization  a formal description of the application knowledgeand retrieval of knowledge on  possibility of machine processing the web. • Development of an Agricultural Ontology Johannes Keizer Service to assure: Food and Agriculture Organization of  compatibility the UN  reusability Library and DocumentationSystems Division  sustainability21-03-2002Slide 7
  • 8. Ontologies? The Agricultural Ontology Service -  An ontology is a formal knowledge organization project, a cooperative system approach to improve  It contains concepts (and instances) organizationand retrieval of  Definitions of concepts and instances knowledge on the web.  Relations between concepts and instances  Nearly everyone tries to build (inexplicit) ontologies Johannes Keizer Food and  Directory structures, navigation trees Agriculture Organization of  Humans can overcome bad organization by intuition the UN Library and  Machine have no intuition, Machine need formal information DocumentationSystems Division21-03-2002Slide 8
  • 9. A Sample ontology for crop pest management The Agricultural Ontology Service - project, a cooperative approach to improve organizationand retrieval of knowledge on the web. Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and DocumentationSystems Division21-03-2002Slide 9
  • 10. Why Ontologies? The Agricultural Ontology • Semantic Organization of websites Service - project, a  Knowledge maps cooperative  Guided discovery of knowledge approach to improve  Easy retrievability of information without using complicated organization Boolean logicand retrieval of knowledge on • Text processing by machines the web.  Text Mining on the Web (meaning-oriented access)  Automatic indexing and text annotation tools  Full text search engines that create meaningful classification (FAO-Schwartz not related to FAO) (semantic clustering) Johannes Keizer Food and • Intelligent search of the Web Agriculture Organization of  Building dynamical catalogues from machine readable meta data the UN Library and • Natural Language processing DocumentationSystems Division  Better machine translation  Queries using natural language21-03-2002Slide 10
  • 11. Guided Browse and Search Facilities The Agricultural Ontology Service - project, a cooperative approach to improve Records found: 5 organization 1. xxxxxxxxxxxand retrieval of knowledge on 2. xxxxxxxxxxx the web. 3. xxxxxxxxxxx 4. xxxxxxxxxxx What would you like to view? 5. xxxxxxxxxxx Forest rights issues Johannes Keizer Parasites of forests Food and You may also be interested in... Agriculture Pesticides used in forests Organization of the UN Biotopes x Types of forest products Cropping systems using forests Uses of forest products Library and Documentation Economics of forest productionSystems Division Forestry equipment You can further limit by: Soil science Geographic area Africa21-03-2002 Type of resource Web pageSlide 11
  • 12. Context Sensitive Knowledge Access The Agricultural Ontology Use your right mouse button to learn more about an italicized word on the Agricultural Web Page Service - page. project, a Biosecurity: Conservation agriculture cooperative management of all approach to Farmers like it because it gives them a means of conserving, biological improve improving and making more efficient use of their natural resources organization and environmental risks About camels and llamas associated with food andand retrieval of knowledge on Descendants of the same rabbit-sized mammal, they have become agriculture, including the web. two of humanitys most versatile domestic animals forestry Agribusiness and small farmers and fisheries Well managed contract farming contributes to both increased income for producers and higher profits for investors See also: Toward biosecurity Biosafety Johannes Keizer Food Safety Food and Biological and environmental risks associated with food and Agriculture agriculture have intensified with economic globalization Risk Management Organization of the UN Urban food marketing Or are you interested in...: Library and In the “century of cities”, a major challenge will be providing Food Security Documentation adequate quantities of nutritional and affordable food for urbanSystems Division Biological Diversity inhabitants Crop science and ethics21-03-2002 In order to continue their contribution to human development, cropSlide 12 scientists must regain credibility
  • 13. Why an Agricultural Ontology Service? The Agricultural Ontology Service - The production of knowledge organization systems in our subject area project, a can be only cooperative approach to  International improve organization The Internet must become plurilingualand retrieval of knowledge on  Multidisciplinary the web. FAOs subjectarea is broad and needs various inputs  Cooperative different expert knowledge has to be associated and used) Johannes Keizer Food and  Distributed Agriculture Organization of no central ownership should be looked for the UN Library and Documentation  CoordinatedSystems Division Coordination must ensure reusability and standardization21-03-2002Slide 13
  • 14. AOS: Iterative Knowledge Registration The Agricultural Ontology Service - project, a Components: terms, cooperative approach to KOS uses Partner definitions, improve components to build relationships organization an applicationand retrieval of knowledge on the web. Agricultural Ontology Application Service (AOS) Federated storage and Johannes Keizer description facility Food and Agriculture Users search and browse Organization of Components: the UN application using terms, Library and components Partner definitions, Documentation relationshipsSystems Division User feedback Discussions and choices21-03-2002 for amendments to componentsSlide 14
  • 15. The Start of the AOS Initiative The Agricultural Ontology Service - • The first workshop took place in Rome, November project, a cooperative 2001 approach to improve • A launch group was established with participation organizationand retrieval of knowledge on of the web. – Content providers (FAO, CABI) – Solution providers in the Agricultural Area (ATO -Wageningen, University of Florida) – Ontology development Groups (AIFB Karlsruhe, CNR Italy) Johannes Keizer Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN • Now key international partners have to be Library and Documentation determinedSystems Division21-03-2002Slide 15
  • 16. AOS Initiative – the development The Agricultural Ontology Service - • The second AOS workshop took place in January project, a cooperative in Oxford, prototypes were planned approach to improve – Fishery Ontology organization – Crop Pest Ontologyand retrieval of knowledge on – Microbial Agents Ontology the web. • The third AOS workshop will take place in May in Florida – To discuss the prototypes Johannes Keizer Food and – To get keyplayers from the Americas (IICA already confirmed Agriculture participation) Organization of the UN Library and DocumentationSystems Division • Are you interested in participation?21-03-2002Slide 16
  • 17. AOS- Intiative - Sustainability The Agricultural Ontology Service -  FAO plays a key-role in defining Knowledge project, a cooperative Organization Systems since the 70th (AGRIS- approach to improve Categories, AGROVOC) organizationand retrieval of knowledge on  But FAO needs committed partners for this project the web.  For Subject Coverage,  For Language Coverage  External funding is necessary for the first years of Johannes Keizer Food and the project Agriculture Organization of  The Launch Group is preparing a proposal for the the UN Library and 6th Framework (EU) DocumentationSystems Division  Other roads must be explored21-03-2002Slide 17
  • 18. The Evolution of Knowledge Management The Agricultural Pre- Web Web Semantic Web Ontology Service - project, a Books, Magazines, Books, Magazines, Articles Defined Electronic cooperative approach to Articles, …. Databases, Webpages Information Elements improve organization Libraries/Archives/File Libraries/Archives/File Electronicand retrieval of systems Systems/Websites Repositories knowledge on the web. Bibliographic Catalogues Bibliographic Catalogues Machine Readable on Cards or Computers Machine Index Catalogues Metadata Repositories Human Indexing Human Indexing Machine Indexing Machine Indexing Human Indexing Johannes Keizer Human reading, checking Statistical Analysis by Semantical Analysis by Food and Agriculture and classifying Machines Machines Organization of the UN Library and Bibliographies Bibliographies/Output from Knowledge based Documentation Fulltext Search Engines specialized webportalsSystems Division Reviews Knowledge Mining21-03-2002Slide 18 Thesauri, Classification Schemes, Glossaries, Ontologies
  • 19. Further Information The Agricultural Ontology Service - project, a http://www.fao.org/agris/AOS cooperative approach to http://www.fao.org/agris/AGMES improve organizationand retrieval of knowledge on the web. Johannes.Keizer@fao.org Johannes Keizer Food and Frehiwot.Fisseha@fao.org Agriculture Organization of the UN Library and DocumentationSystems Division21-03-2002Slide 19