FAO’s  Geopolitical Ontology and Services
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FAO’s Geopolitical Ontology and Services Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Geopolitical Ontology Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Use Cases FAO Country Profiles Services © FAO, 2010
  • 2. OUTLINE
    • Background
    • Geopolitical Ontology
    • Services:
      • module maker
      • web services
    • Use Cases in the FAO Country Profiles
    FAO of the UN
  • 3. ABOUT FAO
    • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
    • Mandate: to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy
    • Established in 1945
    • One of the major agencies of the UN system
    • Counts 192 member countries
    • HQ in Rome, Italy
    • Over 100 worldwide offices
    FAO of the UN
  • 4. FAO IS A KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION
    • Article 1 of FAO’s Constitution:
      • “ The Organization shall collect, analyse, interpret and disseminate information relating to nutrition, food and agriculture”
    • FAO experts’ knowledge network:
      • Agronomists, foresters, fisheries and livestock specialists, nutritionists, economists, statisticians, information and communication technology and information management professionals
    • FAO Internet in numbers:
      • 4 million visitors/month
      • 3 million web pages, 100 000 documents, hundreds of databases and information systems
    FAO of the UN
  • 5. CASE STUDY IN 2002
    • National programmes could produce more effective results through a cross-sectoral, country-based approach.
    • Main problem:
      • To provide web users access to FAO information by country
    • Solution:
      • The FAO Country Profiles system was designed to access, by country, all FAO’s major repositories and information systems It was launched in October 2002: www.fao.org/countryprofiles
    FAO of the UN
  • 6. NOT THAT SIMPLE...
    • FAO had a large number of information systems that included:
      • information about countries: e.g. statistical systems
      • information related to countries: e.g. publications
        • but.......
    • Silos: information was produced and used in a circumscribed manner
    • Lack of integration and means to exchange data
    FAO of the UN
  • 7. SIDE EFFECTS
    • Duplication/multiplication of effort in the:
      • collection of basic data
      • maintenance of reference data
    • Difficulty for users to locate available data regarding a particular country:
      • distributed throughout the thousands of web pages or systems
    FAO of the UN
  • 8. SOME KEYS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM
    • Find out how the different data sources classified the country data
    • Adoption of a set of agreed metadata standards for countries classification
    • Ensure quality metadata at the source
    • Identification of authoritative resources for reference
    • Mapping of country classifications and country names
    • Build a system made of rules
    FAO of the UN
  • 9. SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGY
    • The FAO Country Profiles system is up and growing since 2002
    • Average of more than 50,000 visits per month
    • The use of semantic technologies was soon identified as a need to improve the system and to ensure that:
      • it could keep growing on content, and
      • new requested functionality such as comparison and aggregation could be implemented
    • In 2006, FAO decided to build a Geopolitical Ontology to support:
      • the FAO Country Profiles system, and
      • major country-based information systems in FAO
    FAO of the UN
  • 10. GEOPOLITICAL ONTOLOGY - MOTIVATION FAO of the UN
    • To improve:
      • Interoperability : systems exchange and data sharing
      • Maintenance: names, codes, relationships
      • Dynamics/change: manage historical changes
  • 11. REQUIREMENTS – TYPES
    • Territories:
      • Self-governing:
        • countries, nations
      • Non-self-governing
        • US Virgin Islands
      • Other areas
        • Antarctica
    • Groups:
      • Geographic:
        • Europe, Asia, Oceania
      • Economic:
        • European Union
      • Special groups:
        • LIFDC, SIDS, LLDC
    FAO of the UN
  • 12. REQUIREMENTS – BASIC DATA
    • Names:
    • official, short and for lists:
      • Arabic, Chinese,
      • English, French, Italian,
      • Russian and Spanish
    • Codes:
      • ISO-3166 Alpha-2
      • ISO-3166 Alpha-3
      • UN code M.49
      • FAOSTAT
      • FAOTERM
      • AGROVOC
      • GAUL code
      • UNDP code
      • DBPediaID
    FAO of the UN
    • Coordinates:
      • Max, Min Latitude
      • Max, Min Longitude
  • 13. REQUIREMENTS – HISTORICAL CHANGES
    • To track historical changes
    FAO of the UN West Germany East Germany Germany from 1990 to present Czech Republic Slovakia Czechoslovakia from 1993 to present
  • 14. REQUIREMENTS – COMPARE DATA
    • Land border countries
    • Countries in the same geographic or economic group
    Southern Asia
  • 15. IMPLEMENTATION
    • The Geopolitical Ontology Beta version 0.7 launched in 2008:
      • OWL-DL, UTF-8 encoding
    • Latest version 1.1 released in July 2010
    • Information: www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo.asp
    • OWL version: http:// aims.fao.org/geopolitical.owl
    FAO of the UN
  • 16. IMPLEMENTATION – EXAMPLE
    • Partial representation of the geopolitical ontology: Example Russian Federation
    FAO of the UN
  • 17. GEOPOLITICAL ONTOLOGY SERVICES
    • To facilitate usage of the Geopolitical Ontology knowledge by existing Information Systems (IS)
    • Existing IS may not :
      • want to migrate to OWL
      • need the full richness of the geopolitical ontology
      • Geopolitical Ontology module maker service: allows to extract chunks of the ontology and export them in other formats
    • Most IS already manage *some* country data:
      • may need to access ontology data to complement their information
      • Geopolitical Ontology web services: allow the exploitation of geopolitical knowledge through the access to atomic pieces of information only
    FAO of the UN
  • 18. MODULE MAKER REQUIREMENTS
    • Built-in modules = commonly required modules:
      • FAO members, self-governing territories
      • with or without their respective groups
      • with or without historical data
    • Exporting formats: commonly required formats to use/import data modules in other information systems:
      • RDF, XML, Excel
    • UTF-8 support: UTF-8 encoding to support, as a minimum, all FAO official languages:
      • Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish
    FAO of the UN
  • 19. MODULE MAKER IMPLEMENTATION FAO of the UN Web Interface JSP Geopolitical ontology Jena API Request via HTTP Output in RDF XML Excel
  • 20. MODULE MAKER PAGE
    • 5 Modules
    • FAO members only
    • FAO members and groups
    • Self-governing territories only
    • Self-governing territories and their groups
    • Territories and groups valid in the current year (no historical data)
    FAO of the UN
  • 21. WEB SERVICES REQUIREMENTS
    • Architecture compatible with the geopolitical ontology
    • Reusability of components developed for the module maker
    • Modular/reusable design and implementation
    • Scalable
    • Simple maintenance
    • RESTful
    FAO of the UN
  • 22. WEB SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION FAO of the UN RESTLET framework Geopolitical ontology Jena Request via HTTP Output in XML Web Service
  • 23. WEB SERVICES PAGE FAO of the UN http:// www.fao.org/countryprofiles/webservices.asp
  • 24. FAO COUNTRY PROFILES USE CASES
    • UC-1 : provide the land border countries of a given country
    • UC-2 : provide the groups a given country belongs to, and all the members of each group
    • UC-3 : list all LIFDC special group members sorted by geographic group
    • UC-4 : provide key statistics (country area, agricultural area, land area, population and GDP) of a given country
    FAO of the UN
  • 25. UC-1: LAND BORDER COUNTRIES FAO of the UN DESCRIPTION Return ISO3 code and name of all land border countries (if any) of a given country INPUT Country ISO3 code, language code Ex: India in English (IND, EN) OUTPUT All land border countries ISO3 codes and names in the selected language Ex: CHN, BTN, MMR, PAK, BGD, NPL, China, Bhutan, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal URI www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo/ws/ borderWith / {country ISO3 code} / {language code} Ex: www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo/ws/borderWith/IND/EN
  • 26. UC-2: GROUPS FAO of the UN DESCRIPTION Return the groups a given country belongs to, and all the members of each group INPUT Country ISO3 code, language code Ex: India in English (IND, EN) OUTPUT All groups acronym and their members (country ISO3 code, and name in selected language) Ex: SAARC, Southern Asia, Asia, LIFDC, FAO, World URI www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo/ws/ inGroup / {country ISO3 code} / {language code} Ex: www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo/ws/inGroup/IND/EN
  • 27. UC-1, UC-2 IMPLEMENTATION FAO of the UN
  • 28. UC-3: LIFDC MEMBERS FAO of the UN DESCRIPTION Return all LIFDC special group members sorted by geographic group INPUT language ISO2 code Ex: English (EN) OUTPUT ISO3 code and name for all LIFDC members sorted by geographic group Ex: America (HTI Haiti, HND Honduras, NIC Nicaragua), Europe (MDA Republic of Moldova), etc. URI www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo/ws/ members/LIFDC/ { language code} Ex: www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo/ws/members/LIFDC/EN
  • 29. UC-3 IMPLEMENTATION FAO of the UN
  • 30. UC-4: KEY STATISTICS FAO of the UN DESCRIPTION Return key statistics data about a given country. INPUT Country ISO3 code, language code Ex: Haiti in English (HTI, EN) OUTPUT Total, unit, year, and notes of country area, agricultural area, land area, population and GDP Ex: Haiti country area: 2775 (1000 ha), agricultural area: 1790 (1000 ha), land area: 2756 (1000 ha), etc. URI www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo/ws/ countryStatisticsAll / {country ISO3 code} / {language code} Ex: www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo/ws/countryStatisticsAll/HTI/EN
  • 31. UC-4 IMPLEMENTATION FAO of the UN
  • 32. INFORMATION & CONTACT
    • Web site
      • www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo.asp
    • Contact
      • [email_address]
    FAO of the UN The FAO Country Profiles is a system provided by FAO’s Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension www.fao.org/oek/en /