Interpretation attention & perception
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  • 1. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Mark Arico (208819633) Fan Zhang (212852224)
  • 2. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Logical Order of Knowing
  • 3. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Attention
  • 4. “A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention.” –Herbert Simon, social scientist, in his book Attention Economics(1971) ”
  • 5. How to Draw Attention?
  • 6. Be Humane
  • 7. tHISiSNothUmane
  • 8. Attention: Human Nature Self-generation effect Universal interests Story telling Sensitive to stimulus
  • 9. Perception, Attention & Interpretation How to draw attention? Be humane: attractive • understandable • connections • no mediocre •
  • 10. Billboards are always designed to draw your attention at the first sight.
  • 11. Attention: Definition In consumer information processing, attention occurs when a person lingers and gives mental processing capacity to the external stimulus from a product or brand. Selective perception is when a consumer pays attention to messages that are consistent with her attitudes, beliefs and needs. When a product is inconsistent with these factors, the consumer will withdraw attention.
  • 12. “Attention is focused mental engagement on a particular item of information. Items come into our awareness, we attend to a particular item, and then we decide whether to act.” –Davenport & Beck 2001, p. 20
  • 13. Attention: Why it matters • a major and the first stage of converting non-consumers • minimal marginal cost of advertising • consumer's attention becomes the scarce resource
  • 14. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Interpretation
  • 15. Interpretation: Definition The assignment of “meaning” to sensations, in a way that fulfills personal motives and interests. •Cognitive and affective interpretation. •Sometimes biases are “added”, causing stereotypes.
  • 16. Interpretation: Four stereotypes Physical appearances Descriptive terms First impressions Halo effect
  • 17. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Physical appearances Making decisions based on how people and products appear. For example, attractive models.
  • 18. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Descriptive terms Verbal messages reflect stereotypes. For example, comparing the advantages of one product against another.
  • 19. Perception, Attention & Interpretation First impressions First impressions usually tend to last in the minds of individuals. Should be cautious on how to advertise products.
  • 20. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Halo effect Evaluating multiple objects based on only one dimension. For example, evaluating an entire product line (Apple) on the basis of one product within that line (iPhone). Is this Apple example true for anyone? Any other personal examples?
  • 21. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Perception
  • 22. Ferrari
  • 23. “When Ferrari creates anything, you can pretty much bet it’ll be top of the line.”
  • 24. Jack Daniel’s
  • 25. “Jack Daniel's is a brand of sour mash Tennessee whiskey that is the highest selling American whiskey in the world.”
  • 26. Playboy
  • 27. “Are you ready to step out of the shower with Playboy confidence?”
  • 28. Perception: Definition Perception is shaped by learning, memory and expectations. “The process in which a consumer identifies, organizes, and interprets information to create meaning.” –Boundless
  • 29. Perception: Three Phases By definition consumer perception consists of three phases: sensing, organizing, and reacting.
  • 30. Perception: Sensing Phase Deciding what information to, and not to, pay attention to. This is affected by our previous experience, motives, and nature of the stimulus.
  • 31. Sensing Phase: Selective Perception •Related concepts: 1. Selective exposure 2. Selective attention 3. Perceptual defense 4. Perceptual blocking
  • 32. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Sensing Phase: Selective Exposure Individuals actively choose what to view, while avoiding certain stimuli in their environments. For example: •Walking out of the room when a commercial comes on television •Internet advertisements
  • 33. Sensing Phase: Selective Attention Individuals decide how much attention they will pay to a stimulus, which is consistent with one's personal beliefs or interests.
  • 34. Perception, Attention & Interpretation An example: In-game Advertising •Primary capacity: playing the video game. •Secondary capacity: recognizing advertisements seen in the video game. •Assumption: high involvement players will fail to recognize advertisements, while moderately involved gamers are more likely to recognize these advertisements.
  • 35. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Sensing Phase: Perceptual Defense • Individuals protect themselves from psychologically threatening stimuli. • This is most likely in situations that produce fear or anxiety. • Refuse to accept the message.
  • 36. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Sensing Phase: Perceptual Blocking Screening out of stimuli that is threatening or contradictory. For example, choosing not to look.
  • 37. Sensing Phase: Subliminal Messages “Subliminal” means “below the threshold”, which are aimed at consumers’ subconscious minds. For example, techniques include: 1. Embed (tiny figures in print messages) 2. Auditory messages (messages on sound recordings)
  • 38. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Subliminal Messages: Examples • Example 1: KFC: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrRDEjPoeGw • Example 2: McDonalds: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMzbwa6PvE
  • 39. Sensing Phase: Just Noticeable Difference (JND) The difference between two stimuli that is “detected as often as it is undetected”. For example, 10% discount versus a 50% discount. Sometimes marketers purposely go below this threshold.
  • 40. Do you notice any differences?
  • 41. Perception: Organizing Phase How to mentally arrange information in our minds , so we can understand and make sense out of it. This phase includes four items: • Figure and ground • Grouping • Closure • Bias for the whole
  • 42. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Organizing Phase: Figure & Ground Interpreting stimuli in the context of a background. For example, Starbucks uses this tactic.
  • 43. Information is organized into a unified picture/impression, making it easier to process. For example, the “PC Blue Menu”. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Organizing Phase: Grouping
  • 44. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Organizing Phase: Closure Organizing perceptions so that they form a meaningful whole. If a stimuli is incomplete, our need for closure will lead us complete it. For example, AXE uses this tactic to get individuals thinking about their advertisements.
  • 45. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Organizing Phase: Bias for the whole Tendency to perceive more value in a whole than in the combined parts that make up the whole. For example, the Salvation Army asks for leftover coins.
  • 46. Perception: Reacting Phase Reacting phase involves with responding and attaching meaning to the stimuli.
  • 47. Perception, Attention & Interpretation Reacting Phase: Shock Value • Tactic to provoke a reaction, by exposing an individual to “shocking” content. • An intention of producing disgust, anger, fear or other negative emotions.
  • 48. In-class Exercise Please discuss following questions in groups after watching three commercials. Attention Which commercial drew your attention the most? Why? Explain the techniques that were used to increase your attention. Interpretation Do you want to purchase any of these products? Why or why not? Perception Are these commercials congruent with your perception of the brand or product? Will these commercials shift your perception? If so, to what degree?
  • 49. Toyota: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dp3OfOQ-yb8 Nike: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6BiemoJmD4 Google: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pTjHCCU2E4c
  • 50. Q&A