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Knowledge Management

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Study of Knowledge Management Articles: …

Study of Knowledge Management Articles:
Part 1: A Critical Review Of Knowledge Management As A Management Tool.
Part 2: The Use Of Tacit Knowledge Within Innovative Companies: Knowledge Management In Innovative Enterprises.
Part 3: Knowledge Management and Process Performance.
Part 4: Knowledge Outsourcing.

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  • KM – Knowledge Management
  • KM – Knowledge Management
  • KM – Knowledge Management
  • Transcript

    • 1. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL Prepared by Yaw Chooi Fun, Master of Business Administration, University of Hertfordshire, UK @ July 2009
    • 2. Origins and domain of Knowledge Management
      • Roos et al suggest that “intellectual capital” can be traced to two streams of thought, strategy and measurement.
      • Strategic area, focus on studying the creation and use of knowledge and the relationship between knowledge and success or value creation.
      • Measurement, focus on the need to develop new information systems, measuring non-financial data alongside the traditional financial.
    • 3. Origins and domain of Km….
        • Figure 2 Intangible resources
        • Sources: Haanes & Lowendahl, 1997
    • 4. Origins and domain of KM…
      • Haanes & Lowendahl categorise intangible resources into competence and relational resources.
      • Competence, the ability to perform a given task and exist at both the individual and organizational level.
    • 5. Origins and domain of KM…
    • 6. Empirical origins to KM
      • DiMattia and Oder (1997) argue that the growth of KM has emerged from 2 fundamental shifts:
        • Downsizing strategy
        • Technological development
    • 7. Downsizing strategy
      • Downsizing => reduce overhead and increase profits => resulted in a loss of the knowledge => Organizations recognize that lost years of valuable information and expertise and were now determined to protect themselves against a recurrence.
      • Use technology and system to capture the knowledge residing in the minds of their employees, easily shared within organization.
      • Stored and reusable resource
    • 8. Technological development
      • KM is an attempt to cope with the explosion of information and to capitalize on increased knowledge in the workplace.
      • The emerging technological development enables global sharing of information across platforms and continents and serve as a tool within an organization to use knowledge more effectively.
    • 9. Domain of Knowledge Management
      • Definition of knowledge:
        • Characteristics of knowledge
        • Tacit and explicit knowledge
    • 10. Characteristics of knowledge
      • Knowledge cannot easily be stored.
      • Knowledge involves the processing, creation, or use of information in the individual mind.
      • Knowledge is information combined with experience, context, interpretation, reflection, and perspective.
      • Knowledge is ineffectual if it’s not used.
    • 11. Tacit and explicit knowledge
      • Tacit knowledge
        • is documented and public; structured, fixed-content, externalized, and conscious. It can be captured and shared.
      • Explicit knowledge
        • is resides in the human mind, behaviour, and perception. People’s interactions and requires skill and practice.
    • 12. KM as a Management tool
      • KM as an information handling tool
      • KM as an strategic management tool
    • 13. KM as an information handling tool
      • KM is regarded as an information handling problem.
      • Acquisition of information, collecting;
      • Storage system, organized;
      • Archived by technologies, conversion of tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge;
      • Utilization of information, sharing and exchanging.
    • 14. KM as an strategic management tool
      • Organizations must adjust their capabilities to constantly changing complex external environment.
      • Must build systems for capturing and transferring internal knowledge and best practices.
      • Expected outcomes of an organisation with KM:
        • improve performance, productivity, and competitiveness
        • improve effective acquisition, sharing and usage of information
        • improve decision making
        • capture best practices
        • reduce research costs and delays
        • more innovative organization.
    • 15. Critical elements of KM strategy
      • Suggestions for critical elements must be included to successfully create and implement a KM strategy.
        • The “so what?” question
        • Support from top management
        • Communication
        • Creativity
        • Culture and people
        • Sharing knowledge
        • Incentives
        • Times
        • Evaluation
    • 16. Knowledge management in organization
      • 2 types of knowledge
        • Explicit knowledge
          • Embodies in a code or a language
          • Can be verbalized, communicated, processed, transmitted and stored relativelt easily
        • Tacit knowledge
          • Rooted in action, procedures commitment, values and emotions.
          • Acquired by sharing experiences, by observation and imitaiton
    • 17. THE USE OF TACIT KNOWLEDGE WITHIN INNOVATIVE COMPANIES: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES Prepare By Lee Tai Keong
    • 18. Tacit knowledge Management
      • Tacit knowledge
        • as personal knowledge that each individual possesses that is unique and once unlocked can be creative contribution in an organization
        • Critical to the key organizational task of creating new knowledge, generating new products and improving new business procedures leading to innovation.
    • 19. Evolution of tacit knowledge
      • Knowledge conversion – SECI
        • Socialisation (from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge)
        • Externalisation (from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge)
        • Combination (from explicit knowledge to explicit knowledge)
        • Internalisation (from explicti knowledge to tacit knowledge)
    • 20. Evolution of tacit knowledge...
    • 21. Evolution of tacit knowledge...
      • Innovation can only evolve through practical experience
    • 22. Vitalisation of tacit knowledge
      • Can be transferred both in and outside the organization
      • Inside the organization
        • Enhance the tacit know-how competence
      • Outside the organization
        • Recruit the right individuals with the requisite education or work experience
        • By acquiring parts of or whole new companies
        • By engaging appropriate consultants or building network with other companies.
    • 23. Innovation Management
      • Innovations in different industries
    • 24. Transfer of tacit knowledge
      • Barriers
        • Fear of losing ownership
        • A position of privilege
        • Superiority
        • Lack of insufficient rewards
        • Unaware their knowledge might be interest to others
    • 25. Success factors to tacit knowledge transfer
      • Human related factors such as Motivation, Commitment, Hopes and Rewards
      • Good relationship, trust and openess between sender and recipient
      • Behavior of the management leader as role models to offer reward for imitation
      • Personal interaction processes: Informal atmosphere and face-to-face
    • 26. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND PROCESS PERFORMANCE Prepare By Norazian
    • 27. KM and Process Performance
      • Processes are activities that use resources to stimulate and bring about change.
      • Process improvements focus on being more responsive to customers and improve performance in quality, time, speed and reliability with reduced production costs.
    • 28. KM and Process Performance…
      • Radical improvements in numerous performance dimensions simultaneously were attained through quality management approaches.
      • Total quality management approaches identify an organisation as a set of business processes incorporated for operational and strategic levels.
    • 29. KM and Process Performance…
      • Business process management manages these flows of materials, people and information.
      • Links strategy to operational implementation and defines management responsibility focused on processes rather than functions.
      • These processes allows knowledge to play an important role in organisational effectiveness.
    • 30. Points to Ponder
      • Can the incorporation of ideas about knowledge processes lead to greater effectiveness in operational processes for the organisation?
      • Will taking a knowledge management approach help to open up new possibilities?
    • 31. Points to Ponder…
      • Knowledge management (KM) focuses on core competences providing sustainable advantage over competitors
      • KM accepts that processes, people and technology come together to improve organisational effectiveness through learning.
      • KM processes with greatest impact on operations are the creation, transfer, embedding and using of knowledge
    • 32. Points to Ponder…
      • Creation – network of experts with access to knowledge technologies to produce solutions in the problem solving domain.
      • Transfer – individuals within networks who facilitate the access and transfer of knowledge.
      • Embedding – organisational effectiveness through incorporation of knowledge into organisational processes
    • 33. Points to Ponder…
      • Knowledge based process management leads to improved capability and performance through three conversion processes:-
        • Improvement or change of form – manufacturing of goods
        • Care and counter effects of potential harm – crowd control
        • Transfer or change of place – transport and telecomunications
    • 34. Points to Ponder…
      • The knowledge model addresses customer knowledge with an holistic approach to gain understanding of the needs, condition and expectations of the customer.
      • The knowledge equivalent of material supply chain is the basis of a model applicable to variety of operational processes in manufacturing, public administration and consultancy.
    • 35. Points to Ponder…
      • Knowledge processes are supported by information and communication technology in 4 areas;
        • Databases
        • Decision support tools – Artificial Intelligence
        • Group ware – Email, Video Conferencing
        • Net technology – Intranets
    • 36. Points to Ponder…
      • Application of KM in operations to assess KPIs:
        • Quality, dependability, responsiveness and speed of delivery system
        • Flexibility of operational processes
        • Cost reduction
      • Issues addressed by KM:
        • Increasing market turbulence
        • Reduced tolerance for trade offs in performance
        • Network organisations
    • 37. Points to Ponder…
      • Knowledge processes require effective collaboration, used as source of competitive advantage and forces constant examination of operational processes
      • KM introduces new measures of customer service and efficiency by allowing managers to reduce the effects of difficult processes and achieve operational success
    • 38. Points to Ponder…
      • KM assists in the planning and control of achieving performance excellence and enables improvements to operational processes.
    • 39. KNOWLEDGE OUTSOURCING Prepare By Eu Wee Khai
    • 40. Knowledge Outsourcing
      • Knowledge Management ( KM )
        • how organizations capture knowledge from experts with the organization, and formalise and package knowledge assets for dissemination and reuse by other employees ( Markus 2001 )
      • Knowledge Outsourcing ( KO )
        • The external experts are clearly contracted to generate knowledge-intensive assets which are subsequently internalized by the organization.
    • 41. Outsourcing Concept
      • Information systems where there has already been significant study in outsourcing as starting point to conceptualize to KO.
      • Is a business transaction which involves contracting or selling an organisation’s IT assets., people and activities to a third party supplier. ( Kern 1997 )

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