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GRAMMAR / STRUCTURE
 

GRAMMAR / STRUCTURE

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Silahkan yang mau donlot...

Silahkan yang mau donlot...
Jangan lupa doa'in saya biar ke-kece-an saya bertambah. Amiiin

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    GRAMMAR / STRUCTURE GRAMMAR / STRUCTURE Document Transcript

    • GRAMMAR / STRUCTURE A. TENSES 1. Past Future Perfect Tense Past Future Perfect Tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan yang akan telah terjadi atau akan telah dilakukan di waktu tertentu di masa lampau. CATATAN: Pada Past Future Perfect Tense semua subject menggunakan kata “Have” sebagai Auxiliary Verb. Rumus dan Contoh Kalimat Past Future Perfect Tense Mengekspresikan kalimat Past Future Perfect Tense yang menggunakan kata kerja (VERB) + Subject + Would / Should + Have + Verb 3 + Object Subject + Would / Should + NOT + Have + Verb 3 + Object ? Would / Should + Subject + Have + Verb 3 + Object? ? Question Word + Would / Should + Subject + Have + Verb 3 + Object? Contoh : + Anna would have finished her college by the time. I finished my college in the university two years ago. ? ? I would not have sent her a letter yesterday. Should my father have worn jeans to the party yesterday night? How long would you have waited her in in the park? The weather was very cool last night. Mengekspresikan kalimat Past Future Perfect Tense yang tidak menggunakan kata kerja (NON VERB) + Subject + Would / Should + Have + been + Object ? ? Subject + Would / Should + NOT + Have + been + Object Would / Should + Subject + Have + been + Object? Question Word + Would / Should + Subject + Have + been + Object? Contoh : + My brother looked for his stuff. He would have been here yesterday night ? ? The flowers should not have been wilted last night. Would this novel have been here? How many hours should Mr. Jim have been at the office by the end of this week?
    • Keterangan waktu untuk Past Future Perfect Tense yang digunakan adalah: By next month, by the next year, by the end of this month, by the end of this day, by the end of this year, etc. 2. Past future perfect continuous tense adalah suatu bentuk kata kerja untuk membicarakan aksi yang akan telah berlangsung selama sekian lama pada titik waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Aksi pada past future perfect continuous tense biasanya berdurasi waktu tertentu. Tense ini mirip dengan future perfect continuous tense, namun realisasi dari aksi pada past future continuous tense sudah dapat diketahui sekarang. Rumus Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense Past future perfect continuous tense dibentuk dengan auxiliary verb would, have, been dan present participle (v1-ing). Secara umum past future perfect continuous tense hanya terjadi pada aksi berupa dynamic verb, tidak stative verb karena umumnya hanya dynamic verb yang memiliki bentuk continuous. [Baca: Stative Verb dengan Bentuk Progressive] Dengan demikian rumus past future perfect continuous tense untuk kalimat positif, negatif, dan interogatif adalah sebagai berikut. Jenis Kalimat Rumus Contoh Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense positif (+) S + would + have + been + V1ing/present participle I/you/she/he/it would have been driving negatif (-) S + would + not + have + been + V1-ing/present participle I/you/she/he/it would not have been driving interogatif Would + S + have + been + V1ing/present participle (?) They/we would have been working They/we would not have been working Would I/you/she/he/it have been driving Would they/we have been working
    • Contoh Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense Beberapa contoh kalimat past future perfect continuous tense dengan fungsi-fungsinya adalah sebagai berikut. Fungsi Contoh Kalimat Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense They would have been learning English grammar for two years by the end of last month. (Mereka akan telah belajar gramatika bahasa Inggris selama dua tahun pada akhir bulan lalu.) Past future perfect continuous tense untuk memberitahukan berapa lama suatu aksi akan sudah terjadi (period of time) atau sampai waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Nisa and her family would have been living at their new house by the end of this week last month. (Nisa dan keluargaya akan telah menempati rumah baru mereka akhir bulan ini pada tahun lalu.) By the time the supervisor arrived, the water would have been flowing out of tank X into tank Y at a constant rate. (Pada saat pengawas tiba, air akan telah mengalirdari tangki X ke dalam tangki Y dengan laju konstan. Past future perfect tense digunakan pada continuous unreal conditional sentence. Mirip dengan conditional sentence type 3 „biasa‟, namun berbeda di bagian „result‟ — tidak menggunakan past future perfect melainkan past future perfect continuous tense. Rumus: if + past perfect, past future perfect continuous tense If his visa had been approved, He would have been working abroad for a week. (Jika visa dia telah disetujui, dia akan telah bekerja selama seminggu.)
    • B. THE DEGREE OF COMPARISONS The Degrees of Comparison (tingkat perbandingan) adalah istilah dalam bahasa inggris yang merupakan tingkat-tingkat perbandingan pada kata sifat (Adjectives). Adapun berdasarkan tingkatannya, The Degrees of Comparison dibagi menjadi 3 golongan : 1. Positive degree. (Tingkat positif / biasa) 2. Comparative degree. (Tingkat perbandingan / lebih) , Bentuk Comparative dibuat dari bentuk positif yang ditambah dengan akhiran –er atau –r dan awalan more. 3. Superlative degree. (Tingkat terbaik/ paling), Bentuk Superlative dibentuk dari bentuk positif yang ditambah dengan akhiran –est atau –st dan awalan most. POSITIF DEGREE Positif degree digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu seperti apa adanya.kalimat yang dibuat adalah bentuk kalimat positif. contoh: a. He is fat b. That book is thick c .You are clever COMPARATIVE DEGREE Comparative degree digunakan untuk menyatakan tingkatan lebih yaitu memperbandingkan hal satu dengan yang lainya. cara membuat kalimanya menggunakan rumus: a. Untuk adjectives atau adverbs yang mempunyai satu atau dua suku kata ..... Adjectives/adverbs+ER+Than..... Contoh: My pen is cheaper than your pen ou are smarter than me Dwi erm Study harder than jhon b. Untuk Adjectives/adverbs yang mempunyai 3 suku kata atau lebi ...... More+Adjectives/Adverbs+Than..... Contoh: Dina is more beautiful than Dwi Study English is more expensive than in the cottage c. Adverbs yang berakhiran ly walaupun tidak mempunyai 3 suku kata atau lebih,boleh juga menggunakan rumus: ..... More+Adverbs+Than.....
    • Contoh: He study more seriously than her could you speak more slowly? SUPERLATIVE DEGREE digunakan untuk sesuatu menjadi yang ter atau paling diantara yang lainya. cara pembentukannya adalah: ..... The+Adjectives/adverbs+EST a. Untuk adjectives/adverb yang mempunyai 1 atau 2 suku kata saja contoh: I am the youngest in my family Dwi is the cleverest in class Bandung is the coldest city in Indonesia ..... The Most+Adjectiv/adverb..... b. Untuk adjectives/adverbs yang mempunyai 3 suku kata atau lebih contoh: The most original picture of mona lisa was lost last night This sunday is the most enjoyable day in this year. PENGECUALIAN 1. Adjectives/adverbs yang mempunyai 1 atau 2 suku kata comparativenya menggunakan rumus: ..... More............. Than .......... Untuk Superlativenya menggunakan rumus ............. The Most .................. berikut ini daftar kekecualian adjective/adverbs : Afraid(Takut) Careful(Hati-hati) Certain(pasti) Famous(Terkenal) Honest(Jujur)
    • Useful(berguna) Often(Sering) Beberapa jenis adjectives dan adverb yang sama sekali tidak menggunakan aturan baku seperti yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya hal ini sering disebut dengan irregular comparison(Tingkat perbandingan yang tidak beraturan) contoh: Positive Comparative Superlative arti Bad/Badly ... Worse than... The worst jelek Far ... Farther than.. The farthest jauh Good/well ...Better than.... The best baik Little ...Less than ... The least sedikit Late ... Late than .... The latest lambat Much/many ... More than... The most banyak Old The eldest tua ...Elder than... C. THE EXPRESSION TO MAKE REQUEST/ INVITATION AND PREFERENCES 3. Request/ Ivitation adalah kalimat yang meminta seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu. Request : Menggunakan tanda titik (.) atau tanda tanya (?) untuk mengakhiri kalimat Digunakan untuk bertanya atau meminta seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu Sering menggunakan kata-kata seperti could, would, dll Contoh : a. Could you help me please ? b. Would you answer the phone ? c. Would you come to my party ? d. Could you turn on the light ? 4. Preference Preferences (pilihan/ preferensi) dapat digunakan ketika seseorang akan memberikan suatu saran, menawarkan sesuatu atau meminta pendapat orang lain tentang apa yang harus (lebih baik) dilakukan. Terkadang orang meminta pendapat kepada anda dan anda dapat memberikan atau mengutarakan pilihan anda. Sementara disisi lain terkadang menawarkan sesuatu kepada anda dan anda harus mengutarakan pilihan
    • anda dengan sopan jika anda tidak ingin melakukan sesuatu yang sudah ditawarkan, atau mungkin lebih memilih untuk melakukan sesuatu lainnya. Contoh Kalimat Preferences A: Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? B: I would rather go shopping. A: Maukah kamu pergi ke bioskop malam ini? B: Saya lebih suka pergi belanja. A: Would you like to have some Japanese food? B: I would prefer eating Chinese. What do you think? A: Maukah kamu makan makanan Jepang? B: Saya lebih suka makan makanan Cina. Bagaimana menurut kamu? A: What are we going to do today? The weather is good. B: I think we should go to the beach. Why don’t we go to the beach? Let’s go to the beach. How about going to the beach? A: Apa yang akan kita lakukan hari ini? Cuacanya bagus. B: Saya rasa kita seharusnya pergi ke pantai. Kenapa kita tidak pergi ke pantai saja. Mari kita pergi ke pantai. Bagaimana jika pergi ke pantai. Rumus, Macam-macam dan Contoh Preferences Preferences Prefer Rumus Prefer + to infinitive Prefer + nouns + to + nouns Contoh Kalimat They prefer to stay at home. (Dia lebih suka tinggal di rumah) My mother prefers apple to lemon juice. (Ibu saya lebih suka jus apel daripada jus lemon) Prefer + Verb -ing + to + Verb -ing She prefers swimming to dancing. Would rather Would rather + bare infinitives (Dia lebih suka berenang daripada berdansa) I would rather study
    • (kata kerja tanpa “to”) now. (Saya lebih baik belajar sekarang) Would rather + bare infinitives She would rather stay + than + bare infinitives home than go shopping. (Dia lebih baik tinggal di rumah saja daripada berbelanja) Would rather + bare infinitives + She would rather speak nouns + than + bare infinitives + Japan than speak nouns English. Would prefer to (Dia lebih suka berbicara bahasa Jepang daripada bahasa Inggris.) Would prefer + to infinitives They would prefer to + rather than + bare infinitives sing rather than dance. (Mereka lebih baik bernyanyi saja daripada menari) Would prefer + to infinitives + You would prefer to nouns + rather than + bare play ball rather than infinitives + nouns take a sleep. Like (Kamu lebih baik bermain bola daripada tidur) Like + nouns / (Verb + ing) I like singing a song + better than + nouns / (Verb + better than playing a ing) guitar. (Saya lebih suka bernyanyi daripada bermain gitar) I like coffee better than milk. Had better Had better + bare infinitives (Saya lebih suka kopi daripada teh) You had better study hard.
    • (Kamu lebih baik belajar yang giat) Had better + not + bare infinitives I had better not tell her (bentuk negative) the truth. It’s time Instead of (Saya lebih baik tidak mengatakan yang sebenarnya kepada dia) It‟s time + to infinitives It’s time to get up. It‟s time + Subject + (Bentuk Past/ It’s time you went away. lampau) Instead of + Gerund/ Nouns I prefer staying home instead of going out. Instead of kita gunakan sebagai pengganti dari: to, than, better than, rather than They would rather eat their dinner instead of work. I would prefer to invite her instead of him. She likes me instead of him. Penggunaan Preferences Kita sering menggunakan kata seperti: “prefer, would prefer, would rather” untuk menanyakan tentang pilihan (preferences). Contohnya: “I prefer living with my uncle”. “Would you prefer to watch a movie or go to a church”? “Would you rather go fishing with me”? Contoh kalimat di atas memiliki arti yang sedikit berbeda, ini merupakan alasan mengapa pelajar bahasa inggris sering mengalami kesusahan. Silahkan perhatikan perbedaan penggunaan preferences di bawah ini: 1. Perbedaan Pada Arti: Kita cenderung menggunakan kata “prefer” untuk membicarakan tentang kesukaan, tidak suka, dan apa yang kita inginkan, contohnya: “He prefers reading a magazine”. (Dia lebih suka membaca majalah) “I prefer going to the beach than going to a swimming pool”.
    • (Saya lebih suka pergi ke pantai daripada pergi ke kolam renang) Sedangkan untuk penggunaan kata “would prefer” dan “would rather”, digunakan lebih spesifik, contohnya: “I would prefer to see him personally.” (Saya lebih baik menemui dia secara pribadi) “I would rather go home now.” (Saya lebih baik pulang sekarang) 2. Perbedaan Pada Bentuk Kata Kerjanya: “I prefer living in a town”. (Diikuti gerund, menggunakan akhiran “-ing”) “I would prefer to be told the truth”. (Diikuti oleh infinitive, menggunakan “to + Verb 1”) “Would you rather stay at an apartment”? (Diikuti oleh bentuk dasar dari verb (kata kerja)/ Verb 1 tanpa “to”) 3. Perbedaan penggunaan Preposition (Prepoisi) untuk menentukan pilihan: “Prefer” dan “would prefer” diikuti oleh preposisi “to”, contohnya: “I prefer living in a town to living in the village”. “I would rather being alone to being with the wrong person”. “Would rather” diikuti oleh preposisi “than”, contohnya: “I would rather talk to him in person than call him on the phone”.
    • D. ACTIVE AND PASIVE VOICE Passive voice adalah suatu grammatical construction (bentuk gramatikal) dimana subject pada sentence (kalimat) atau clause (klausa) tidak melakukan aksi, melainkan menerima aksi atau ditindaklanjuti (receiver of action) oleh agent lain (doer of action) baik disebutkan ataupun tidak. Sebaliknya, pada konstruksi active, subject pada sentence atau clause berhubungan langsung dengan verb dengan bertindak sebagai pelaku aksi. Kalimat aktif dapat ditransformasi menjadi pasif, namun hanya transitive verb (mempunyai direct object) yang dapat diberlakukan demikian. Rumus Passive Voice Rumus passive voice adalah sebagai berikut di bawah ini. Catatan: Auxiliary verb dapat berupa primary auxiliary verb be (is, are, am, was, were, be, been, being) maupun kombinasi antara dua primary (is/are being, was/were being, has/have been) maupun antara primary dan modal auxiliary verb (will be, will have been). Kombinasi auxiliary digunakan pada bentuk pasif pada tenses. Penjelasan lebih lengkap dapat dilihat di Bentuk Pasif pada Tenses, Infinitive, dan Gerund. Past participle yang digunakan berupa kata kerja transitive (memiliki direct object). Contoh: She can‟t drive a car. (active voice, transitive), He always come on time. (active voice, intransitive) Perubahan bentuk dari base form ke past tense dan past participle secara regular maupun irregular. Contoh: Play (base form) —> played (past participle), sing (base form) —> sung (past participle)
    • Contoh Passive Voice pada Auxiliary Verb be: Komponen Contoh Kalimat Passive Voice Subject be PP I am paid I am paid in dollars. (Saya dibayar dalam dollar.) the red velvet recipe is used The red velvet recipe is used by many people. (Resep red velvet tsb digunakan oleh banyak orang.) all of my shoes are washed large amounts of meat and milk Large amounts of meat and milk are consumed by many people in the countries. are consumed (Sejumlah besar daging dan susu dikonsumsi oleh banyak orang di negara-negara tsb.) the book was edited The book was edited by Beatrice Sparks. (Buku tsb disunting oleh Beatrice Sparks.) the books were edited The books were edited by Beatrice Sparks. (Buku-buku tsb disunting oleh Beatrice Sparks.) All of my shoes are washed every month. (Semua sepatu saya dicuci setiap bulan.) Pengecualian pada Transitive Verbs Tidak semua transitive verb, kata kerja yang memiliki direct object, dapat dipasifkan. Beberapa kata kerja tersebut yang antara lain: have, become, lack, look like, mean, dll akan terdengar tidak wajar maknanya ketika dipasifkan. Beberapa contoh kalimat dari kata kerja tersebut adalah sebagai berikut. E. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Direct Speech (Kalimat Langsung) ialah kata-kata kalimat yang diucapkan langsung oleh si pembicara. Indirect Speech (Kalimat Tak Langsung) ialah kalimat yang diucapkan untuk melaporkan kata-katansi pembicara kepada orang lain. Jadi, Indirect Speech (Reported Speech) digunakan bila kita ingin melaporkan kata-kata seseorang kepada orang lain secara tak langsung.
    • Direct & Indirect Speech terdiri dari 3 jenis yaitu : I. Statement (pernyataan) II. Command (perintah) III. Question (pertanyaan) Perubahan-perubahan yang perlu dari Direct ke Indirect Speech : 1. To be & Auxiliary Verbs Direct Indirect Am/is/are - was/were Shall/will - should/would Can - could May - might - had to Must Have/has to Ought to 2. Time & Place (keterangan waktu & tempat) Direct Indirect now - then tomorrow - the following day next week - the following week tonight - that night today - that day yesterday - the day before last night - the night before last week - the week before, the precious week here - there this - that
    • these 3. - those Tenses Direct Indirect Simple present - simple past - past perfect - past continous Simple past Present perfect Present continous Present perfect continous - past perfect continous Simple future past future I. - STATEMENT Dalam Indirect Statement kita menggunakan kata that (bahwa) sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar (introduce phrase) dan kata-kata yang dilaporkan (reported words). Kalimat-kalimat pengantar dalam indirect statement ialah : He said He said to me He told me that + reported words e.g - Mary told her friends “I have been to Bali twice.” - Mary told her friends that she had been to Bali twice. - Father said “I am going out of town tomorrow” - Father said that he was going out of town the following day. - Mary told John “my father warned me last night” - Mary told John that her father had arned her the night before.
    • - My sister said to me “I don‟t like tennis” - My sister said to me that she didn‟t like tennis. - Tom said “I didn‟t go to school this morning” - Tom said that he hadn‟t gone to school that morning. Apabila kalimat pengantarnya dalam bentuk Simple Present Tense, maka kalimat yang dilaporkan tidak mengalami perubahan. e.g - John says “I will go to Bandung tomorrow” - John says that he will go to Bandung tomorrow - Mary says “I have seen that film” - Mary says that she has seen that film. - My brother says “I met Tom at the party last night” - My brother says that he met Tom at the party last night. - Tom says “I don‟t like English” - Tom says that he don‟t like English. II. COMMAND Command dibagi dalam 2 (dua) bagian yaitu : 1. Positive Command Dalam perintah positif kita tambahkan to di depan kalimat perintahnya, sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dan perintah yang dilaporkan. Kalimat-kalimat pengantar dalam jenis ini ialah : to + infinitive He asked me He told me e.g - He asked me “Open your book” - He asked me to open my book.
    • - Mary told me “Stop talking to Jane” - Mary told me to stop talking to Jane. - Mother asked John “Pay attention to what I say” - Mother asked John to pay attention to what she says. - John told Mary “Wait until I come” - John told Mary to wait until he comes. - The teacher said to the students “Be quiet while I am talking” - The teacher told the students to be quiet while she is talking. 2. Negative Command Dalam perintah negatif kita tambahkan not to di depan perintah yang dilaporkan. e.g - Mary told John “Don‟t wait for me” - Mary told John not to wait for her. - I told him “Don‟t mention it to anyone” - I told him not to mention it to anyone. - Father asked her “Don‟t go there alone” - Father asked her not to go there alone. - Ira asked Tom “Don‟t come to my house again” - Ira asked tom not to come to her house again.
    • - Mothers asked John “Don‟t smoke too much” - Mother asked John not to smoke too much. II. QUESTION Bila pertanyaan langsung (direct question) menggunakan kata-kata tanya seperti ; Where, When, Why, What, Who, How, dll, maka kata-kata tersebut digunakan sebagai penghubung dalam reported Speech. Pertanyaan yang dilaporkan berubaha menjadi bentuk positif. Kalimat pengantarnya ialah : Positive Form He asked me where When etc. e.g - The man asked me : “Where do you live ?” - The man asked me where I lived. - John asked Mary : “Why do you get angry with me ?” - John asked Mary why she got angry with him. - I asked him : “When did you get back from your trip ?” - I asked him when he had got back from his trip. - He asked me : “How will you go there ?” - He asked me how I would go there. - John asked the girl : “What is your name ?” - John asked the girl what her name was. Bila pertanyaan langsung tidak menggunakan kata-kata tanya, dan hanya merupakan pertanyaan dalam bentuk “Yes & No Question”, maka kita menggunakan kata-kata if, whether (jika, apakah) sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dan pertanyaan yang dilaporkan.
    • e.g - The boy asked John : “Does Mary live near here?” - The boy asked John if Mary lived near there. - The teacher asked her : “Have you finish your homework ?” - The teacher asked her if he had finished her homework. - Mary asked me : “Did you she John at the party the night before. - Mary asked me whether I had seen John at the party the night before. - We asked them : “Will you go to the movie with us tonight ?” - We asked them whether they would go to the movie with us that night. - Mother asked John : “Are you going to marry her ?” - Mother asked John if he was going to marry her. Note : Baik if maupun whether dapat digunakan bergantian III. REPORTED SPEECH / MIXED TYPE (Jenis Gabungan) Bila pertanyaan dan pernyataan digabung dalam Reported Speech maka kita menggunakan kata as (karena) sebagai penghubung pada bagian kalimat pernyataan yang dilaporkan. Dalam hal ini kalimat pernyataan tersebut dilaporkan kemudian. Perhatikanlah contoh-contoh berikut ini : e.g - She asked me :”What is the time ?”, my watch has stopped. - She asked me what the time was as her watch had stopped. - Ira asked John :”what is the matter with you ?”, You don‟t look well. - Mary asked John what the matter was with him as he didn‟t look well.
    • - I asked her :”How long have you been studying English ?”, Your accent is very good. - I asked her how long she had been studying English as he her accent was very good. - He told me :”I am off to the movie,” Where are you going ?” - He told me that he was off to the movie and asked me where I was going. - She said :”It is cold inside,” Is the window open ? - She said that it was cold inside and asked if the window was open. Bila dalam pertanyaan langsung disertai dengan jawaban Yes dan No, maka kita menggunakan kata but sebagai penghubung untuk jawaban No dan kata and sebagai penghubung untuk jawaban Yes. e.g - He asked me :”Will you go out wiith me ?” No, I won‟t. - He asked me if I would go out with him but I said I wouldn‟t. - Mother asked John :”Have you had lunch ?” No, I haven‟t. - Mother asked John if he had had lunch but he said he hadn‟t. - She asked me :”Can you meet me tomorrow ?” No. - She asked me if I could meet her the following day but I said I couldn‟t. - I asked her :”Do you like vegetables ?” Yes, I do. - Is asked her if she liked veggetables and she said she did. - Mary asked John :”Did you phone me last night ?” Yes, I did. - Mary asked John if he had phoned her the night before and he said he had. - Father asked me :”Are you going to the movie tonight ?” Yes.
    • - Father asked me if I was going to the movie that night and I said I was. Direct & Indirect with Auxiliaries Perhatikan perubahan-perubahan yang perlu dari Auxiliaries Direct Indirect Was/were - had been can - could may - might must & have to - had to must not - wasn‟t to/musn‟t needn‟t - didn‟t have to e.g - Mary said :” I was sick yesterday.” - Mary said that she had been sick the day before. - The man asked me :” Can you speak English ?” - The man asked me if I could speak English. - Mary said to John :”You may come to my house tomorrow.” - Mary said to John that she might come to his house the following day. - Mother told John :”You must study harder if you want to pass the exam.” - Mother told John that he had to study harder if he wanted to pass the exam. - The police told me :” You must not drive without license.” - The police told me that I wasn‟t to drive without license.” - The teacher told them :”You needn‟t hurry.”
    • - The teacher told them that they didn‟t have to hurry. WRITING AND READING A. Procedure Text Procedure text adalah (1) Teks yang menjelaskan bagaimana sesuatu bekerja atau teks yang menjelaskan cara menggunakan pedoman instruksi / penggunaan. contoh : cara menggunakan video, komputer, mesin fotokopi, fax dll. (2) Teks yang menunjukan cara melakukan aktifitas tertentu. contoh : resep, aturan bermain game, eksperimen ilmiah, aturan keamanan berkendara. (3) Teks yang berhubungan dengan tingkah laku manusia. contoh : cara hidup bahagian, cara sukses. dll. CONTOH PROCEDURE TEXT - HOW TO RIDE A BICYCLE Sitting on the bike, make sure you know where the brakes are and how to operate them. You have to learn to balance the bike. Find a person who can hold your bike behind you and try to steady it as you pedal. Also find a place to ride that is grassy or such. After practicing for a couple minutes, the person can release his or her hands while you try to keep your balance. When you are ready, ride alone. But first lower the seat until you can sit on it and put both feet flat on the ground. When you are confident you can put your feet on the pedals and coast for a few feet, try not putting your feet down to train your sense of balance. Do this for 30-45 minutes or so, until you have a good feel and some confidence about steering the bike. As you gain experience, raise the seat up so that only your toes can touch the ground while you are seated. This is the more appropriate height for your seat. Finally, you have to practice. Once you can balance, pedal, start, and stop, you're a bicycle rider. Congratulations! B. Report Text
    • Report Text adalah teks yang berfungsi untuk memberikan informasi tentang suatu peristiwa atau situasi, setelah diadakannya investigasi dan melalui berbagai pertimbangan. CONTOH REPORT TEXT : THANKSGIVING DAY Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace, and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually celebrated in late autumn. In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England. Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the North America and for three days in Canada. It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held. In Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are lighted to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique silver dishes to mark the occasion.