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The Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson By: Lauren A. Falsetti EDF302
Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1902 He was an artist and teacher who became interested in psychology when he met Anna Freud, Sigmund Freud’s daughter He came to the United States in 1933 where he joined Harvard Medical Later he moved to Yale University where he became interested in the influence of culture and society of child development Erikson died at the age of 94 in 1994 Biography of Erik Erikson:
Erikson came up with 8 stages of Psychosocial Development. Each stage consists of a developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis. Each crisis is not a catastrophic, but a turning pt. of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential. Introduction:
Trust vs. Mistrust: Infancy: Birth to 18 Months Autonomy vs. Shame: Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 Years If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Erikson believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident,
Initiative vs. Guilt: Play Age: 3 to 5 Years Industry vs. Inferiority: School Age: 6 to 12 Years During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt and self-doubt Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful.
Identity vs. Identity Confusion: Adolescence: 12 to 18 Years Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future. Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure. Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps. Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important to developing intimate relationships. Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression. Intimacy vs. Isolation: Young adulthood: 18 to 35
Generativity vs. Stagnation: Middle Adulthood: 35 to 55 or 65 Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world. Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death. Integrity vs. Despair: Late Adulthood: 60-onward
EX: Articles “Article 1” Identity and Self- “there is no baby but rather mother and baby, there is no self with out context” (meaning, one stage leads to another and identity leads to self because once you find your identity you figure out who you really are. ) “Article 2” Lessons from Erikson-”Autonomy is defined as self-directing freedom and moral indepence” EX: Self “Lauren’s Life” Me- Identity vs. Identity Confusion “What the HELL do I want to be when I grow up???????? Cousin Adam- Industry vs. Inferiority Motivating a child is the best way to go!! EX: Movie “On Golden Pond” Chelsea (ANNOYING CHICK)- Intimacy vs. Isolation Ethel (NICEST LADY EVER)- Generativity vs. Stagnation Norman (MEANY)- Integrity vs. Despair
Boeree, George C.(2006). 100 Eminent Psychologist of the 20th century: Erik Erikson. Retrieved April 19, 2009 www.coe.uga.edu/.../eminentpsychologists/. Graves, Stephen B. & Larkin, Elizabeth.(2006). Lessons from Erikson: A Look at Autonomy Across the Lifespan. Retrieved April 4, 2009. http://www.haworthpress.com/web/JIR. Lachmann, Frank M.(2004). Identity and Self: Historical Antecedents and Developmental Precursors. Retrieved April 3, 2009. http://proxy.buffalostate.edu:2048/login?url=http://proxy.buffalostate.edu:2052/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15791033&site=ehost-live. Rydell, Mark. (Director).(1981). On Golden Pond [Motion Picture]. United States: IPC films. Santrock, John W.(2009). Educational Psychology 4th ed. New York: New York References: