Chapter 1 Introduction to Operating Systems McGraw-Hill
Learning Objectives <ul><li>LO 1.1 Describe the purpose and functions of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>LO 1.2 Descri...
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>What is a Microcomputer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer built around a micropro...
A typical PC with components
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>What’s Inside a Microcomputer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A least one CPU </li></ul></...
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>What’s Inside a Microcomputer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More About ROM BIOS </li></u...
Figure 1-1 An example of a BIOS start-up message
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>What’s Types of Microcomputers are in Use Today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktops a...
A PC laptop
Two MacBook laptops
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Functions of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Operating System is: </li...
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Functions of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User interface </li></ul></u...
The functions of an operating system
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA the ‘shell’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Figure 1-2 MS-DOS prompt
Figure 1-3  A typical GUI screen
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Job management  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the order and time in which progra...
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Memory Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages placement of  programs and data i...
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>File Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA data management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Device Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls hardware  through device drivers...
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides password-protected  authentication of the...
An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Categories of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-User/Single-tasking ...
Figure  1-4 Single-user/single-tasking
Figure 1-5  Single-user/multitasking
Figure 1-6  Multiuser/multitasking
Figure 1-7  Example of a device containing a real-time embedded system
Table 1-1  Windows Memory Limits
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>UNIX–The OS for All Platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1975: UNIX version 6 emerged fro...
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical design...
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Killer App </l...
Figure 1-8  Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple OS for Apple...
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GUI Apple OSs  (co...
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS-DOS  </li></ul>...
Figure 1-9  MS-DOS prompt with the Format command
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS/2 (Operating Sy...
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows ...
Figure 1-10  Windows 3.1 desktop
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows for Workgr...
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT  </li><...
Figure 1-11  Windows NT 4.0 desktop with open windows
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 95 </li></...
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 98  </li><...
Figure 1-12  MS Windows 98 desktop with open windows
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Me </li></...
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 </li>...
Figure 1-13  MS Windows 2000 desktop
Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></...
Figure 1-14  MS Windows XP desktop with open windows
Table 1-2:  Summary of Current Desktop OSs Today’s Desktop OSs
Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows Vista </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007: A new GUI, other improvements  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Figure 1-15  The Windows Vista desktop
Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements that solved problems with Vista </li></ul></ul>
Figure 1-16: The Windows 7 desktop
Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows 8 </li></ul>
Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows File Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT file systems  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FA...
Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows File Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File systems for optical drives </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Mac OS X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple used proprietary hardware  and software </li></ul></ul><u...
Figure 1-17  Mac OS X GUI
Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled on UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for original deve...
Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Linux (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available in both 32-bit and 64-bit distributions </li></u...
Figure 1-18  Red Hat Linux directory listing  (ls command)
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO1.1 An Overview of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer consists of hardware and...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO1.1 An Overview of Operating Systems  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common computers in use to...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO1.1 An Overview of Operating Systems  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today’s popular operating ...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.2 Yesterday’s Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The history of current computers and ...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.2 Yesterday’s Operating Systems  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early microcomputers include...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.2 Yesterday’s Operating Systems  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM introduced the PC in 198...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.2 Yesterday’s Operating Systems  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Apple Mac computer, intr...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.3 Today’s Desktop Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating systems common toda...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.3 Today’s Desktop Operating Systems  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X, based on NextS...
Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.3 Today’s Desktop Operating Systems  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux supports several f...
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Survey of Operating Systems Ch 01

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  • VisiCalc ran on the CP/M OS
  • Students will learn more about DOS in Chapter 4.
  • Support is ending, but XP is on many desktops, and will remain on many for a few more years.
  • Point out that the following chapters in this book go into more detail on the current desktop OSs (Windows Vista/7, Linux, and Mac OS X), as well as DOS. A chapter on Windows XP is also included because it still exists on many desktops. Only since the introduction of Windows 7 have we seen the number of Windows XP desktops begin to dwindle.
  • This slide is hidden. At this writing Windows 8 has not been released. Insert new information on Windows 8 before presenting and unhide the slide.
  • Point out that the Linux file systems offer file-level security.
  • Transcript of "Survey of Operating Systems Ch 01"

    1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Operating Systems McGraw-Hill
    2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>LO 1.1 Describe the purpose and functions of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>LO 1.2 Describe major events in the evolution of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>LO 1.3 List and compare the common operating systems in use today </li></ul>
    3. 3. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>What is a Microcomputer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer built around a microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor is a special integrated circuit (IC) that performs calculations and processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An IC (chip) is a small electronic component made up of transistors and other miniaturized parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor also called central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many other ICs in a computer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. A typical PC with components
    5. 5. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>What’s Inside a Microcomputer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A least one CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROM BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also attached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing Device and much more </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>What’s Inside a Microcomputer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More About ROM BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program code for basic control of devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many components contain additional ROM BIOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Device drivers install in OS for each device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROM BIOS includes power-on-self test (POST) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Figure 1-1 An example of a BIOS start-up message
    8. 8. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>What’s Types of Microcomputers are in Use Today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktops and Laptops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing number and types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular are smartphones (iPhone, BlackBerry, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. A PC laptop
    10. 10. Two MacBook laptops
    11. 11. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Functions of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Operating System is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The central control program(s) for a computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loads when computer is turned on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel (main component) remains in memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manages low-level OS tasks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as intermediary between applications & hardware </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Functions of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The functions of an operating system
    14. 14. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA the ‘shell’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A software layer for user interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the command processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the visual components of the OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Character-based command line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GUI </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Figure 1-2 MS-DOS prompt
    16. 16. Figure 1-3 A typical GUI screen
    17. 17. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Job management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the order and time in which programs are run </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in multitasking operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows user to switch between tasks </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Memory Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages placement of programs and data in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory manager moves code and data to virtual memory (file on hard drive) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>File Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA data management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the OS to read, write, and modify data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is organized into files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to organize their files into containers called folders or directories </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Device Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls hardware through device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A device driver is unique to a device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by the manufacturer of the device to work with a specific operating system </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides password-protected authentication of the user before allowing access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks user name and password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts the actions that can be performed on a computer, customized for each user </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. An Overview of Operating Systems <ul><li>Categories of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-User/Single-tasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-User/Multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-User/Multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16-, 32-, and 64-bit OSs </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Figure 1-4 Single-user/single-tasking
    24. 24. Figure 1-5 Single-user/multitasking
    25. 25. Figure 1-6 Multiuser/multitasking
    26. 26. Figure 1-7 Example of a device containing a real-time embedded system
    27. 27. Table 1-1 Windows Memory Limits
    28. 28. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>UNIX–The OS for All Platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1975: UNIX version 6 emerged from Bell Labs Computing Science Research Center (Bell Labs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS for many platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free versions: BSD, Net BSD, Open BDS, & Open Solaris. Commercial versions: AIX, OpenServer (derived from SCO UNIX), & HP/UX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional CLI shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNOME and KDE GUIs </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical designs started as early as the 1820’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early computers were single-purpose, with no need for OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s: TRS-80 and Apple II microcomputers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSs evolved from need for multipurpose computers </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Killer App </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VisiCalc spreadsheet helped sell the Apple II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First IBM-PC sold without a killer app </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOS outsold CP/M for IBM-PC due to pricing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Second Killer App </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus 1-2-3, a DOS-based spreadsheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created need for IBM/PC </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Figure 1-8 Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet
    32. 32. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple OS for Apple I and Apple II (non-GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1976: Steve Jobs created Apple I and founded Apple Computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1977: Apple introduces Apple II at the West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1978: Added disk drives for Apple II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GUI Apple OSs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1982: Apple Lisa computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1984: Macintosh computer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GUI Apple OSs (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1999: Mac OS 9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-user </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak in memory management and multitasking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2001: Mac OS X </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Mac OS based on UNIX </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has both a GUI and a CLI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS-DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1981: IBM-PC with PC-DOS by Microsoft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single-tasking with very limited memory support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No native GUI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No built-in security functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft developed several versions of MS-DOS </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Figure 1-9 MS-DOS prompt with the Format command
    36. 36. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS/2 (Operating System/2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1987: Version 1.0 introduced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Microsoft and IBM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 had costly memory and disk requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1990’s: IBM introduced OS/2 Warp mainly for servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2003: IBM ended development of new versions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2004: IBM sold PC division to China-based Lenovo Group </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Version is a new level of Windows OS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edition is a unique product based on a version (several editions per version) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1985: Windows 1 – a GUI on top of DOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1990: Windows 3.0 provided better support for legacy DOS applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 3. x works in Real mode, Standard mode, and 386 Enhanced mode </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1992: Windows 3.1 successful with MS Office </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Figure 1-10 Windows 3.1 desktop
    39. 39. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows for Workgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOS and earlier versions of Windows had no built-in network support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1992: Windows for Workgroups 3.1 and 3.11 enabled peer-to-peer networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still dependent on DOS </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1993: First Microsoft OS to take full advantage of the capabilities of the Intel 386 protected mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two main versions of NT – one for servers and another for desktop computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1996: Windows NT 4.0 with a GUI similar to Windows 95 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft no longer sells or supports Windows NT </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Figure 1-11 Windows NT 4.0 desktop with open windows
    42. 42. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 95 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1995: Windows 95 introduced; predated Windows NT Workstation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A continuation of the Windows 3.X model: GUI on top of DOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both 16-bit and 32-bit code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A new GUI </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 98 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1998: An upgrade to Windows 95 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More stable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater integration with Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More customization options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support for new devices like DVD drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawback: Lacked local security </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Figure 1-12 MS Windows 98 desktop with open windows
    45. 45. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Me </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000: An upgrade to Windows 98 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved music, video, and home networking support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided both utilities and applications for dealing with PC software configuration, digital music, and video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Last Windows version based on Windows 95 kernel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted the home market </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000: Introduced in several editions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Professional (for desktops and laptops) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Server </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Advanced Server </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Enterprise Edition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combines the best of Windows 98 and Windows NT </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Figure 1-13 MS Windows 2000 desktop
    48. 48. Yesterday’s Operating Systems <ul><li>The Evolution of Microcomputer OSs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2001: Several editions, but no server version </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Home Edition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professional (enhanced security features) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Media Edition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most editions were 32-bit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP 64-bit Edition for Intel Itanium processor platform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support life cycle for XP is ending </li></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Figure 1-14 MS Windows XP desktop with open windows
    50. 50. Table 1-2: Summary of Current Desktop OSs Today’s Desktop OSs
    51. 51. Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows Vista </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007: A new GUI, other improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But not widely adopted </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Figure 1-15 The Windows Vista desktop
    53. 53. Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements that solved problems with Vista </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Figure 1-16: The Windows 7 desktop
    55. 55. Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows 8 </li></ul>
    56. 56. Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows File Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT file systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, exFAT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logical structure includes file allocation table and special files called directories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in Windows NT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In subsequent Windows except Windows 9x and Windows Me </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports very large disk volumes and security </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Windows File Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File systems for optical drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM File System (CDFS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal disk Format (UDF) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live File System </li></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Mac OS X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple used proprietary hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-1990s to 2005: Apple used Motorola PowerPC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2005 to present: Intel platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X is only licensed to run on Apple computers </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Figure 1-17 Mac OS X GUI
    60. 60. Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeled on UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for original developer, Linus Benedict Torvalds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begun in 1991 by Torvalds and others as open-source for modern computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in the C language using the GNU C Compiler (GCC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many free or inexpensive bundles </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. Today’s Desktop OSs <ul><li>Linux (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available in both 32-bit and 64-bit distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking / multi-user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell, Red Hat, and others distribute such bundles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest-growing computer server OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making inroads on desktop computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports several file systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old Minux, ext, ext2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Journaling in ext3, ReiserFS, JFS, XFS </li></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Figure 1-18 Red Hat Linux directory listing (ls command)
    63. 63. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO1.1 An Overview of Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer consists of hardware and two types of software: operating system software and applications software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating system allows the user to interact with the computer hardware. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain computer hardware is common to most computers. The basic components include the processor, motherboard, RAM, ROM BIOS, video adapter, display screen, keyboard, pointing device, and other peripherals. </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO1.1 An Overview of Operating Systems (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common computers in use today include desktops, laptops, server systems, and handheld devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most, if not all, current operating systems provide a user interface, job management, task manage-ment, memory management, file management, device management, and security. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are four categories of operating systems: single-user / single-tasking, single-user / multi-tasking, multiuser/multitasking, and real-time. </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO1.1 An Overview of Operating Systems (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today’s popular operating systems for desktops and laptops come in versions for 32-bit and 64-bit processing. The biggest advantage of a 64-bit OS over a 32-bit version of the same OS is that the amount of memory supported is much greater in a 64-bit OS. </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.2 Yesterday’s Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The history of current computers and their OSs involved many technical advances and the imagination of a multitude of innovative people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX is the oldest popular operating system and comes in versions for very large computers, as well as microcomputers. It is a portable OS that is usable on a variety of computer system platforms, with only minor alterations required for the underlying architecture. </li></ul></ul>
    67. 67. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.2 Yesterday’s Operating Systems (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early microcomputers included the MITS Altair 8800, the Apple I and Apple II, Radio Shack’s TRS-80, and the Commodore, all introduced in the 1970s. The Apple computers came with the Apple OS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain “killer apps,” notably VisiCalc and Lotus 1-2-3, made microcomputers appeal to ordinary people who were attracted to programs that automated formerly manual tasks </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.2 Yesterday’s Operating Systems (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM introduced the PC in 1981, and it far exceeded the expectations of IBM with Microsoft BASIC in ROM and PC DOS for computers with a floppy disk drive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft made MS-DOS available to third-party PC manufacturers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows evolved from the first version in 1985 to Windows 7, introduced in 2009. </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.2 Yesterday’s Operating Systems (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Apple Mac computer, introduced in 1984, came with the MAC OS System. This OS line continued through Mac OS 9, introduced in 1999, and phased out after Mac OS X was introduced 2001 </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.3 Today’s Desktop Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating systems common today include Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Mac OS X, and Linux. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows supports several file systems for hard drives and optical disks. The most feature-rich and secure file system for hard drives is the NTFS file system. </li></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.3 Today’s Desktop Operating Systems (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X, based on NextStep, an OS with a UNIX kernel, runs only on Apple Macintosh computers, and while it supports several file systems, the preferred file system for hard drives is HFS+. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linus Torvalds developed Linux as a collaborative effort beginning in 1991. A full multitasking / multiuser operating system, it is available in both 32-bit and 64-bit distributions and can run on nearly any computer. </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Chapter 1 Summary <ul><li>LO 1.3 Today’s Desktop Operating Systems (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux supports several file systems for hard drives and optical disks. The most feature-rich and secure file system for hard drives is the ext3 file system. </li></ul></ul>

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