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Issues and Trends in HBI Ch02 pp Issues and Trends in HBI Ch02 pp Presentation Transcript

  • Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals Fifth Edition CHAPTER 2 Hardware, Software, and the Roles of Support Personnel Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Learning Outcomes1. Explain what computers are and how they work.2. Describe the major hardware components of computers.3. Understand what networks are, and list the major types of network configurations. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Learning Outcomes4. Explain some considerations for choosing and using a computer system.5. List the advantages and disadvantages of mainframe, client─server, and thin client technology. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Learning Outcomes6. Compare and contrast mobile and wireless devices, including personal digital assistants, cell phones, MP3 players, iPods, iPhones, and the BlackBerry® in terms of basic technology and implications for use.7. Understand the major types of software commonly used with computer systems. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Learning Outcomes8. Discuss the roles and responsibilities of various computer support personnel. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Computer• Electronic device that collects, stores, processes, and retrieves data, comprised of hardware, software, data, rules for the use of the total system, and the user Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Hardware• Physical parts of a computer• Main components – Input devices – The central processing unit – Primary and secondary storage devices – Output devices Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Input Devices• Allow the user to submit data into the computer• Examples – Keyboard, mouse, trackball, or joystick – Touch sensitive screen, stylus – Microphone – Fax modem card – Image scanner, fingerprint scanner – Digital camera and Webcam Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)• The “brain” of the computer• Main factor in computer speed and capability Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)• Three components: – Arithmetic logic unit—executes numeric instructions – Memory  Read-only memory (ROM)—always present  Random access memory (RAM)— temporary storage – Control unit—manages instructions to other parts of the computer Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Storage Devices• Secondary storage retains data after the computer is turned off or in a medium separate from the computer – Examples  Hard disk drives  USB flash drives  Digital versatile (or) video discs (DVDs)/Blu-ray disk  “Cloud” drives (virtual hard drives hosted through the Internet) Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Output Devices• Allow the user to view and possibly hear processed data – Examples  Monitor screens  Projectors  Printers  Speakers  Fax modem boards Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Peripheral Hardware• Any piece of hardware connected to a computer – Examples of peripheral devices  Monitors  Keyboards  Terminals  Mouse and other pointing devices such as trackballs and touchpads Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Peripheral Hardware• Any piece of hardware connected to a computer – Examples of peripheral devices  Secondary storage devices such as external CD and DVD drives and memory sticks Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Types of Computers• Supercomputers• Mainframe computers• Minicomputers• Personal computers, laptops, and tablets• PDAs• Hybrid and combination devices• Embedded—small, limited function device Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Supercomputers• Largest, most expensive type of computer• Perform billions of instructions every second• Found in government and academic settings Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Mainframe Computers• Large computers• Capable of processing several million instructions per second• Support multiple organizational functions• Found in large hospitals and businesses Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Minicomputers• Scaled-down mainframe computer• Less expensive than mainframes• Can support the simultaneous needs of multiple users• Commonly used to support network communications• May be found in healthcare settings Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Personal Computer• Previously known as a microcomputer• Designed for individual use• May be used by itself or connected to other devices• Now often used to refer to smaller laptop and tablet computers as well Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)• Small, handheld computer but limited capability• Previously used mainly to store appointments and phone numbers• Supports many common software applications and data collection• Can store extensive reference materials• Can send and receive data electronically Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Hybrid or Combination devices• Combine PDA capability with cell phones, MP3 players or other functions• Examples – BlackBerry® – iPhone – iPod Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Networks• Combination of hardware and software that allows communication and electronic transfer of information between computers• Types – Local area networks (LANs)—limited geographic region – Wide area networks (WANs) Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Networks• Types – Thin client technology—system processing occurs on the server with minimal hardware requirements at the local level Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Choosing a Computer• Consider – Types of applications required – Complex jobs require higher processor speed and more memory – Number of workers who need computer access Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Choosing a Computer• Consider – Storage needs – Backup options – Budget considerations – Maintenance considerations Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Ergonomics• Also known as human factors or the interaction between people and their environment• The optimal environment fosters productivity by reducing operator fatigue and discomfort Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Ergonomics• Significant in the set-up and use of computer equipment• This is a risk management consideration. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Software• Instructions directing the work of computers• Otherwise known as programs or applications Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Software• Types – Operating systems—manage all computer activities, e.g., Windows – Application software—designed to accomplish a particular task, e.g., Word, Excel, Photoshop – Utility programs—help to manage the computer and its data Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Computer Support Personnel• Call or helpdesk • Network staff administrator• PC specialist • Trainer• Superuser • Security officer• Clinical liaison • Webmaster Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Computer Support Personnel• Clinical information • Chief privacy analyst (CIA) officer• Programmer • Compliance officer• Interface engineer • Continuity planning • Clinical systems analyst Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Helpdesk Staff and PC Specialists• Typically the first resource• Most frequent contact with users• Handle problems that include hardware and software applications• Triage problems that they cannot fix to other support staff Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Superuser and Clinical Liaison• Both have frequent contact with staff• Superusers – Provide patient care or related services – Show interest in “computer stuff” and expertise in the use of computers and information systems – Serve as a resource in the work area Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Superuser and Clinical Liaison• Clinical liaison – Translates user needs to computer people and vice versa Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Clinical Information Analyst (CIA) • Synthesizes data and interprets its relationship to clinical interventions Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Behind “the Scenes”• Many computer support staff members are instrumental to making information systems work but are rarely seen.• These staff members include programmers, analysts, engineers, Webmasters, and persons responsible for security and compliance with regulations. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar
  • Future Directions• Technology will become easier to use, smaller, and more pervasive.• The need for persons to support computers and information systems will continue to grow and evolve.• Systems currently prohibited will become commonplace as technology advances. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, Fifth Edition Toni Hebda • Patricia Czar