Survey of Operating Systems Ch10

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  • TCP/IP can be a daunting subject to students. Explain that this protocol suite is the foundation of the Internet and many private networks. Reassure them that TCP/IP is installed automatically into the OSs studied in this book, and that the component that needs configuring, Internet Protocol, is usually configured automatically on desktop computers.
  • IPv6 autoconfigures, meaning that each IPv6 host automatically configures its local address, called a Link-local IPv6 Address. This concept is not mentioned in the text, although Figure 10-2 shows the Link-local IPv6 Address in the Windows 7 Network Connection Details box.
  • Some of the concepts discussed here do not apply to IPv6, but some do. For instance, IPv6 has the equivalent of a public address (in addition to the Link-local address) for use on public networks (the Internet). This is a global unicast address. Like an IPv4 address, an IPv6 global unicast address has a portion that identifies the host and a portion that identifies the subnet, but one of the improvements in IPv6 is that each global address has another portion called a global routing prefix for routing a packet over the Internet (or any routed network). Do not go into too much detail, but assure them that IPv6 has ways to handle public and private networks as well as automatically assigning addresses to network connections.
  • Here is a fun activity to do with the students using IPv4 address, but the general concepts apply to IPv6. It is simply easier to use IPv4 addresses. First, expand on the street address analogy by "assigning" an IP address to each student. Using one piece of 8x10 paper for each student, label the paper "IP Configuration" and write a unique IP address just below the title on each piece of paper. For instance use the range of 192.168.100.1 to 192.168.100.254. Distribute the papers to the students. Then assign a subnet mask of "255" to the addresses and ask each student to indicate the portion of each IP address that is the Host ID and the Net ID. Next have them determine the host ID and net ID for a subnet mask of "255.255," and finally, have them determine the same with a mask of "255.255.255." Once students understand how the mask affects the IP address, settle on one of the masks and have each student write it on the next line of the paper. Explain that to communicate with other computers on their network they must all be on the same logical network. That is, they must all have the same net ID. Now hold up a piece of paper representing your IP configuration and show an address a little dissimilar from their addresses, such as 192.168.200.254. Ask if they use the mask of "255" on all the "paper" addresses will this host be able to communicate with all the other hosts on the network? Then ask the same question about using the masks of "255.255" and "255.255.255." Do not get carried away with more masks that do not break at the octet borders, such as "255.254," unless it is a more advanced group that needs to be challenged. Have the students retain their pieces of paper. When teaching default gateway concepts, hold up another piece of paper with the default gateway address on the same logical network as the student's addresses. Have the students add this address to their IP Configuration paper In the book, the address used in the text and in Figure 10.6 on Page 368 to explain how a subnet mask works is 192.168.100.2 (see above). Point out that the addresses shown in Figure 10-5 are on a different network (192.168.1), and this is the example referred to in the explanation of Default Gateway. Both examples are correct. This is a teaching moment when you can talk about these two different NetIDs.
  • Step-by-Step 10.01 Examine a Connection’s IP Configuration in a GUI. If Mac or Linux computers are available have the students look at the IP configuration on those systems. On the Mac they will need to open Network Preferences, and in the GNOME GUI in Ubuntu they can open Network Tools.
  • Emphasize that IPCONFIG is an important command to use when troubleshooting connectivity problems. It is very useful because IP configuration information does not show in the TCP/IP Properties dialog box of some DHCP clients. Demonstrate use of this command in whatever OS you are using, and have the students do the Try This on page 371, written for Windows, but they can also use ifconfig command in the BASH shell in Linux or Mac OS X, using the –a option in place of /all .
  • Step-by-Step 10.02 Configuring a Dial-up Client. In this exercise students will configure a dial-up client by creating a new dial-up connection.
  • The discussion of high-speed Internet connections is limited to the types of service available in homes or small businesses. Point out that larger businesses and schools will have very-high-speed service such as the phone network’s T-Carrier service (T-1 or T-3).
  • Explain the difference between Asynchronous DSL (ADSL) and Synchronous DSL (SDSL). Explaining that ADSL works for most home and small business use because most of the traffic is downstream, which is the faster direction of ADSL.
  • Data services over cellular and satellite networks are WWANs.
  • Demonstrate the configuration menus in whatever browser you use, showing parallels to the Internet Explorer and Firefox settings described in the chapter.
  • Step-by-Step 10.03 Connecting a Client to an E-Mail Account. In this exercise students will configure Windows Live Mail. The basic steps are similar in other e-mail clients. They will need a previously configured Internet connection. See the bulleted list at the beginning the Step-by-Step on page 392. Have students write the information they will use next to each item.
  • The three methods are described on the following slides. Point out that the first method, Homegroups, only works between Windows 7 computers. It also lacks subtlety: if you share a folder you share it with everyone, you cannot restrict one participant from that folder, while allowing him to access other folders. The only control is the single password, entered the first time each client connects to the homegroup. You can only have one homegroup per network. The second method, sharing the Windows 7 public folder works with a mix of Windows versions that you want to have connect to shares on a Windows 7 computer.
  • Step-by-Step 10.04 Creating and Joining a Homegroup . Have only one student create the homegroup in steps one through three. Be sure to write down the password generated by Windows. Then, have the other students perform step 4 and join the homegroup. Then have them experiment with sharing. On lab computers you may not have much in the way of pictures, music, videos, and printers to share. To make it interesting, have the first student go back into Homegroup panel, add the Documents folder, and add files to this folder, if necessary. Then have students experiment with what they can or cannot do as they all try to access these files.
  • Step-by-Step 10.05 Testing an IP Configuration . In this exercise students will learn how to troubleshoot connectivity problems using the basic tools: IPCONFIG and PING. They will view their TCP/IP configuration with IPCONFIG, gathering information that they will use with the PING command to test connectivity. For students working at Linux PCs or Macs, instruct them on using ifconfig at the BASH shell.
  • Survey of Operating Systems Ch10

    1. 1. Chapter 10 The Client Side of Networking McGraw-Hill
    2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Configure a client for a TCP/IP network </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Work with basic Internet clients </li></ul><ul><li>Configure File and Print clients </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot common network client problems </li></ul>
    3. 3. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP is a suite of protocols that work together to allow similar and dissimilar systems to communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The protocol suite of the Internet and many private networks </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The two core protocols are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP protocol automatically installs in Windows when a network card is present </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the accurate delivery of messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verifies and resends pieces that fail to reach the destination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP has several sub-protocols </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packages communications in chunks, called packets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows a computer to be identified by a logical address, called an IP address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP has several sub-protocols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP addresses are very important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A computer cannot communicate on a TCP/IP network without a valid IP address </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Addressing Fundamentals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An IP address is assigned to a network adapter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a modem and LAN adapter are present, each connects a computer to a different network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A desktop computer usually has only a single network device connecting it to a specific network, so that is the only address by which the computer is known on that network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP address identifies the host and network to which the host connects </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Figure 10-1 Windows 7 Local Area Connection Properties dialog box
    9. 9. Figure 10-2 Windows 7 Network Connection Details box
    10. 10. Figure 10-3 Mac OS X Network preferences pane
    11. 11. Figure 10-4 The Network Tools dialog box in the GNOME in Ubuntu
    12. 12. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Addressing Fundamentals (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Router is at the connecting point between network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses routing protocols </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends each packet to the next router toward destination </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each computer that directly connects to the Internet must have a globally unique IP address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two versions: IPv4 and IPv6 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Addressing Fundamentals (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In use for three decades </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit addressing (2 32 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.3 billion possible IP addresses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation methods have reduced the usable number </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Addressing Fundamentals (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) (cont.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPv4 address has four parts in dotted-decimal format </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 192.168.1.134 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each number is within 0 to 255 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules determine how these numbers are used </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Last IPv4 block assigned on February 1, 2011 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Addressing Fundamentals (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 Addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet transitioning to Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New addressing scheme with many more addresses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturers and standards organizations preparing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>128-bit addressing (2 128 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eight groups of hexadecimal numbers separated by colons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which addresses can you use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned to hosts on the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A host is a device that has an IP address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source address must be unique on the entire Internet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destination address must be unique on the entire Internet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private Addresses (examples are IPv4) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Table 10-1 IPv4 Private IP Address Ranges
    18. 18. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which addresses can you use? (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private Addresses (examples are IPv4) (cont.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not to be used on the Internet, but in only private IP networks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No permissions required </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A network device substitutes a private IP address to a unique Internet IP address on outgoing packets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming packets must be given the correct private address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How Does a Host Get an IP Address? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Static address assignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Address Assignment (DHCP and APIPA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most organizations do Automatic IP addressing via Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If no DHCP server responds, a Microsoft DHCP client will self-assign via Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Configuration Settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP Address of network card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subnet Mask </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Default Gateway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNS Servers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Figure 10-5 Manually configure TCP/IP in Windows using the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties dialog box
    22. 22. Figure 10-6 A subnet mask covers a portion of an IP address
    23. 23. Step-by-Step 10.01 Examine a Connection’s IP Configuration in a GUI Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network
    24. 24. Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network <ul><li>Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing an IP Configuration from a Command Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each OS surveyed in this book has a command line utility for viewing and managing an IP configuration at the CLI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows: IPCONFIG </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linux and Mac: ifconfig </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displays the IP configuration of network interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ipconfig /all or ifconfig –a displays IP configuration for all network interfaces </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Figure 10-7 The output from running the command IPCONFIG /all
    26. 26. Figure 10-8 The result of running the ifconfig –a command in a Terminal window in Mac OS X
    27. 27. Figure 10-9 The result of running the ifconfig –a command at the $ prompt in Ubuntu Linux
    28. 28. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Internet Service Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For a fee, provide Internet access to individuals or companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They may also offer other Internet- related services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISP may provide proprietary software for Web browsing, e-mail management, and accessing other Internet services </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Figure 10-10 Connecting to the Internet from a single computer or from a LAN
    30. 30. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Internet Service Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some ISPs specialize in certain connection types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground Control (www.groundcontrol.com) specializes in satellite Internet service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T-Mobile (www.tmobile.com) provides ISP services for cellular customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A local telephone company may provide ISP services for dial-up and DSL customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable TV providers offer cable Internet access </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Computer-to-Internet vs. LAN-to-Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer may have a direct Internet connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer may connect to the Internet through a LAN </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Wired Connectivity Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up Connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use traditional phone system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive WAN option </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>56Kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need ISP service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot use voice and data on same line </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Figure 10-11 A remote client dials in to the netwo rk
    34. 34. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Wired Connectivity Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up Connections (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installing a Modem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify modem works </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connect external modem to computer and power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal modem is turned on with the computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Install from Phone and Modem Options applet in Control Panel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Figure 10-12 The Windows 7 Phone and Modem dialog box
    36. 36. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Wired Connectivity Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up Connections (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a Dial-up Connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After installing a modem, configure a connection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet browsers and e-mail clients can be configured to open connection when the application is started </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Step-by-Step 10.02 Configuring a Dial-up Client Connecting to the Internet
    38. 38. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Wired Connectivity Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital telephone service that simultaneously transmits voice, data, and control signals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a special modem and phone service </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 128,000 bits per second </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneously supports data, voice, and fax machine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN is dropping out of favor due to better alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Wired Connectivity Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses advanced digital signal processing over telephone network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires changes in components on telephone network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneously supports data, voice, and fax machine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated circuit from home or office to central office </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several versions available (ADSL, SDSL, HDSL, VDSL) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>128 Kbps to 8.58 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Wired Connectivity Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable television companies use a portion of bandwidth for data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster than common telephone lines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneously supports data, audio, and video </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more users on the same cable segment, the less bandwidth per user </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Wireless Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless WAN (WWAN) Connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital wireless network that covers a large geographical area – Miles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible to mobile users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More susceptible to environmental factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fully bidirectional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires antenna tuned to proper radio frequency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: cellular Internet connection </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Figure 10-13 A WWAN includes devices that retransmit the wireless signal
    43. 43. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Wireless Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For areas without wired broadband </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important part of overall communications network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary or mobile installations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster downstream than upstream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires an earth-based communications station </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dish points at a data satellite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite links to land-based operations center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signal routed to the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Figure 10-14 Accessing the Internet through a satellite WAN connection
    45. 45. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>WLAN Connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless local area network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of Wi-Fi standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n is the latest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range in feet (meters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not connect directly to an ISP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to another LAN or device connected to a WAN </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Sharing an Internet Connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through a Windows computer using Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer becomes a router </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires two network connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer must remain powered on for others to share connection </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Sharing an Internet Connection (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires two connections on the router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One connection to a broadband modem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One connection to LAN </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Using a Virtual Private Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile users and remote offices can connect to a corporate office over the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote access VPN over dial-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site-to-site VPN connects two networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulated private network running inside a &quot;tunnel&quot; from endpoint to endpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional security provided by encrypting the data and providing authentication of both endpoints of the tunnel </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Figure 10-15 A remote access VPN
    50. 50. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>Web Browsers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify navigation of the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate plain text language into rich, colorful pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape Navigator (first successful browser) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed by Mosaic Communications (later Netscape Communications) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AOL purchased Netscape Communications in 1999; discontinued support of Netscape Navigator in 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work continued by nonprofit Mozilla Foundation (www.mozilla.org) with products like Firefox </li></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>Web Browsers (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozilla Firefox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considered safer than Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add-ons include FireFTP, a FTP client </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Chrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive look </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free updates for Windows and Mac OSs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Figure 10-16 Mozilla Firefox
    53. 53. F igure 10-17 Google Chrome with the wrench menu open
    54. 54. Figure 10-18 Microsoft Internet Explorer
    55. 55. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>Web Browsers (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Safari </li></ul></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>Web Browsers (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browser Configuration Options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Browsers are full-featured applications with multiple settings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>View Menu holds GUI Preferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tools for general settings and security </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Figure 10-19 The Firefox View settings
    58. 58. Figure 10-20 Internet Options for Internet Expl orer
    59. 59. Figure 10-21 The Firefox Tools menu
    60. 60. Figure 10-22 The IE Tools menu
    61. 61. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>Web Browsers (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and Web Browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cookies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Browsing History and Passwords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Browsing history valuable to marketers and others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security versus browsing convenience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage browser history </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delete recent history </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manage how long history is saved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private Browsing (InPrivate Browsing in Internet Explorer) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saved Passwords to Web sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Figure 10-23 Firefox Options menu
    63. 63. Figure 10-24 IE Internet Options menu
    64. 64. Table 10-2 A Comparison of Options for Firefox and Internet Explorer
    65. 65. Figure 10-25 The Firefox privacy page with settings to protect you while browsing
    66. 66. Figure 10-26 Password saving is off for IE in this dialog box
    67. 67. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>Web Browsers (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and Web Browsers (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad Neighborhoods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block bad sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List Trusted sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IE settings for sites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set security levels for zones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four pre-defined zones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>Web Browsers (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and Web Browsers (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pop-ups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All major browsers have pop-up blockers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow or Deny pop-ups per site </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>E-mail Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just for PCs anymore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some mail clients are specific to a mail server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IBM Lotus Domino </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novell GroupWise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most mail clients are capable of accessing a variety of servers </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>E-mail Clients (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail client retrieves messages and displays list of all messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User selects messages, responds, saves, creates new, adds attachments to outgoing messages, sends messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of E-mail Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POP3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMAP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web mail </li></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>E-mail Clients (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Outlook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connects to all three types of accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core e-mail features plus productivity software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports multiple accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Live Mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail and other features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet e-mail accounts only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports multiple accounts </li></ul></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>Configuring and Using an E-Mail Client </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of mail server (POP3, IMAP, or HTTP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Account name and password </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNS name of incoming mail server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name of an outgoing mail server (POP3 or IMAP server) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    73. 73. Step-by-Step 10.03 Connecting a Client to an E-Mail Account Using Internet Clients
    74. 74. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>FTP Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP) used to transfer files between computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A simple and fast method for transferring files over a TCP/IP network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience of an FTP Client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saves settings for connecting to FTP servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>URL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Password </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    75. 75. Figure 10-27 The user interface of FireFTP, an FTP client
    76. 76. Using Internet Clients <ul><li>FTP Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymous FTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User name and password not required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users connect using the Anonymous account </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users only have permissions assigned to the Anonymous account. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring an FTP client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host name of the FTP server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User ID and password (if applicable) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive mode and/or Secure (SSL) connections (if applicable) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    77. 77. Sharing Files and Printers <ul><li>Server Side of File and Print Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft's Server Message Block (SMB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novell's NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common Internet File System (CIFS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network File System (NFS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File and print server provides network access to files and printers </li></ul></ul>
    78. 78. Figure 10-28 The first five icons in the right pane are computers with a server service turned on
    79. 79. Sharing Files and Printers <ul><li>The Client Side of File and Print Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File and print client for each file-sharing protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes both user interface and file-sharing protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client for Microsoft Networks automatically installs and enables </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. Sharing Files and Printers <ul><li>Sharing Files and Printers in Windows 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing with HomeGroups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing with Public Folders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Sharing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    81. 81. Sharing Files and Printers <ul><li>Sharing Files and Printers in Windows 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Methods (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing with HomeGroups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A single password for all members of the homegroup </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Password just once on each client </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a homegroup with Windows 7 Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate, or Enterprise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any Windows 7 edition can be a homegroup client </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other versions of Windows cannot participate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    82. 83. Step-by-Step 10.04 Creating and Joining a Homegroup Sharing Files and Printers
    83. 84. Sharing Files and Printers <ul><li>Sharing Files and Printers in Windows 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Methods (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing the Public Folder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 7 Master Public folder in Users folder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared by default to anyone with an account in the local accounts database </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If user is already logged on to another computer with identical credentials as a local account on the “server,” that user connects without a logon screen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move data into Public folder using Libraries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drop files and folders into a public folder in libraries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create local user accounts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    84. 85. Figure 10-29 The Public folder and its contents
    85. 86. Figure 10-30 The Pubic folders within each library
    86. 87. Sharing Files and Printers <ul><li>Sharing Files and Printers in Windows 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Methods (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing shares the old-fashioned way </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn on sharing one share at a time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giving users access to the share </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share any folder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disk folder and share folder separate objects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can give a different name to share than to disk folder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set share permissions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set NTFS permissions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    87. 88. Figure 10-31 Turning on advanced sharing for the Research folder
    88. 89. Figure 10-32 Custom permissions on a share
    89. 90. Troubleshooting Common Network Client Problems <ul><li>Built-in Network Diagnostics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 7 Network Diagnostics (GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finds problems in PC and beyond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: broadband modem problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides instructions to solve problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS X Network Utility (GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more knowledge of individual tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spares user from entering commands in Terminal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    90. 91. Figure 10-33 The Windows 7 Network Diagnostics tool
    91. 92. Figure 10-34 The Mac OS X Network Utility at work (notice the other utilities listed across the top)
    92. 93. Troubleshooting Common Network Client Problems <ul><li>Testing IP Configurations and Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP includes many protocols and CLI tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Windows: IPCONFIG and PING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Mac OS X: ifconfig and ping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify IP configuration with IPCONFIG or ifconfig </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot connection errors with the PING Command </li></ul></ul></ul>
    93. 94. Step-by-Step 10.05 Testing an IP Configuration Troubleshooting Common Network Client Problems
    94. 95. Troubleshooting Common Network Client Problems <ul><li>Troubleshooting Connection Problems with TRACERT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover why a connection to a Web site is slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traces the route taken by packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pings each of the intervening routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows time of response from each router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals bottleneck </li></ul></ul>
    95. 97. Troubleshooting Common Network Client Problems <ul><li>Troubleshooting DNS Errors by Using PING, NETSTAT, and NSLOOKUP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cannot find server or DNS Error” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name resolution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PING IP address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PING domain name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use another computer to connect to Web site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use NETSTAT to discover IP address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot DNS with NSLOOKUP </li></ul></ul></ul>
    96. 98. Figure 10-35 Pinging the FQDN www.google.com reveals the IP address
    97. 99. Figure 10-36 NETSTAT displays the IP address and protocol information of current connections
    98. 100. Figure 10-37 NSLOOKUP reveals a DNS problem
    99. 101. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP is the protocol suite needed to access the Internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are the core protocols of TCP/IP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An IP address is assigned to a network adapter or modem in a computer that connects it to a network. </li></ul></ul>
    100. 102. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv4 is a very old version of the protocol, slowly being replaced by IPv6. An IPv4 address is 32-bits long and usually expressed in dotted decimal form, such as 192.168.1.1. An IPv6 address is 128-bits long, expressed in eight groups of hexadecimal numbers separated by colons, such as 2002:2470:B8F9:1:20C:29FF:FE53:45CA. </li></ul></ul>
    101. 103. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public IP addresses are used for hosts on the Internet and each address must be unique on the entire Internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A private IP address is one of three ranges of IP addresses designated for use only on private networks. They are not to be used on the Internet, and you do not need to obtain permission to use these addresses on a private network. </li></ul></ul>
    102. 104. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers on a private network using private IP addresses get access to the Internet through a specialized device, usually a router. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each host on a TCP/IP network must have an IP address. A host receives an address by two general methods: automatically as a DHCP client via a network DHCP server (or a self-assigned APIPA address), or statically, which involves someone manually assigning an address to the host. </li></ul></ul>
    103. 105. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Configuring a Client for a TCP/IP Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to the IP address, there are several IP configuration settings including subnet mask, default gateway, DNS server, advanced DNS settings, and WINS settings. </li></ul></ul>
    104. 106. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Connecting to the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides individuals or entire companies access to the Internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common wired WAN technologies include dial-up, ISDN, DSL, and cable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN is a digital telephone service that simultaneously transmits voice, data, and control signaling over a single telephone line and can transfer data at up to 128,000 bits per second (128 Kbps). </li></ul></ul>
    105. 107. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Connecting to the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital subscriber line (DSL) service is similar to ISDN in its use of the telephone network, but it uses more advanced digital signal processing to compress more signals through the telephone lines and so is much faster than ISDN. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many cable television companies now offer Internet access through existing cable television connections using special cable modems. </li></ul></ul>
    106. 108. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Connecting to the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless options for connecting to the Internet include cellular networks, wireless wide area networks (WWANs), wireless LAN (WLAN) connections (if the WLAN ultimately connects to the Internet), and satellite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile users and remote offices often need to connect to the corporate intranet through the Internet using any of the connection technologies discussed earlier, with the addition of a virtual private network (VPN) for security. </li></ul></ul>
    107. 109. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Using Internet Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web technologies changed the look of Internet content from all text to rich and colorful graphics, and made it simple to navigate the Web by using a special type of client called a Web browser. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The top Web browsers are Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Internet Explorer. </li></ul></ul>
    108. 110. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Using Internet Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox, Chrome, and IE have a large number of configuration settings that range from GUI preferences to settings critical to protecting your privacy and maintaining security for your computer and personal data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An e-mail service and client are defined by the protocols they use, which are POP, IMAP, and Web mail (HTTP protocol). </li></ul></ul>
    109. 111. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Using Internet Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While some e-mail services require dedicated clients, some e-mail clients can interact with a variety of e-mail server types. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To configure any e-mail client you need a specific set of information: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The type of mail server (POP3, IMAP, or HTTP). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your account name and password. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The DNS name of the incoming mail server. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you are preparing to connect to a POP3 or IMAP server, you will also need to know the name of an outgoing mail server. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    110. 112. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Using Internet Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a protocol used to transfer files between a computer running the FTP server service and an FTP client. It is simple and fast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An FTP site that allows anonymous connections is an anonymous FTP site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a site requires a user name and password, it will prompt you, whether you are using a Web browser to connect or an FTP client. </li></ul></ul>
    111. 113. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Using Internet Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Web browser is fine for occasionally connecting to FTP sites, but use an FTP client to save settings for FTP sites you visit repeatedly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To configure an FTP client you will need: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The host name of the FTP server. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User ID and password (if applicable). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Account (if applicable). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    112. 114. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Sharing Files and Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A file and print client includes both the user interface and the underlying file sharing protocols to access a file sharing system on a network file and print server. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing protocols include Microsoft’s SMB; Novell’s NCP, CIFS, NFS used in Linux and UNIX; and the P2P file sharing protocol used to share files over the Internet. </li></ul></ul>
    113. 115. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Sharing Files and Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The client for Microsoft networks, installed when a Windows operating system is installed, allows users to see those Microsoft computers on the network that have file and printer sharing turned on, whether they are using SMB or CIFS. </li></ul></ul>
    114. 116. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Troubleshooting Common Client Connection Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the OSs surveyed in this book have GUI-based Network Diagnostics that combine many functions. </li></ul></ul>
    115. 117. Chapter 10 Summary <ul><li>Troubleshooting Common Client Connection Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several command-line commands help in diagnosing and solving network client connection problems. These utilities include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPCONFIG </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRACERT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NETSTAT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NSLOOKUP </li></ul></ul></ul>

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