Male CancersPresented by:Jhon Mar Lopez BellosAAPD2A – Class ‘10-’11PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
Cancer classof diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion that intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, and sometimes metastasis, or spreading to other locations in the body via lymph or blood. These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which do not invade or metastasize.
DefinitionA cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most are slow growing. Cancer cells may spread to the other parts of the body: Bones Lymph Nodes
Etiology Factors implicated in the development of the cancer: Genetics Diet Viral
Signs and Symptoms Earlyprostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. Often diagnosed with elevated Prostate- specific Antigen (Protein). Frequent urination Nocturia Hematuria Dysuria
Advanced prostate cancer can spread and cause additional symptoms: Bone pain Vertebrae Pelvis Ribs Femur
Methods of Control Monitoring of tumor progress or symptoms. Radical Prostatectomy. Radiation Therapy Chemotherappy
Prevention and Control Exercise Proper Diet More frequent ejaculation (though other studies have shown no benefit.) Having elevated levels of long-chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids.
Program for Prevention The Philippine Cancer Control Program, begun in 1988, is an integrated approach utilizing primary, secondary and tertiary prevention in different regions of the country at both hospital and community levels. Six leading cancers (lung, breast, liver, cervix, oral cavity, colon and rectum) are discussed.
Screening Procedure Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) Usually done first. For any man over 50 or 40. With urinary problems or not.
You may be asked to bend over a table or to lie on your side holding your knees close to your chest. The doctor slides a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the part of the prostate that lies next to it. You may find the DRE slightly uncomfortable, but it is very brief. This exam tells the doctor whether the gland has any bumps, irregularities, soft spots, or hard spots that require additional tests. If a prostate infection is suspected, the doctor might massage the prostate during the DRE to obtain fluid for examination under a microscope.
DefinitionA cancer that develops in the testicles. Most common among males aged 15-40. Highest cure rates of all cancers.
Etiology More than 95% are Germ Cell Tumors. 5% are sex cord-gonadal stromal Tumors.
Signs and Symptomsa lump in one testis which may or may not be painful. sharp pain or a dull ache in the lower abdomen or scrotum. a feeling often described as "heaviness" in the scrotum. low back pain (lumbago) tumor spread to the lymph nodes along the back.
shortness of breath (dyspnea), cough or coughing up blood (hemoptysis) from metastatic spread to the lungs. a lump in the neck due to metastases to the lymph nodes.
Methods of Control Three Basic Types: Surgery Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy
Prevention and Control Unfortunately, testicular cancer is a type of cancer that cant easily be prevented. There are simply no proven prevention methods. With most cancers, the best method of prevention is to avoid the risk factors. There is no way to avoid the risk factors for testicular cancer because most are out of the persons control, like age, race, and conditions occurring at birth.
Risk Factors: Having had an undescended testicle. Having had abnormal development of the testicles. Having a personal or family history of testicular cancer. Having Klinefelters syndrome. Being white.
Program for Prevention No formal prevention programs exist for testicular cancer.
Screening Procedure Generally, patients are checked frequently by their doctor and have regular blood tests to measure tumor marker levels. They also have regular x- rays and computed tomography, also called CT scans or CAT scans (detailed pictures of areas inside the body created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine).
Men who have had testicular cancer have an increased likelihood of developing cancer in the remaining testicle. Patients treated with chemotherapy may have an increased risk of certain types of leukemia, as well as other types of cancer. Regular follow-up care ensures that changes in health are discussed and that problems are treated as soon as possible.
Definition Can occur anywhere along the penile shaft, but most are on the foreskin or head (glans). Usually a slow-growing cancer and is curable if discovered early.
EtiologyA disease of poor hygiene. Higher on men who are not circumcised.
Signs and Symptoms Begins as a raised lump or lesion on the penis. It can begin more as an area of unexplained change in the color of the skin.
Prevention and Control ProperHygiene Circumcision
Risk Factors: Smoking increases your risk factor for penile cancer. Age and Gender Being infected with AIDS virus
Program for Prevention Departmentof Surgery and the Philippine General Hospital (PGH) - Operation Tule Not conducted anymore.
Screening Procedure In order to determine if an abnormality on the penis is cancer, a biopsy is needed in which a sample of skin tissues is removed for laboratory testing. If cancer is confirmed, tests to determine the extent of the cancer will be recommended, including:
Fine needle aspiration. A type of biopsy in which cells are removed through a thin needle that has been placed directly into the mass. Ultrasound. This procedure uses sound waves to help determine how deeply a tumor has invaded into the penis. CT Scan or MRI. A CT scan or MRI may reveal the presence of enlarged lymph nodes - an indication that the cancer has spread.