Plot is the action or sequence of events in a story
A plot is comprised of five basic elements:
Exposition—background information and basic situation such as setting (time and place) and characters are introduced
Rising Action—the events that lead up to the climax
Climax—the most intense moment or most suspenseful
Falling Action—the events that happen after the climax
Resolution—end of the story when all loose ends are tied up
Cause and effect is the connection or relationship between an event or reason, and its effects or results
A cause makes something occur; an effect is the outcome of the cause
Note: Each event can be the cause of another event, which would make the resulting event an effect. Therefore, the same event can be both a cause and effect depending on the situation.
Cause—Ponyboy fell asleep in the vacant lot
Effect—Ponyboy got home very late
Cause—Ponyboy got home very late
Effect—Darry was angry
Cause—Darry was angry
Effect—Darry hit Ponyboy
Cause—Darry hit Ponyboy
Effect—Ponyboy ran away
Sub-Plot is a smaller story within a larger story.
Ponyboy goes to the movie with Johnny They meet Cherry and Marcia They run into the Socs on their way home and the girls go with them so they leave. The Socs return later to fight Johnny and Pony Tim Shepard finds out that it was Dally that slit his tires. Tim sets out to find Dally for a fight Tim and Dally get into a fight Dally heads to Buck Merril’s to rest Ponyboy and Johnny go to Buck’s to ask Dally for help.
Conflict is the struggle or clash between opposing characters or opposing forces
External conflict: a struggle between a character and an outside force
Person versus person
Person versus society
Person versus nature
Person versus fate
Internal conflict: a struggle within a character
person versus self
Use The Outsiders to find the following forms of conflict and list them on your paper:
List 1 internal conflict from
List 1 external conflict (Character vs Character)
List 1 external conflict (Character vs Society)
List 1 external conflict (Character vs Nature)
The underlying or implicit meaning, concept, or message in a text
Think of theme as the moral of the story
It must be stated in sentence form
Example: You shouldn’t count your chickens before they hatch
Example: It is better to have loved and lost than to never have loved at all.
Pick your favorite fairy tale and describe the theme. Explain why you believe that is the theme of the fairy tale.
Point of view is the perspective from which a story is told
first person point of view : the narrator participates in the action and refers to himself/herself as “I”
second person point of view : not frequently used; the “you” indirections, explanations or arguments
third person point of view : the narrator is not a character in the story, and refers to the characters as “he” or “she” as the events are told
limited omniscient point of view : the narrator relates the inner thoughts and feelings of just one character
omniscient point of view : the narrator is all-knowing and can relate the inner thoughts and feelings of all the characters
Once upon a time there lived a princess who would have been perfectly happy except for one thing: In a moment of weakness, she had promised to marry a frog. Her father felt sorry for her, but he insisted that she keep her word (In face, he was a little nervous—he’d never met a talking frog before). “After all, a promise is a promise,” agreed her mother, who thought the frog was better looking than the princess’s last boyfriend. Little did any of the royal family know who the frog really was.
We get the thoughts and feeling of all of the characters, not just one of them
It does not just follow one character around, but rather the narrator seems to be looking down on the action and is all-knowing
The narrator is not a character in the story
I couldn’t believe that my parents were actually going to make me marry a slimy, ugly, bulgy-eyed frog! They didn’t feel sorry for me at all! All they cared about was a stupid promise I never thought I’d have to keep.
Only one person’s thoughts are presented
Told from one of the character’s perspectives
Uses the pronoun “I” when referring to the narrator
The princess tried desperately to get out of her promise. “It was all my parent’s fault,” she thought. They were so unfair. But she had a nagging feeling that she had only herself to blame—and the frog. “I wonder if the royal chef knows how to cook frog’s legs?” she said to herself.
the narrator is not a character in the story, and refers to the characters as “he” or “she” as the events are told
the narrator relates the inner thoughts and feelings of just one character
Write one paragraph about this photo from first-person point of view, another from third-person limited omniscient, and another from third-person omniscient point of view.
The feeling created in the reader, evoked through the language of the text
A literary device in which the author presents hints or clues about future events
Flashback is the opposite literary device, in which the author presents information that happened in an earlier time before the events currently taking place
Suspense is excitement cause by wondering what will happen (authors use many techniques to create suspense)
To evaluate is to make a judgment of quality based on evidence
Therefore, to evaluate the decision making process of characters would be to judge the quality of the way the character arrived at a decision
Do you think the process Johnny and Ponyboy used to come up with a plan after killing Bob was a quality process?