Sustainable development or barbarism


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sustainable development or barbarism

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OR BARBARISMFernando Alcoforado *ABSTRACTThis article aims to demonstrate that sustainable development is a requirement for thesurvival of humanity because it faces two major threats. One of them, of an economicnature, is represented by the general crisis of the world capitalist system that tends todrive the world economy into depression. Another threat, environmental, is representedby the depletion of natural resources of the planet, the uncontrolled growth of cities andthe catastrophic global climate change. The environmental responsibility ofgovernments, businesses and individuals is crucial for sustainable development isimposed globally, as well as the performance of sustainable leadership Theenvironmental responsibility of governments, businesses and individuals is crucial forsustainable development to exist globally, as well as the performance of sustainableleadership to avoid barbarism that would result in the maintenance of the currenteconomic model.Keywords: Sustainable development. Threats to the survival of humanity. The threat ofglobal economic crisis. The threat of depletion of natural resources. The threat ofuncontrolled growth of cities. The threat of global climate change. The environmentalresponsibility of governments, companies and individuals. Sustainable leadership.1. IntroductionSustainable development is a requirement for the survival of humanity because the era,in which we live, mankind is facing two major threats. One of them, of an economicnature, is represented by the general crisis of the world capitalist system that tends todrive the world economy to depression with the failure of governments, businessbankruptcies, mass unemployment and even the outbreak of civil wars and new worldconflagration as has occurred in the twentieth century with the 1st and 2nd World War.Another threat, environmental, is represented by the depletion of natural resources ofthe planet, the uncontrolled growth of cities and the catastrophic global climate changethat tends to produce a serious impact on economic activities and increased socialproblems of mankind.To avoid the catastrophic future that portends for humanity resulting from economicand environmental threats, it is essential to have the commitment of governments, thepublic and private productive sector and individuals with sustainable developmentmodel. This means that environmental responsibility must be assumed by governments,businesses and individuals. To succeed, sustainable development requires the existenceof sustainable leadership who must act at the level of governments, business and civilsociety, in the sense that economic progress and social carried out withoutcompromising the environment.2. The threat of global economic crisis 1
  2. 2. Eric Hobsbawm says that again, we face a fundamental crisis of capitalism as occurredin 1873 and 1929. Most economists believed that the free market would have amaximum economic growth, but also would provide a maximum welfare for the wholepopulation and that always rationally solve the problems it creates. It seemsunbelievable today, but the fact is that most economists believed about that over 30years (HOBSBAWM, Eric. En la tercera crisis. Interview Eric J. Hobsbawm. Magazine"El Viejo Topo" available on the website <www.elviejotopo . to>, 2009).With the outbreak of the crisis in 2008, the governments of capitalist countries had tointervene as the 1930s of the twentieth century, which at the time did not haveimmediate success, but do not know how to save the system of generalized economicdebacle is ongoing. According to Hobsbawm, to be a shift towards a new globaleconomy will take a long time. Macabre, in the 1930s of the twentieth century, therewas already a program for the solution of the crisis: the preparation of war. The globaleconomic crisis that was installed in 1929 only ended with the outbreak of World War2. Today, humanity will have to face a new world conflagration to save the worldcapitalist system? This conflagration could begin in the Middle East with the militaryintervention of the Western powers in Iran or Syria?Nouriel Roubini says that global growth is at risk after 2013. A "perfect storm" ofbudget woes in the U.S., economic slowdown in China, European debt restructuring andstagnation in Japan may combine to affect the global economy in 2013. As for China,Roubini believes that the country could face a economic "hard landing" in two yearsbecause the Chinese investment now represents nearly 50 percent of gross domesticproduct and sixty years of data show that overinvestment panoramas have always ledthe “landings” sudden the economy, as happened in the former Soviet Union in the1960s and 1970s and in East Asia in the 1990s [BLOG PEDLOWSKI. Mundo poderáviver em 2013 “tempestade global” pior que 2008 (World could live in 2013 "globalstorm" worse than 2008, says Roubini). Posted on the website <http :/ />].The current crisis is worse than that of 1929-1933, because it is absolutely global. Theinternational financial system no longer works. One indisputable fact is that theWashington Consensus is dead and depression that will last for many years. There is nogoing back to the absolute market that ruled the last 40 years, since the 1970s, accordingto Hobsbawm. The global crisis that began in 2008 is, to a market economy, which wasequivalent to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Moreover, this depression can lead,according to Hobsbawm, a new world system. We have to redesign everything towardthe future.The world economy goes to depression swiftly because the United States, EuropeanUnion and China have nowadays economic performance that calls into question theglobal economic recovery. Besides the deep crisis affecting the European Union, theUnited States did not show signs of recovery with high unemployment that is occurringthere and China shows signs of slowdown. Hangs in the air a syndrome economic 2
  3. 3. disintegration. This is the current unbearable debt of sovereign states in Europe and theUnited States. The Brazil that was immune to the effects of the global crisis of 2008shows at present signs of economic deterioration characterized by low GDP growth andthe return of inflation, which could mean the existence of a process of economicstagnation with inflation (stagflation).Figure 1 below shows that the global economy is in decline in GDP from 1980 to 2010,despite the growth recorded from 1995 to 2000. With the exception of China, the GDPof other countries have economic stagnation or decline. Figure 1 - Evolution of world GDPSource: IMF3. The threat of depletion of the planets natural resourcesOne indisputable fact is that humanity now consumes more natural resources than theplanet can replenish. The current rate of consumption is a threat to the future prosperityof humankind. In the last 45 years, the demand for earths natural resources has doubled,due to rising living standards in rich and emerging countries and increasing worldpopulation. Today humanity uses 50% of the planets fresh water. In 40 years will use 3
  4. 4. 80%. The geographical distribution of freshwater is uneven. Currently 1/3 of the worldpopulation lives in regions where water is scarce. The use of water unfit forconsumption is responsible for 60% of patients on the planet. Half the worlds rivers arecontaminated by sewage, pesticides and industrial waste [VEJA.COM. Cai do Céu, maspode faltar (Dropped from Heaven, but may be lacking). Available on website<>].Only 12% of Earths land is arable. Over the past 30 years has doubled the totalcultivable land affected by severe droughts due to global warming. In China every twoyears an area equivalent to the state of Sergipe in Brazil turns into desert. Of the 200fish species with greater commercial interest, 120 are exploited beyond sustainablelevel. At this rate, the amount of available fish has declined by over 90% by 2050. It isestimated that 40% of the area of the oceans is severely degraded by human activities.Over the past 50 years the number of dead zones has grown 10 times [ABREU LIMA,Roberta and VIEIRA, Vanessa. O WWF alerta para o esgotamento dos recursosnaturais (WWF warns of depletion of natural resources). Available on website< / 11/o-wwf-alerta-para-o-esgotamento-dos.html>].Since 1961, the amount of greenhouse gases discharged into the atmosphere by mangrew 10 times. This discharge accelerates global warming causing droughts, floods,extinction of species and the possibility of rising sea levels of up to 7 meters if occur themelting of the poles, Greenland and the mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Alps andthe Andes which result the disappearance of many islands and coastal cities. Thereduction since 1970 of specimens is 33% terrestrial, marine specimens correspondingto 14%, and specimens of freshwater is 35%. The world population is growing about 80million per year compounding the demand for water and its services [WWF BRAZIL.Planeta Vivo 2008 (Living Planet 2008). Available on the website<>].UN report on water usage confirms that without measures against waste and forsustainable consumption, access to drinking water and sanitation will be further reduced(SOS RIVERS OF BRAZIL. Bilhões sofrerão com falta de água e saneamento, dizrelatório da ONU (Billions will suffer from lack of water and sanitation, says UNreport). Available on website <>]. The UN report estimates that 5 billion people willsuffer from a lack of basic sanitation in 2030. In the world there is 1.197 billion peoplewithout access to safe water and 2.742 billion without sanitation (data from HumanDevelopment Report 2004) and, in Brazil, there are over 45 million people withoutaccess to safe drinking water and more than 90 million without access to sewage (IBGEdata in 2004). According to the UN, 41% of the current surface of the planet is formedby dry areas, such as the Brazilian semiarid region, and 2 billion people live in theseareas. All these people, in dry or wet areas, have no access to drinking water 4
  5. 5. [TAGUCHI, Clarissa. Ver para crer: uma guerra pela água pode estar prestes a sertravada (Seeing is believing: a water war may be about to be waged). Available onwebsite < .br/2006/03/ver-para-crer-uma-guerra-pela-gua-pode.html>].Water is becoming a source of wars due to international competition for waterresources. Many countries build large dams diverting water from natural drainagesystems of rivers to the detriment of others. The main water conflicts in the world todayinvolve Israel, Jordan and Palestine by the Jordan, Turkey and Syria by the EuphratesRiver, China and India by the Brahmaputra River, Botswana, Namibia and Angola bythe Okavango River, Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan and Egypt by Rio Bangladesh and IndiaNile and the Ganges River. In the Americas, the conflict between the United States andMexico for Colorado River water has intensified in recent years [SHIVA, Vandana. Asguerras pelos recursos naturais (Wars for natural resources). Available on website< 0617/pgrandesplumas.shtml>].If the peripheral capitalist countries copy the patterns of the developed capitalistcountries, the amount of fossil fuels consumed today would increase 10 times andmineral resources, 200 times [WWF BRAZIL. O que é desenvolvimento sustentável?(What is sustainable development?). Available on website <http:// /natureza_brasileira / questoes_ambientais / desenvolvimento_sustentavel />]. As formineral resources, iron, aluminum and titanium are possibly abundant in Earths crustwhose reserves can be considered unlimited. However, other non-renewable mineralformed by geological processes over millions of years show that reserves are reducedcontinuously being as scarce and valuable as fossil fuels (MEADOWS, Donella et alli.Beyond the limits. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 1992 ).For two centuries the extraction of mineral resources became more intense, removingincreasing amounts of nature. The concern is that most of these resources are notrenewable, or not replenished by nature. If the pace of extraction continues as is,mankind will certainly see some minerals become extinct. Based on existing reservestoday, certain mineral resources already have a possible date for run out, among themwe can mention gold, tin and nickel. Gold reserves must be ended by the year 2020. Thetin should be exhausted by the year 2020. The expected date for the end of the nickelreserves on the planet is around 2050. Many scientists say that oil will run out around2070 [BRASIL ESCOLA. O esgotamento de alguns minérios (Depletion of some ores).Available on website <>].Competition for resources like oil is currently the largest potential source of globalconflicts. The growth in demand for oil will outstrip supply in 2020 or 2025 overall,noting that the world is experiencing "the twilight of oil" that is, a time of transitionbetween abundance and scarcity. The dispute over the oil that remains will lead to apermanent state of war, characterized by the presence of great powers in their regions.In the past, large companies in the industry discovered more oil per year than they were 5
  6. 6. able to extract, which is no longer true today. There is currently more oil extraction thancapacity to replenish with new discoveries [BRAFMAN, Luciana. Disputa por petróleoleva a estado de guerra permanente (Struggle for oil leads to a state of permanent war).Available at web site < / fsp/brasil/fc1710200520.htm>].It seems that the wars of the twenty-first century will be the fulcrum as the battle fornatural resources that tend not to meet human needs. Our development model isreaching its limits. With the lack of natural resources necessary for their survival andthe absence of a world government that is capable of mediating conflicts, humanitytends to a regression to barbarism and cruel behavior. To avoid this catastrophicscenario, it is necessary that all the governments of all countries of the world seek toconclude a global social contract that enables the sustainable economic and socialdevelopment and rational use of natures resources for the benefit of all mankind.4. The threat of uncontrolled growth of citiesMost cities around the world grow disorderly, chaotically. The city became the mainhabitat of mankind. For the first time in human history, more than half of the populationis living in cities. This number, 3.3 billion people, should surpass the 5 billion in 2030.In the early twentieth century the urban population did not exceed 220 million people.Access to employment, services, public facilities and greater economic and socialwelfare is its greatest attraction for all who were attending to the cities. Much of theglobal environmental problems originate in the cities which makes hardly can achievesustainability at the global level without making them sustainable (BEAUJEU-GARNIER. J. Geografia Urbana (Urban Geography). Lisboa: Fundação CalousteGulbenkian, 1980).It is in cities that the social, economic and environmental sustainable developmentconverge more intensely, making it become necessary to be thought out, planned andmanaged in accordance with sustainable development model that aims to meet thecurrent needs of the population Earth without compromising its natural resources,bequeathing them to future generations. This means that the model of sustainabledevelopment in cities should be adopted aimed at aligning the economic and socialfactors with the environment. What makes a sustainable city? Is the right to urban land,housing, environmental sanitation, the urban infrastructure, transport and publicservices, work and leisure, for current and future generations.Sustainable cities are cities that have a policy of economic and social developmentharmonized with the natural and built environment. Sustainable cities have as aguideline the planning and control of land use in order to prevent degradation of naturalresources. A sustainable city should have clear policies and comprehensive sanitation,waste collection and treatment, water management, with the collection, treatment, reuseand economy; transportation systems that favor mass transit quality and safety; actionsthat preserve and expand green areas and use of clean and renewable energy, andfinally, public administration transparent and shared with civil society organizations. 6
  7. 7. In the current era in which the problems of global warming can lead to planetarycatastrophe, every city has to have a plan for adapting to climate change, especiallythose subject to extreme events. Coastal cities, for example, must have predictableplanning against rising sea levels, should worry about landslides on slopes, flooding,etc. resulting from inclement rains. Anyway, should have flexibility and adaptability tonew climatic requirements. It´s necessary to redesign the urban growth of cities in orderto integrate it with the natural environment, recover its beaches and its rivers now quitecommitted to the discharge of sewage, so that the city does not receive a hostileresponse of the natural environment.The master plans for urban development of cities should revitalize your old center withthe recovery of the building in a state of ruination and their playgrounds to becomepeaceful living spaces and comfortable for its inhabitants, providing all local goodurban infrastructure compatible the needs of its population and promote the formationand maintenance of self-contained neighborhoods to avoid disorderly urban expansionof its territory.The master plans for urban development should give priority to urban development andintensification within the built environment and the recovery of degraded environments.Risk areas unduly occupied by low-income populations should be subject tourbanization projects or, if not possible, to promote the relocation of its inhabitants withthe construction of new housing units. They are all large projects that require substantialresources generating activities that create jobs, income and well-being for thepopulation.The development planning of cities, the spatial distribution of population and economicactivities of the municipality and the territory under its influence should avoid andcorrect the distortions of urban growth and its negative effects on the environment. Inevery city should be adopted a long-term strategic planning based on sustainabledevelopment.5. The threat of global climate changeGlobal climate change will occur as a result of global warming resulting from thegreenhouse effect caused by the retention of heat in the lower atmosphere of the Earthcaused by the concentration of gases of various kinds. The Earth receives radiationemitted by the sun that is absorbed by the land surface warming. Much of this radiationis returned to the space and the other part is absorbed by the layer of gas surroundingatmosphere causing the greenhouse effect. It is due to this natural phenomenon, thegreenhouse effect, that we have an average temperature of the Earth in the range of 15 ºC. Without this phenomenon, the planets average temperature would be -18 º C(ALCOFORADO, Fernando. Aquecimento global e catastrophe planetária (Globalwarming and planetary catastrophe). Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo: Viena Gráfica eEditora, 2010). 7
  8. 8. Greenhouse gases (which prevent dispersal of heat generated by the planets surface,after this receiving solar radiation) of higher concentration on Earth are carbon dioxide(CO2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N2O), Compounds of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)and water vapor (H2O). Most of them are from the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil andderivatives), forests and agriculture. The greenhouse gases absorb some infraredradiation emitted by the surface of the Earth and in turn radiate the absorbed energyback to the surface. As a result, the surface of the Earth receives almost twice as muchenergy from the atmosphere than it receives from the Sun and the surface is about 30 °C warmer than it would be without the presence of greenhouse gases.To keep climate balance, planet Earth needs to receive the same amount of energy thatsends back into space. If an imbalance occurs for some reason, the globe heats or coolsuntil the temperature reached again, the exact measure for correct exchange of heat. Thenatural climate balance was disrupted by the Industrial Revolution. Since the nineteenthcentury, the concentrations of carbon dioxide in the air increased by 30%, doubled themethane and nitrous oxide have risen 15%. Global warming is produced by humanactivity (anthropogenic) on the planet and also by natural processes such asdecomposition of organic matter and volcanic eruptions, which produce ten times moregas than man. For ages, the natural processes alone ensured the maintenance of thegreenhouse effect, without which life would not be possible on Earth. The globalwarming gases derived from human activity are produced by fossil fuels used in cars, inindustry and in power plants, the agricultural production and the burning forests.If nothing is done to reverse global warming, the average temperature of the Earthshould evolve from 15 º C to 19 º C as is indicated in Figure 2 below: Figure 2 - Average temperature and global projectionsSource:. Veja Magazine Online, Aquecimento global. 8
  9. 9. Taking into account the findings of numerous studies related to global warming, ifnothing is done to reverse current trends, their consequences are as follows:• 2 to 4.5 ° C is lifting range that must suffer the global average temperature by the endof this century according to estimates made by the IPCC-Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change UN.• The polar ice cap will completely disappear within 100 years. This will cause the endof ocean currents in the Atlantic Ocean, which will cause the climate becomes coldergenerating the great contradiction that warming also cools.• By 2100, sea levels could rise from 1 to 7 meters if there is the melting of the poles,the ridges and Greenland.• 40% of the trees in the Amazon may disappear before the end of the century iftemperatures rise 2-3 degrees.• Tropical forests will be replaced by savannas in regions where there is a reduction ofgroundwater.• The weather will be colder in the northern hemisphere only. For the rest of the worldaverage temperature will rise and droughts and rainfall will change across the planet.• From 9 to 58% of species on land and at sea will be extinct in the coming decades,according to different assumptions.• About 20% to 30% of all species face a "high risk of extinction" if average globaltemperatures rise another 1.5 to 2.5 degrees Celsius compared to 1990 levels. Thiscould happen by 2050.• The greenhouse will help to reduce rainfall in some areas of the planet causing them tooccur at higher temperatures and higher evaporation.• Rainfall should increase by about 20% in the higher latitudes.• Several areas of the globe may be flooded because of the overabundance of rainfall,resulting in extensive flooding.• 2,000 square kilometers will turn into desert due to lack of rains.• The river flows may decrease by 50% or more may some of them dry completely.• Important groundwater could be severely reduced, making the irrigation wells dry.• Excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is making the oceans more acidic. Thisweakens corals, sea nurseries, and plankton, the base of the underwater food chain.• Coral reefs are likely to suffer strong declines.• Mangroves salty marshland and forests may disappear with increasing sea levels. 9
  10. 10. • The Arctic due to higher heating, the small island states in the Pacific with the increasein sea level, the area south of the Sahara in Africa due to drought and densely populatedriver deltas in Asia because of flooding, will suffer enough with climate change.6. The imperative of sustainable developmentThe two threats, economic and environmental, tend to produce a real crisis of humanitythat makes becomes an imperative the construction around the world of a new societydifferent from the current that act interdependently with common goals and rational inevery country and on a global scale without which it may be put into question thesurvival of humans and life on Earth. With the current model of development will beinevitable the degradation of the environment of the planet with the depletion of itsnatural resources, the uncontrolled growth of cities and the catastrophic global climatechange. To overcome this problem, we have no choice but to adopt a new model thatreconciles the demands of development with the environment.For all these reasons it becomes imperative to establish a new economic model called"sustainable development" which is based on forms and processes which, when used,does not undermine the integrity of the environment on which they depend. The newcompany would have to be built to be sustainable economically, socially andenvironmentally. The concept of sustainability has become a key element in the globalmovement, crucial to find viable solutions to solve major world problems, relying onthe theory that a sustainable society is one that meets the needs of the present generationwithout diminishing the possibilities of future generations to meet them.How to build a sustainable society? This is a task that concerns governments,entrepreneurs and individuals from all countries. Governments compete to adoptdevelopment policies that reconcile the economic, social and environmental concerns innational territory and seek to conclude a global social contract focused on sustainabledevelopment on a global scale. Entrepreneurs compete to adopt corporate policy ofenvironmental responsibility in productive activities. Individuals compete consciouslyact in defense of the environment by requiring governments and companiesimplementing sustainable development policies and collaborate with employers inworkplaces in implementing policies of corporate social and environmentalresponsibility.Governments, businesses and individuals must work towards achieving the goals ofsustainable development described below:i. Reducing global carbon emissions by promoting changes in the current world energy matrix based mainly on fossil fuels (coal and oil), on the other structured around renewable energy resources (hydropower, biomass and sources of solar and wind) for preventing or minimizing the global warming, and therefore the occurrence of catastrophic changes in the Earths climate.ii. Improve energy efficiency by developing interventions to achieve energy savings in the city and in the countryside, in buildings, in agriculture, in industry 10
  11. 11. and in transportation in general and thereby contributes to the reduction of global carbon emissions, and hence the greenhouse effect.iii. Getting the vehicles and equipment of domestic, agricultural and industrial yields have increased, the buildings are designed aiming at the maximum savings for lighting, heating and refrigeration, agriculture and industry are modeled in the sense of requiring the least energy resources and raw materials, including for self-generation using waste from their production processes based on reverse logistics and the use of new transportation alternatives from the bike to those based on high capacity railways, among other initiatives.iv. Combat pollution of land, air and water, reducing waste from recycled materials currently used and discarded. From this perspective, the essential materials should only be used in production processes and in other applications only in the latter case. When used in many applications, must firstly be reused numerous times, secondly, must be recycled to form a new product, thirdly, must be burned in order to extract all energy containing and only in ultimately, should be removed to a landfill.v. Adjusting the growth of population to available resources on the planet, reducing their birth rates, particularly in countries and regions with high rates of population Reducing social inequalities, contemplating the adoption of measures to help meet the basic needs of the world population, such as food, clothing, housing, health services, employment and a better quality of life. In order to have sustainable development, it is therefore necessary that all human beings have their basic needs met and they are given opportunities to realize their aspirations for a better life.vii. Making economic growth and wealth resulting from it are shared by all, education services enable extend skill levels to work and culture of the population, health services are effective in combating infant mortality and contribute to increased life expectancy of the population, all men and women have decent housing and that there is public and private investments at the level necessary to contribute to the reduction of mass unemployment due to the general crisis of the world capitalist system that registers nowadays and that tends to worsen in the future.7. The environmental responsibility of governments, companies and individualsTo avoid the catastrophic future that portends for humanity resulting from the globaleconomic crisis that points to depression, exhaustion of the planets natural resources,the sprawl of cities and catastrophic climate change, it is essential to have thecommitment of governments, the public and private productive sector and individualswith sustainable development model. This means that environmental responsibility mustbe assumed by governments, businesses and individuals. The Social Responsibility tobe assumed by governments and companies should be adopted in order to combinesocial inclusion and environmental conservation. The Social Responsibility represents a 11
  12. 12. commitment by governments and companies meet society demands. Regarding the needto adopt, respectively, public and corporate policies that contribute to review the modesof production and consumption patterns existing in such a way that the economic andsocial development is not achieved at any price, but weighing up the social and theconsequent environmental performance of governments and businesses.The Social Responsibility of governments commitment to match society demandscombining social inclusion and environmental conservation. The Social Responsibilityof governments should be reflected in the adoption of public policies that contribute toreconcile the modes of production and consumption patterns with the existingenvironment. Among the main actions of governments can be cited recycling projectsby adopting reverse logistics, sanitation (including sewage treatment), reforestation,environmental education, collection, treatment and disposal of garbage andinfrastructure general economic and social. Produce and distribute their productswithout generating damage and risks to the environment and its market strategy is oneof the missions of the Social Responsibility of companies, which raises awareness ofeveryone involved in organizations and their responsibility to society in common usageenvironment. Among the main actions of the companies can be cited recycling projects,sanitation (including treatment of industrial wastewater), reforestation, environmentaleducation and garbage collection.The Environmental Responsibility and / or corporate social sustainability is thevoluntary commitment of public and private organizations of production with thedevelopment of society and the preservation of the environment, knowing that it willcontribute to building a more just society. This is not welfare, philanthropy orcompliance with pre-established rules, but a model of business management where itsperformance is related to social, economic and environmental.So we start from the premise that organizations generate revenue and develop, but alsocontribute to that society develops aware that all natural resources are finite and must beused responsibly. This mission requires that corporations must manage their results,focusing on economic data, social and environmental commitment to put sustainabilitypractices and social and environmental responsibility in their daily activities.The Social Responsibility of individuals materializes in practice with their effectiveparticipation in civil society organizations to establish requirements for governments atall levels and public and private companies have sustainable development goals andmonitor compliance. Furthermore, should engage in their homes, in theirneighborhoods, in their cities and their country towards sustainable development is putinto practice.To succeed, sustainable development requires the existence of sustainable leadershipthat is a kind of leadership to be employed in the management of different organizationsas a school, a business, a city or even a country. It is based on measures to establish theuse of environmental resources to satisfy the needs of the present generation withoutcompromising the satisfaction of the needs of future generations. In this sense, the 12
  13. 13. sustainable leader must act at the level of governments, business and civil society, in thesense that economic progress and social carried out without compromising theenvironment.In a corporation, the leadership must provide sustainable economic results with a betteruse of the resources available to the company generating more profits with lessenvironmental impact. Already in a country, a sustainable leadership must be able toadapt the use of natural resources like water, forests and farmland for long-term use. Itshould also improve the distribution of income, health and education of the people.8. Final MessageFor these reasons, we are facing a critical moment in Earths history and humanity, at atime when it must choose the direction to be given to its future. As the world becomesincreasingly interdependent and fragile, humanity faces, while great peril and greatpromise with regard to their future. We must recognize that in the midst of themagnificent diversity of cultures and life forms we are one human family and one Earthcommunity with a common destiny. We must join together to bring forth a sustainableglobal society founded on respect for nature, universal human rights, economic justiceand a culture of peace to avoid barbarism that would result in the maintenance of thecurrent economic model. To reach this purpose, it is imperative that we, the peoples ofEarth, declare our responsibility to each other, with the continuity of life on the planetand to future generations.BIBLIOGRAPHYABREU LIMA, Roberta e VIEIRA, Vanessa. O WWF alerta para o esgotamento dosrecursos naturais. Disponível no website <>.ALCOFORADO, Fernando. Aquecimento global e catástrofe planetária. Santa Cruz doRio Pardo: Viena Gráfica e Editora, 2010.BEAUJEU-GARNIER. J. Geografia Urbana. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian,1980.BLOG DO PEDLOWSKI. Mundo poderá viver em 2013 “tempestade global” pior que2008, afirma Roubini postado no website <>.BRAFMAN, Luciana. Disputa por petróleo leva a estado de guerra permanente.Disponível no web site <>.BRASIL ESCOLA. O esgotamento de alguns minérios. Disponível no website<>.HOBSBAWN, Eric. En la tercera crisis. Entrevista a Eric J. Hobsbawn. Revista “ElViejo Topo” disponível no website <>, 2009. 13
  14. 14. MEADOWS, Donella et alli. Beyond the limits. Vermont: Chelsea Green PublishingCompany, 1992SOS RIOS DO BRASIL. Bilhões sofrerão com falta de água e saneamento, dizrelatório da ONU. Disponível no website<>).TAGUCHI, Clarissa. Ver para crer: uma guerra pela água pode estar prestes a sertravada. Disponível no website <>.VEJA.COM. Cai do Céu, mas pode faltar. Disponível no website<>.WWF BRASIL. Planeta Vivo 2008. Disponível no website<>.WWF BRASIL. O que é desenvolvimento sustentável?. Disponível no website<>.* Alcoforado, Fernando, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from theUniversity of Barcelona, a university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning,regional planning and planning of energy systems, is the author of Globalização (Editora Nobel, SãoPaulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo,1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Os condicionantes dodesenvolvimento do Estado da Bahia (Tese de doutorado. Universidade de Barcelona,, 2003), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel,São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na EraContemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and SocialDevelopment-The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG,Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P&A Gráfica e Editora,Salvador, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global(Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011) and Os Fatores Condicionantes doDesenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012), among others. 14