Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Outline of governance of rational and democratic system of a country
Outline of governance of rational and democratic system of a country
Outline of governance of rational and democratic system of a country
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Outline of governance of rational and democratic system of a country

139

Published on

Published in: News & Politics, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
139
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 1 OUTLINE OF GOVERNANCE OF RATIONAL AND DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM OF A COUNTRY Fernando Alcoforado * It can be stated that every country is possessed of 5 major systems: 1) science and technology; 2) economic; 3) social; 4) environmental; and, 5) political and moral. At present, the desired performance standard of a country is measured by what is accomplished only in the economy using as reference the size and progress of the growth of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) ignoring the other systems. This is a big mistake because the desired performance of each of the five systems described above should take into account the five patterns described below: The standard of scientific and technological performance required to consider should be the following: 1) increase of the productivity of the economy that is measured by the relationship between global GDP and sectoral GDP and resources used in production processes (raw materials, supplies and labor); 2) reduction of the costs of agricultural, industrial production, and services; 3) increase in investments in R&D; 4) innovation of new products and processes that is measured by its advance over previously used products and processes; 5) increase of the durability of products / services; 6) increase of physical safety of products / services provided to people and users; and, 7) decrease in the levels of technological dependency of the country from the outside. These indicators allow to evaluate if the performance of scientific and technological system is contributing to the increase of wealth and well-being of the population. The standard of economic performance required to consider should be the following: 1) increase in the growth rate of GDP; 2) reduction in the rate of inflation; 3) reduction in the relation Public Debt / GDP; 4) increase in the balance of trade and balance of payments; 5) decrease in the tax burden; 6) increase of the investments in infrastructure of energy, transport and communications; 7) decrease in the levels of economic dependence of the country from the outside; and 8) increase in the indicator of the Genuine Progress (GPI indicator - Genuine Progress Indicator), which takes into account the parameters welfare and the environment using the same methodology for calculating GDP, but unlike this, the calculation adds items such as housework and voluntary and subtracts the costs arising from factors such as crime, pollution, environmental degradation and commitment of resource and natural systems (See GPI posted in the website <http://www.compendiosustentabilidade.com.br/compendiodeindicadores/indicadores/d efault.asp?paginaID=26&conteudoID=324>). These indicators allow assessing whether the economic system is contributing to the increase of its wealth, the fall in its public debt, reducing levels of inflation, the generation of surpluses in the trade balance and balance of payments, the decrease in tax burden, the conquest of independence or reduction of economic dependence of the country on the outside and the achievement of a genuine economic progress. The standard of social performance required to consider should be the following: 1) the achievement of full employment or reduction in the unemployment rate of the economically active population; 2) increase the income distribution measured by the Gini index; 3) reduction of the levels of crime in society; 4) increase in service levels of education, health, housing and transport to the population; 5) increase of the investment in infrastructure, education, health, housing and sanitation; 6) increase in the HDI- Human Development Index, used by the United Nations, which takes into account GDP
  • 2. 2 per capita, the longevity of people and their education (measured by illiteracy rate and the enrollment rates at various levels of education); and 7) increase of GNH (Gross National Happiness) indicator, which analyzes 73 variables that contribute most to the goal of achieving the well-being and satisfaction with life (See GNH posted in website <http://www.grossnationalhappiness.com/>). These indicators allow to evaluate if the social system is contributing to the achievement of full employment and reducing unemployment of the economically active population, increasing income of the population, the decline in indicators of crime, increased provision of educational services, health, housing and transportation of the population and the increase of human development and their well being. The standard of environmental performance required to consider should be the following: 1) the elimination or reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere; 2) increase of basic sanitation services provided to the population; 3) the elimination or reduction of deforestation and burning of forests; 4) reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels; 5) increase of the share of renewable energy in the energy mix; 6) the elimination or reduction of land pollution, air, ocean and water; 7) increase of energy efficiency or energy saving in agriculture, industry and transportation in general; and 8) increase of recycling of materials. These indicators allow to assess whether the system is contributing to the defense of the local and global environment for the benefit of its people and their well being. The standard of political and moral performance required to consider should be the following: 1) increase of solidarity among the inhabitants of the country; 2) increase in the practice of social justice by organs of government and civil society; 3) increase in the distribution of income and wealth among the population; 4) increase of measures to preserve and care for nature; 5) increase in policies for integral development of education in accordance with the highest human values; 6) advances in the realization of the collective will of the citizens; 7) improvement of political institutions; 8) success in combating corruption measured by its reduction; 9) increase in the exercise of citizenship with the effective participation of citizens in government decisions and fight for expansion of their rights; and 10) increase of contribution of public and private organizations to the political, economic, social and environmental development of the country. These indicators allow to evaluate if the political and moral system is contributing to the inhabitants are mutual solidarity, economic and social justice is practiced, education contributes to form true citizens, civil society participation in decisions of government and corruption is eradicated in the country. The achievement of the desired standard of performance for each of the 5 systems (scientific, technological, economic, social, environmental and political and moral) of a country requires the existence of a structure for planning and control associated with them which allows to make the results of their activities correspond to the desired standard of performance for the country. Compete with that structure planning and control: 1) to determine the level of resources needed to achieve the desired standard of performance of each system in terms of raw materials, supplies, labor, financial resources, etc.. 2) to exercise control of work processes for each system to identify differences between its implementation and the desired standard of performance and, if necessary, decide on the corrections to be made in processes and / or the input of resources necessary to operation of the system; and, 3) to exercise performance monitoring of the results obtained at the output of each system to identify differences between its implementation and the desired standard of performance and, if necessary,
  • 3. 3 decide on the corrections to be made in the work processes of each system and / or the input of resources necessary for the operation of each system. It can be seen from the above, that the purpose of planning and control structure would be to prevent or minimize the occurrence of deviations between what was planned (standard system performance) and what was done (the final product of system execution). This would be the "modus operandi" of the structure of planning and control can streamline operations and ensure good governance of the scientific and technological, economic, social, environmental and political and moral systems of a country. However, to be democratic, it would be necessary, however, that the governance of these systems count on the active participation of the population and civil society organizations in formulating goals (performance standard) to be pursued, as well as in policy or decision rules seeking to correct deviations between what was planned and carried out. * Fernando Alcoforado , member of the Bahia Academy of Education, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from the University of Barcelona, a university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and planning of energy systems, is the author of Globalização (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Os condicionantes do desenvolvimento do Estado da Bahia (Tese de doutorado. Universidade de Barcelona, http://www.tesisenred.net/handle/10803/1944, 2003), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na Era Contemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and Social Development-The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P&A Gráfica e Editora, Salvador, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global (Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011) and Os Fatores Condicionantes do Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012), among others.

×