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NEW ENERGY POLICY REQUIRED FOR THE STATE OF BAHIA
Fernando Alcoforado
Abstract: This paper aims to propose a new policy...
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2. MATRIX ENERGY OF THE STATE OF BAHIA
The power supply in the State of Bahia is performed predominantly by non-renewabl...
3
Table 1 – BAHIA ENERGY DEMAND IN 2009 AND 2010
Energy supply 103 tep (1)
2009 2010
Structure (%)
2009 2010
Natural gas 1...
4
Table 3 - CO2 EMISSIONS IN BAHIA (Tons of Carbon per toe)
Sectors 1980 1994
Residential 122 321
Agriculture 32 67
Indust...
5
Table 5 presents data on electricity consumption (in MWh and% of total consumption
of the State of Bahia) and GDP (in re...
6
identity is 66.88% of the GDP of the State of Bahia. These figures shows a
concentration of excessive power consumption ...
7
to the opening of easement, installation of lines and changes the use and occupation of
land.
The service electric power...
8
Center Iguatemi Bahia
Millennium
Millennium Inorganic
Chemicals do Brasil S/A Camaçari Natural gas 4.781
Belmonte ( Emer...
9
Figure 3 - SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IN BRAZIL
Source: Cresesb
Photovoltaic solar energy
Maximum values solar energy in Bra...
10
In 2002, there were 914 MW of small hydro potential inventoried in the State of Bahia,
distributed among 87 stations. T...
11
Thermoelectric power plants to natural gas
The demand for natural gas in Brazil in 2012 was 134 million m3/day and dome...
12
/ year, from waste wood between 200 and 500 GWh / year and the from vegetable oils
from 2 to 10 GWh / year. There are t...
13
With reserves of 100 tons of ore, Caetité in the State of Bahia annually produces 400
tons of uranium concentrate, whic...
14
security of these containers that have not yet been proven. The two main dangers
inherent in nuclear cemeteries are con...
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• PCH: R$ 116 / MWh
• Hydroelectric power: R$ 118 / MWh
• LNG: R$ 126 / MWh
• Imported coal: R$ 128 / MWh
• National Co...
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Bahia has 120 municipalities producers of cane sugar planted 92,947 ha and
productivity estimated at 5,592,921 tonnes o...
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Renewable energy should be of the order of 70% of the total energy of the planet.
Quadruple the global production of re...
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The main reason for the existence of environmental impacts from the generation,
handling and use of energy lies in the ...
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6. A NEW ENERGY POLICY FOR BAHIA
The policy of supplying electric energy required to Bahia should include the following...
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as a substitute for petroleum diesel generating jobs and income in producing areas, and
contribute to the preservation ...
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New energy policy required for the state of bahia

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This article aims to propose a new policy for the energy sector of the State of Bahia from the perspective of sustainable development. The results of this study point to the need to adopt a new sustainable energy policy for State of Bahia based largely on the use of renewable energy.

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New energy policy required for the state of bahia

  1. 1. 1 NEW ENERGY POLICY REQUIRED FOR THE STATE OF BAHIA Fernando Alcoforado Abstract: This paper aims to propose a new policy for the energy sector of the State of Bahia from the perspective of sustainable development. The results of this study point to the need to adopt a new sustainable energy policy for State of Bahia based largely on the use of renewable energy. Keywords: The energy sector in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The energy matrix of the State of Bahia. New policy required for the energy sector in the State of Bahia, Brazil. 1. INTRODUCTION This paper aims to propose a new policy for the power sector of the State of Bahia. In this sense, it was analyzed the energy matrix of the State of Bahia, energy sources alternative or complementary to the supply of electricity by the Brazilian grid, and other sources of energy capable of being used as an alternative to oil and natural gas in the State of Bahia fuels. The analysis of the energy matrix of Bahia enabled to identify the weaknesses of the energy system and identify its potential of energy production under which energy can overcome the identified weaknesses. It was based on this analysis that was proposed a new energy policy for the state of Bahia that contemplates the use of its energy potential of production targeting not only to overcome the existing energy weaknesses, but also, through them to promote their sustainable development.  Alcoforado Fernando, a member of Bahia Academy of Education, Doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development (University of Barcelona, Spain), Graduate in Electrical Engineering (UFBA - Federal University of Bahia) and Specialist in Economic Engineering and Industrial Management (UFRJ - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) was Consultant to UNESCO (2014), professor at FGV (Fundação Getúlio Vargas), Secretary of Planning Salvador (1986/1987), Vice President of ABEMURB - Brazilian Association of Municipal Entities of Urban Planning and Development (1986), Secretary for Energy of the State of Bahia (1988/1991), Director of International Relations ABEGÁS - Brazilian Association of State Gas Companies (1990/1991), Coordinator of the National Program of Palmoil - PRONADEN (1991), Chairman of the Engineering Club Bahia (1992/1993), Chairman of IRAE-Romulo Almeida Institute for Advanced Studies (1999/2000) and Director of the College of Business Administration of Integrated Colleges Olga Mettig of Salvador, Bahia (2003/2005). He is currently professor and consultant to national and international public and private organizations in the areas of strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and planning of energy systems. Was columnist for several newspapers in the Brazilian press (Folha de S. Paulo, Gazeta Mercantil, Tribuna da Bahia), publishing papers on the economy and on global and Brazilian politics, urban issues, energy, environment and development, science and technology, administration, among other topics. He is the author of books Globalização (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na Era Contemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2007), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P & A Gráfica e Editora, Salvador, 2010), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and Social Development- The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global (Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011) and Os Fatores Condicionantes do Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012), entre outros. Have blog on the Internet (http://fernando.alcoforado.zip.net). E-mail:falcoforado@uol.com.br. .
  2. 2. 2 2. MATRIX ENERGY OF THE STATE OF BAHIA The power supply in the State of Bahia is performed predominantly by non-renewable sources of energy (65.7% - petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, mineral coal and derivatives and other primary non-renewable sources) while renewable sources (hydro and electric energy, firewood and charcoal, cane products and other primary renewable sources) accounted for 34.3%. The State of Bahia has a energy matrix filthier than Brazil's in which non-renewable sources account for 53% while renewable sources account for 47%. Figure 1 shows the supply of energy in the State of Bahia in 2010. Figure 1 - ENERGY SUPPLY (%) - BAHIA 2010 Note: 1) petróleo e derivados = petroleum and petroleum products; 2) gás natural = natural gas; 3) , carvão mineral e derivados = mineral coal and derivatives; 4) outras fontes primárias não renováveis = other primary non-renewable sources; 5) energia hidráulica e elétrica = hydro and electric energy; 6) lenha e carvão vegetal= firewood and charcoal; 7) produtos de cana= cane products; 8) outras fontes primárias renováveis= other primary renewable sources). Table 1 shows the power demand in the State of Bahia in 2009 and 2010 that is supplied by several sources of energy. The analysis of Table 1 reveals that the petroleum, electric power, biomass and natural gas are, in order, the main sources of energy used in Bahia in meeting demand. Table 2 shows the balance of supply and demand of energy in the State of Bahia in 1994, 2000 and 2010. Analysis of Table 2 reveals that Bahia is not self-sufficient in energy supply because imports petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, ethanol biodiesel from other states of the Brazilian federation.
  3. 3. 3 Table 1 – BAHIA ENERGY DEMAND IN 2009 AND 2010 Energy supply 103 tep (1) 2009 2010 Structure (%) 2009 2010 Natural gas 1.245 1.347 12,0 12,1 Petroleum products 4.987 5.459 48,1 49,1 Electrical energy 1.952 2.153 18,8 19,4 Biomass 2.082 2.048 20,1 18,4 Others (2) 106 106 1,0 1,0 Total 10.373 11.113 100,0 100,0 (1) toe = tonnes of oil equivalent (2) Coal Coke, Steam Coal and Other Primary Sources Source: Uma Visão do Balanço Energético da Bahia (A Vision of the Energy Balance of Bahia) -Sec Infrastructure of the State of Bahia Table 2 – BAHIA BALANCE OF POWER SUPPLY-DEMAND-1994/2000/2010 Item 1994 2000 2010 Total Energy Demand - 103 toe (a) 13.182 14.887 17.728 Final consumption - 103 toe 11.887 12.801 14.724 Losses - 103 toe (1) 1.295 2.086 3.004 Production of Primary Energy - 103 toe (2) (b) 9.456 8.534 10.859 Energy self-sufficiency - 103 toe (b-a) -3.726 -6.353 -6.869 Energy self-sufficiency - 103 toe (b/a) 71,7% 57,3% 61,3% Table 3 presents the situation of CO2 emissions in tonnes of carbon per toe (tons of oil equivalent). If we consider that the relationship between CO2 emissions and energy demand is equivalent to 1994, it can be stated that in 2000, CO2 emissions would be 3,985 tons of carbon per toe and in 2010, 4,746 tons of carbon per toe in 2010.
  4. 4. 4 Table 3 - CO2 EMISSIONS IN BAHIA (Tons of Carbon per toe) Sectors 1980 1994 Residential 122 321 Agriculture 32 67 Industrial 1.736 2.055 Transportation 870 978 Trade and Public 34 10 Energy 281 98 Total 3.075 3.529 Table 4 shows the evolution of electricity consumption by consumer category from 2000 to 2010. Analysis of Table 4 demonstrates that the industry is responsible for 45.39% of total consumption, households for 25.16% and trade for 13.76%. Table 4 - CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY BY CLASS - BAHIA - 2000-2010 (GWh) YEAR Residential Industrial Commercial Rural Services and Powers Other (1) Total 2000 3.339,4 9.917,4 1.975,5 224,6 1.875,2 114,1 17.446,3 2001 2.814,9 8.930,4 1.732,4 208,2 1.828,5 90,1 15.604,4 2002 2.736,5 9.544,9 1.711,9 263,4 1.876,1 83,2 16.216,1 2003 3.007,3 8.101,2 1.852,3 770,7 1.567,8 87,1 15.386,4 2004 3.141,4 8.268,7 1.943,3 852,4 1.556,7 86,7 15.849,2 2005 3.362,8 8.292,1 2.098,4 842,6 1.698,3 92,9 16.387,4 2006 3.517,8 8.156,9 2.113,5 834,1 1.780,7 93,3 16.496,2 2007 3.844,0 8.499,8 2.247,9 990,0 1.864,6 93,8 17.540,2 2008 4.181,1 9.697,9 2.426,6 1.025,7 1.902,9 75,9 19.310,1 2009 4.642,0 9.209,3 2.618,1 993,4 2.005,9 76,8 19.545,6 2010 5.164,8 9.315,6 2.824,4 1.086,9 2.054,6 77,7 20.524,2 Note: This does not include consumption of the municipalities of Rio Real and Jandaíra that are serviced by Sulgipe. (1) Own consumption of CHESF and COELBA systems. Sources: CHESF, COELBA COPENE / BRASKEM.
  5. 5. 5 Table 5 presents data on electricity consumption (in MWh and% of total consumption of the State of Bahia) and GDP (in real and in% of the total GDP of the State of Bahia) by territory identity. Table 5 - ELECTRIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND GDP IN BAHIA (2006) Electrical Electrical Territory of Energy Consumption Energy Consumption GDP GDP Identity (MWh) (% BA) (R$) % BA Irecê 191.659 1,85 1.095,33 1,13 Velho Chico 154.764 1,5 1.071,71 1,11 Chapada Diamantina 136.046 1,32 1.295,29 1,34 Sisal 182.510 1,78 1.647,74 1,71 Litoral Sul 601.390 5,83 4.391,61 4,55 Baixo Sul 130.960 1,27 1.187,71 1,23 Extremo Sul 534.719 5,19 4.674,51 4,84 Itapetinga 146.982 1,42 922,6 0,09 Vale do Jiquiriçá 111.791 1,08 1.053,70 1,09 Sertão de São Francisco 389.889 3,78 2.464,80 2,55 Oeste Baiano 374.689 3,63 3.287,35 3,4 Bacia do Paramirim 38.740 0,37 402,66 0,42 Sertão Produtivo 294.264 2,85 1.623,06 1,68 Piemonte do Paraguaçu 120.054 1,16 869,32 0,09 Bacia do Jacuípe 70.641 0,07 593,53 0,06 Piemonte da Diamantina 80.050 0,08 729,21 0,07 Semi-árido Nordeste II 125.634 1,21 1.094,81 1,13 Agreste de Alagoinhas/Litoral Norte 398.836 3,9 3.915,98 4,05 Portal do Sertão 657.088 6,37 4.913,22 5,09 Vitória da Conquista 324.253 3,15 3.234,58 3,35 Recôncavo 469.314 4,55 9.011,16 9,34 Médio Rio de Contas 185.296 1,8 1.827,79 1,89 Bacia do Rio Corrente 95.417 0,09 869,16 0,09 Itaparica 101.588 0,098 1.673,80 1,73 Piemonte Norte do Itapicuru 119.828 1,16 1.108,78 1,14 Metropolitana de Salvador 4.269.990 41,43 41.561,29 43,06 TOTAL BAHIA 10.306.392 96.520,70 Source: SEI / IBGE Data marked in yellow indicate identity territories with higher electricity consumption and GDP in State of Bahia, ie more developed territories of identity of the State of Bahia. The consumption of electrical energy in these 5 territories of identity corresponds to 63.37% of the total of Bahia, while the GDP of these 5 territories of
  6. 6. 6 identity is 66.88% of the GDP of the State of Bahia. These figures shows a concentration of excessive power consumption (41.43%) and GDP (43.06%) in the metropolitan area of Salvador. Excessive concentration in electricity consumption in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador comes from the fact there it excessive economic concentration. The State of Bahia is supplied with electricity by the interconnected power system and power plants that use primarily natural gas and oil. Figure 2 shows the interconnected power system in Brazil. The CHESF transmission system interconnects Northeastern states and connects that region to the systems of the North, Southeast and Center-West regions of Brazil. Figure 2 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF BRAZIL CONNECTED WITH OTHER COUNTRIES OF SOUTH AMERICA Source: ONS - National System Operator The generating capacity of the interconnected power system in Northeast Brazil is approaching the limit. There is a risk that the generation capacity and planned by the federal government transmission does not take place in future years due to environmental problems related to implementation of the hydroelectric plants in the Amazon and increases the occurrence of "black-outs" due to weather problems and decline in reliability in the operation of the electric system. The main environmental impacts caused by the activities of transmission and distribution of electricity are related
  7. 7. 7 to the opening of easement, installation of lines and changes the use and occupation of land. The service electric power market of Bahia is accomplished through three dealerships, COELBA, CHESF and SULGIPE and permittee Brasken (ex - COPENE), which operates in Camaçari Industrial Complex. Table 6 presents the main existing thermoelectric power plants in Bahia in 2006. From all fuels used in electricity generation, less harmful to the environment are the bagasse from sugarcane and black liquor. Table 6 - KEY THERMOELECTRIC BAHIA (2006) Main plants Generation Agent Municipality Fuel Power (KW) Camaçari CHESF Dias D’Ávila Natural gas 346.803 BRASKEM BRASKEM Camaçari Natural gas 250.400 Termobahia Fase I Termobahia Ltda São Francisco do Conde Natural gas 185.891 Usina de Cogeração Camaçari-FAFEN Energia FAFEN Energia S/A Camaçari Natural gas 138.020 Veracel Veracel Celulose S/A Eunápolis Black Liquor 117.045 Jaguarari Enguia GEN BA Ltda Jaguarari Diesel oil 101.540 Bahia Sul Bahia Sul Celulose S/A Mucuri Black Liquor 92.000 Refinaria Landulfo Alves ( RLAM ) PETROBRAS São Francisco do Conde Refinery Gas 62.500 Bahia I – Camaçari UTE Bahia I Camaçari Ltda Camaçari Diesel oil 31.800 Metalurgia Caraíba Caraíba Metais S/A Dias D’Ávila Natural gas 18.000 Agrovale Agro Indústrias do Vale do São Francisco S/A Juazeiro Bagasse Cane Sugar 14.000 Bacell Bahia Pulp S/A Camaçari Black Liquor 13.600 Brumado Magnesita S/A Brumado Diesel oil 12.895 Iguatemi Bahia Condomínio Shopping Salvador Natural gas 8.316
  8. 8. 8 Center Iguatemi Bahia Millennium Millennium Inorganic Chemicals do Brasil S/A Camaçari Natural gas 4.781 Belmonte ( Emergencial ) COELBA Belmonte Diesel oil 1.502 Fazenda Cabeceirinha Barreiras Comércio e Agropecuária Ltda Barreiras Diesel oil 1.080 Source: ANEEL Note: plants with more than 1,000 kW were related 3. SOURCES OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OR COMPLEMENTARY TO ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM Other sources of electrical energy alternative or complementary to the interconnected power system that can be used in the near future in power generation in the State of Bahia are: • Photovoltaic Solar Energy • Thermo Energy • SHP-Small Hydropower • Wind farms • Thermoelectric power plants to natural gas • Cogeneration using waste or biomass • Thermoelectric power plants with the incineration of landfill material • Thermoelectric power plants using biogas from landfills • Thermonuclear power plants Potential for solar energy in Brazil Figure 3 shows the potential of solar energy in Brazil in kWh/m2/day. The State of Bahia is one of the fittest utilizing solar energy because it can get 8 kWh/m2/day solar energy.
  9. 9. 9 Figure 3 - SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IN BRAZIL Source: Cresesb Photovoltaic solar energy Maximum values solar energy in Brazil are observed in the central region of the State of Bahia (8 kWh/m2/day). Photovoltaic solar energy is three times more expensive than wind and hydro energy. Solar energy is an excellent source of energy in places of low electricity demand not met distant 10 Km from the interconnected power system. From an environmental standpoint, solar photovoltaic power is clean and renewable energy. Thermo solar energy Maximum values solar energy in Brazil are observed in the central region of the State of Bahia (8 kWh/m2/day). The cost of thermo-solar energy remains a significant obstacle. From an environmental standpoint, the thermo-solar energy is clean and renewable. SHP- Small hydropower plants
  10. 10. 10 In 2002, there were 914 MW of small hydro potential inventoried in the State of Bahia, distributed among 87 stations. The hydroelectric potential by sub-basin in Bahia is as follows: Rivers São Francisco, Grande and Other (777 MW), River Vasa Barris, Itapicuru and Other (10.5 MW), Rivers Paraguassu, Jiquiriçá and Others (641.13 MW), Contas River (146.25 MW), Rivers Pardo, Cachoeira and Other (MW 137.70), River Jequitinhonha (2545.28 MW) and Rivers Mucuri, São Mateus and Others (358.90 MW). SHPs receive the same treatment of large dams on environmental licensing. The PCH may have a role as a promoter of growth in more isolated regions. SHPs collaborate in reducing losses in transmission lines interconnected power system. Wind farms The wind potential of Bahia is estimated at 40 GW. The winds of Bahia are considered the best in the world, being unidirectional and constant, whose characteristics allow a great capacity to generate wind energy. Wind energy creates job opportunities and income generation in Bahia. The municipalities of Caetité, Guanambi, Igaporã, Brotas de Macaúbas, Sobradinho, Bom Jesus da Lapa and situated along the entire right side of the São Francisco River, from the Espinhaço mountain range to Juazeiro are the most promising areas of harnessing the potential wind of Bahia. From an environmental standpoint, wind turbines produce high level of noise pollution, negative visual impacts and impacts on wildlife and on the use of land. Figure 4 - WIND POTENTIAL IN BAHIA Source: Coelba
  11. 11. 11 Thermoelectric power plants to natural gas The demand for natural gas in Brazil in 2012 was 134 million m3/day and domestic production was 72.9 million m3/day with a deficit of 61.1 million m3 which was supplied with imports from Bolivia (30 million m3/day) and LNG imports (31.1 million m3/day). This is a major limitation in the use of natural gas in Brazil and Bahia even with the Manati Field - Located in the Camamu Bay which increased its capacity for 6 to 8 million m3 per day and regasification terminal in Bahia that has capacity of 14 million cubic meters / day of LNG. The installed capacity of power plants to natural gas in Bahia totals 952,211 MW. The Manati gas and the existence of the network in Bahia GASENE enables deploy new natural gas power plants and supplying household and vehicular natural gas in the areas through which the pipelines of GASENE. Central thermoelectric generation has large consumption of water. These plants cause environmental impact due to the rise in temperature of natural water courses by your cooling system. Another environmental impact also considered very important are greenhouse gas. Figure 5 - NATURAL GAS NETWORK OF BRAZIL Source: Bahiagás Cogeneration using waste or biomass The estimated potential for power generation in the State of Bahia through the use of cane sugar is between 200-1000 GWh / year, from agricultural residues 50 to 500 GWh
  12. 12. 12 / year, from waste wood between 200 and 500 GWh / year and the from vegetable oils from 2 to 10 GWh / year. There are two promising areas in Bahia for cogeneration: i) The Western Province: Formosa do Rio Preto can produce 318,147 MWh / year, or next 3 municipalities with cotton, soybeans and rice, would produce 204,172 MWh / year, and ii ) the North Coast with the use of coconut residues-the-bay, producing 313,172 MWh / year. With the use of waste cotton, rice, coco-the-bay, corn, coffee and soybeans produced in Bahia is possible to generate 2,792 GWh / year to 3,909 GWh / year of electricity with a capacity ranging from 531 MW to 744 MW. From an environmental standpoint, the electrical cogeneration plants can cause the emission of air pollutants, high water consumption and temperature elevations of natural watercourses due to its cooling system. Thermoelectric plants with incineration of landfill material The technology of obtaining energy from the combustion of waste is being used in more than 30 countries, especially in Europe. Today there are over 800 plants of this type in operation in the world, with 300 tons of solid waste per day. The plant may be able to process up to 1,000 tonnes of waste per day to generate constant 30 MW - enough to supply a city with 200 thousand inhabitants. From an environmental standpoint, all types of incinerators create serious hazards to health and the physical environment of surrounding communities as well as for the general population. Even incinerators that are built using the most advanced technological innovations release thousands of polluting elements that contaminate the air, soil and water. These plants should only be deployed in the latter case. Thermoelectric plants using biogas from landfills The waste gas is produced through the action of bacteria in landfills or dumps. The methane generation in deposits of municipal solid waste in Brazil is 677 Gg, which can generate power of 2.1 TWh, which feed a city of 875 thousand households with an average monthly consumption of 200 kWh, which is equivalent to a city of about 3.5 million inhabitants. The higher the percentage of organic material in the waste, the greater the potential of biogas in the landfill can be reused to generate electricity. The installation of the power generation plant financially benefits the municipalities with the commercialization of biogas, apart from the community, with the decreased rate of urban sanitation and public lighting fee for electricity generated. From an environmental standpoint, these plants are beneficial because they burn a greenhouse gas effect that creates unpleasant odors and provides a risk of explosion. Thermonuclear power plants
  13. 13. 13 With reserves of 100 tons of ore, Caetité in the State of Bahia annually produces 400 tons of uranium concentrate, which, after passing through various industrial processes, is used to generate electricity for Brazilian nuclear power plants in operation in the South East of Brazil. Plan of 2030 National Power of the Brazilian government involves the installation of a nuclear power plant in Chorrochó or Rodelas in the State of Bahia that may cause environmental impacts, especially on the banks of this river to the risk of nuclear accidents, beyond the unsolved problem of final disposal of nuclear waste. Since the start of operation of nuclear power plants in the world, numerous accidents occurred. The first major nuclear accident in the world was the American Three Mile Island plant in Pennsylvania in March 1979, when the loss of the cooling system was part of the reactor core melt. In April 1986 the largest nuclear accident in history recorded until that moment when it was exploded one of the four reactors at the Soviet Chernobyl nuclear power plant that released a radioactive cloud into the atmosphere a hundred million curies (radiation level 6 million times greater than occurs what escaped from Three Mile Island) power plant, covering the entire south-central Europe. Authorities reported at the time that 31 people died, 200 were injured and 135 thousand inhabitants near the plant had to abandon their homes. Over 125,000 people died between 1988 and 1994. In some regions near Chernobyl it was found that up to 80% of all animals are born mutated monsters, like eight-legged foals and calves with two heads. In Fukushima in Japan, the thermonuclear power plant threat will endure for a long time according to the International Atomic Energy Agency due to the meltdown of reactors 1, 2 and 3 which can result in hydrogen explosions when it reaches high temperatures because it becomes a magma that can affect the internal structure of the vessels of the reactors. These hydrogen explosions can disperse radioactivity in the atmosphere and drain into the ocean. The main risk is that radioactive material contaminating algae whose concentration can be multiplied by a factor of 1000 and that these algae feeding shellfish - lobster, crabs - which may seriously contaminate humans. Radiation levels recorded in seawater continue increasing and reached a record 4,385 times the legal limit. For the Japanese nuclear safety agency (Nisa), is a sign that the leak at the nuclear plant are occurring continuously. From an environmental perspective, nuclear energy is unsafe and cannot be classified as clean energy how advocates peoples who want use thermonuclear power plants as one of the weapons to fight against global warming in the face of aggression to the environment that it provides for its operation and when accidents occur. Because of this history of nuclear accidents, nuclear power is being proscribed as an alternative for electricity production in the world mainly after the Fukushima accident. In all forms of uses of nuclear energy, nuclear waste is produced. Most of this waste contains radioactivity that remains for thousands of years. One of the proposed solutions to deal with this garbage is called nuclear graveyard. The garbage is buried and sealed in special containers to avoid leakage of radioactivity. The central problem lies in the
  14. 14. 14 security of these containers that have not yet been proven. The two main dangers inherent in nuclear cemeteries are contamination of air and water. The possibility of a leak of radioactivity even these small cemeteries makes this unreliable and detrimental to the health of the population of living beings in general solution. Potential for electricity generation in the State of Bahia (without the use of solar energy) One of the alternatives that the State of Bahia could implement would be to promote the use of the full potential of generating electricity with the utilization of wind power, cogeneration, vegetable oils and Small Hydro Power. If this potential is used to meet the total electricity consumption of 2013 in the State of Bahia, it would be able to meet 76.8% of the demand. The consumption of electricity in Bahia in 2013 was 463,740 GWh. Without the use of solar energy, the total potential for electricity generation in Bahia would be 356,413 GWh (76.85% of consumption in 2013) with the utilization of wind power estimated at 40 GW (350,400 GWh) the estimated potential for cogeneration of electricity in the State of Bahia of 2,010 GWh with use of residues from sugar cane that is between 200-1,000 GWh / year from agricultural residues 50 to 500 GWh / year), wood residues between 200 and 500 GWh / year and vegetable oils between 2-10 GWh / year and the potential for SHP at 914 MW (4,003 GWh). Potential for electricity generation in the State of Bahia (with the use of solar energy only) As a theoretical exercise, consider the supply of electricity consumption of the State of Bahia in 2013 (463,740 GWh) using only solar photovoltaic. Acknowledging the potential of solar energy of 8 kWh/m2/day, would be produced in 365 days 2,920 KWh/m2 (8 KWh x 365 dias/m2 = 2,920 KWh/m2). The amount km2 of photovoltaic panels needed would be 158.8 km2 (463,740 billion KWh / 2,920 m2 KWh/m2 = 158, 815, 068 m2 = 158.8 km2). This amount km2 of photovoltaic panels would correspond to 2.83% of the State of Bahia area of 560,000 km2 (158.8 km2/560.000 km2). Indicative of the cost of generating electricity The choice of the most appropriate source of power depends on several factors, foremost among them the aspects of strategic nature and the cost of generating electricity. The figures presented below are indicative of the hierarchy in terms of cost, in order, of energy sources. • Biomass: R$ 102/MWh
  15. 15. 15 • PCH: R$ 116 / MWh • Hydroelectric power: R$ 118 / MWh • LNG: R$ 126 / MWh • Imported coal: R$ 128 / MWh • National Coal: R$ 135 / MWh • Nuclear: R$ 139 / MWh • Natural Gas: R$ 140,00 / MWh • Wind energy: R$ 197/MWh • Biogas: R$ 191 / MWh • Fuel oil: R$ 330 / MWh • Diesel oil: R$ 491 / MWh Source: Study of wind energy as a source of energy in Brazil Murilo Vill Magalhães, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 2009. Future evolution of the costs of electricity production • Wind energy is between 50 and 95 U.S. $ / MWh, reaching U.S. $ 30/MWh in 2030 • Photovoltaics is located between 500 and 1,160 U.S. $ / MWh, reaching $ 40 MWh in 2030; • Thermo solar is between 220 and 730 U.S. $ / MWh, reaching U.S. $ 60/MWh in 2030 • Biomass is between 45 and 105 U.S. $ / MWh could reach U.S. $ 50/MWh in 2030 • SHP is currently between 35 and 145 U.S. $ / MWh. All these numbers were calculated assuming a rate of return of 15% per year and the useful life of 20 years. 4. OTHER SOURCES OF ENERGY ABLE TO BE USED AS ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR OIL AND GAS IN THE STATE OF BAHIA Ethanol
  16. 16. 16 Bahia has 120 municipalities producers of cane sugar planted 92,947 ha and productivity estimated at 5,592,921 tonnes of cane (IBGE, 2005), produced in more than 7,000 stores in thirteen production centers around the area. The derivative production of cane sugar in the State of Bahia has 7,000 stores, which generate about 35,000 direct jobs. Ethanol production of Bahia in 2019 will be 0.222 billion liters and demand of 2.068 billion liters. The deficit in 2019 will be 1.846 billion liters. This deficit indicates the need to create incentives for domestic production of alcohol in the State of Bahia. From the environmental point of view, the production of ethanol impacts on the environment since the production of sugar cane to manufacture affecting agricultural soil, air and water environment. Biodiesel Bahia is responsible for 5% of domestic biodiesel production. The production in 2011 was 132 thousand cubic meters, and in 2010, 92 thousand m³ with a variation of 43%. There are three units of biodiesel production today in Bahia. One is Petrobras Biofuels (PBIO) in Candeias. Another is BrasilEcodiesel in Iraquara. And the third is the Comanche, in Simões Filho. The National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (NPPB) is not working well in Bahia because the production of family farming in Bahia is very small. Among the alternatives under discussion is the expansion of palm oil production in Brazil. Cultivation of palm oil has real possibilities to grow in Bahia. Castor beans of Bahia, despite not being competitive in the production of biodiesel, lives a good time with high prices and record compensation for the producer. From the environmental point of view, one of the main attributes of biodiesel is its ability to reduce the emission of atmospheric pollutants compared with diesel fuel, helping to reduce greenhouse with improvements in quality of life and public health. There are negative impacts of nature being fairly discussed. The oldest of them is the question of energy production versus food production. Shale The ANP is developing studies for the exploitation of shale gas in Mato Grosso, Bahia, Maranhão and Piauí to be completed in 2014. Shortage of natural gas in Brazil to meet the demand becomes a requirement to produce shale gas in Brazil. The process of fractional distillation to obtain shale gas is polluting. The hydraulic fracturing (fracking) raises environmental concerns such as, for example, contamination of aquifers sheets. The use of shale gas is finding opponents in various parts of the world claiming that fracking method can poison underground water supplies and even cause earthquakes. 5. SUSTAINABLE WORLD ENERGY SYSTEM In a sustainable energy system in the year 2030, world oil production should be halved and coal 90%, while renewable sources of energy should grow nearly 4 times.
  17. 17. 17 Renewable energy should be of the order of 70% of the total energy of the planet. Quadruple the global production of renewable energy is essential to obtain a sustainable energy system in the future. This will require the use of biomass and hydropower, especially in countries with great potential, as is the case of Brazil. Require also that solar, wind and geothermal energy part of the "mix" of the energy world. Table 7 presents the world's energy consumption and CO2 emissions required for sustainable global energy system in 2030. Table 7 - WORLD ENERGY AND CO2 EMISSION REQUIRED FOR SUSTAINABLE WORLD ENERGY SYSTEM Note: 1) Fonte de energia= Source of energy; 2) Energia (Mtep)= Energy (Mtoe); 3) CO2 (milhões de ton.)= CO2 (million of tonnes); 4) Petróleo= Petroleum; 5) Carvão= Coal; 6) Gás Natural= Natural Gas; 7) Renováveis= Renewables; 8) Nuclear= Muclear; 9) Total= Total. The technologies already available to find to begin this historic energies transition will only occur through fundamental changes in energy policy in most countries. The first step is to redirect a large number of government policies so that they are intended to achieve the core objectives of energy efficiency and reducing the use of fossil fuels. These are the requirements of a sustainable energy system worldwide. Regardless of the various solutions that may be adopted to eliminate or mitigate the causes of the greenhouse effect, the most important is undoubtedly the adoption of measures to help to eliminate or reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in energy production as well as for more efficient use in transport, industry, agriculture and cities (residential and commercial), given that the use and production of energy is responsible for 57% of greenhouse gases emitted by human activity.
  18. 18. 18 The main reason for the existence of environmental impacts from the generation, handling and use of energy lies in the fact that global consumption of primary energy from non-renewable sources (oil, coal, natural gas and nuclear) corresponds to approximately 88% of full, leaving only 12% renewables. This enormous dependence on non-renewable sources of energy has caused, plus ongoing concern about the depletion of these sources, the emission of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, which in 2013 was of the order of 36.3 billion tons approximately 3.9 times the amount issued in 1960 (9.3 billion tons). As a result of excessive use of fossil fuels, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has steadily increased, leading many experts to believe that the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's biosphere, which has been observed for several decades, is due to the increase in CO2 and other gases in the atmosphere, now generically called "greenhouse gases". To avoid the catastrophic future that portends for humanity resulting from global warming, it becomes an imperative, among other measures, to reduce global carbon emissions by promoting changes in the current global energy production based mainly on fossil fuels (coal and petroleum), by another structured based on renewable energy resources, hydropower, biomass and sources of solar and wind power to avoid or minimize global warming and hence the occurrence of catastrophic changes in Earth's climate. The International Energy Agency (IEA) recently warned that "the world will refer to a unsustainable energy future" unless governments adopt "urgent measures" to optimize available resources (See Article AIE: mundo se encaminha para futuro energético insustentável (IEA: the world is heading for unsustainable energy future) published on the website <http://g1.globo.com/mundo/noticia/2011/11/aie-diz-que-mundo-se- encaminha-para-futuro-energetico-insustentavel.html>). To the IEA, by 2035 the world would need an investment of U.S. $ 38 trillion in energy infrastructure - two-thirds in states outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - to meet the growing demand, 90% to supply the emerging countries like China and India. To optimize the energy resources available on the planet, we need to implement a sustainable energy system on a planetary scale. With sustainable energy system, it is very possible that natural gas pass to be among the fossil fuels, the predominant energy resource in the future. Nuclear energy is not an important source of energy in a truly sustainable energy system. This is due largely to accidents at Three Mile Island in the United States, Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union and Fukushima in Japan. A sustainable energy system will only be possible if energy efficiency is also greatly improved. The global sustainable energy system should provide the basis for Brazil and State of Bahia reassess their energy matrixes from the perspective of sustainability.
  19. 19. 19 6. A NEW ENERGY POLICY FOR BAHIA The policy of supplying electric energy required to Bahia should include the following: • Deploy SHP (small hydro power) and medium-sized hydropower in various regions of State of Bahia. • Deploy wind farms and hybrid (solar and wind energy) systems in the most appropriate locations. • Deploy photovoltaic and thermo solar where justify its deployment. • Producing energy using biogas from landfills. • Deploy the cogeneration system in the industry to produce steam and electricity using waste from industrial production and natural gas. • Abandoning nuclear power as an energy alternative because is costly and present safety problems. • Save energy in all sectors of activity of Bahia. The policy required for the oil and natural gas in the State of Bahia should include the following: • Reduce consumption of petroleum products by promoting the use of substitutes for gasoline and diesel in the transport sector and fuel oil in industry. Among the substitutes for gasoline and diesel in the transportation sector can be cited ethanol and biodiesel in the short term and hydrogen in the medium and long term. The most appropriate substitute for fuel oil in industry would be natural gas because is the cleanest fossil fuel among fossil source. • Reduce consumption of fossil fuels by adopting policies aimed at implementing programs that help to prevent catastrophic climate change on our planet promoting their replacement by other energy resources in State of Bahia. In this sense it is necessary to make: 1) substitution of gasoline by ethanol and diesel by biodiesel in the short term in the transport sector; 2) substitution of fuel oil by natural gas and biomass industry; 3) replacement of coal by natural gas industry; 4) Replacement of diesel from biomass and natural gas in the energy sector; and, 5) Replacement of liquefied petroleum gas to natural gas in the residential and service sectors. • Reduce oil consumption through energy saving actions. These policies are as follows: 1) to produce steam and electricity in the industry with the use of cogeneration systems; 2) expand rail and waterway systems for freight transport in trucks to replace; 3) expand the mass transit system, particularly the mass transport of high capacity as the subway or LRT to reduce the use of cars in cities; and, 4) restrict car usage in the centers and in other areas of the cities. To implement these policies, there should be a major effort to increase the production of substitutes for oil and natural gas with the increased production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) in the State of Bahia, as well as to overcome their dependence on imported ethanol and biodiesel. This initiative would have the advantage of promoting the development of domestic production of ethanol as a substitute for gasoline and biodiesel
  20. 20. 20 as a substitute for petroleum diesel generating jobs and income in producing areas, and contribute to the preservation of the environment. Additionally, there should be extensive effort to develop the existing potential of alternative energy sources in Bahia (Solar Photovoltaic Energy, thermo energy, small hydro, Small Hydro, Wind Power Plants, Cogeneration Use of Biomass and Waste, Thermal Power Plants with the Use Biogas Landfill) to complement the generation of the electrical interconnected system and reduce the risk of "black outs" in the supply of electricity. This requirement applies because the generation capacity of the electrical interconnected system in Northeast Brazil is approaching the limit according to the National Electric System Operator (ONS) that decided to trigger the maximum load thermoelectric power plants in Brazil to preserve a volume of water in reservoirs above the critical level. The Brazilian power system is one of the largest in the world, but has recorded a decrease of reliability with successive blackouts. Since January 2011, until February 4, 2014, 181 blackouts were recorded.

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