A reverse logistics and preservation of the environment


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A reverse logistics and preservation of the environment

  1. 1. A REVERSE LOGISTICS AND PRESERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTFernando Alcoforado Abstract: This article aims to show the basics of reverse logistics and its enormousimportance in preserving the environment.Keywords: Logistics concept. The concept of reverse logistics. Reverse logisticsapplications. Benefits of reverse logistics.1. IntroductionEvery human enterprise generates environmental impact to a greater or lesser extent inits implementation and in its operation. Among the environmental impacts, stand out forwaste disposal during deployment and of product and residues during the operation ofthe projects described below:• Roads, railways, ports, airports, pipelines, ducts ores, trunks collectors and outfalls of sewage• Plants generating electricity, whatever the primary energy source, including the installation of wind farms• Transmission lines for electricity• Hydraulic works for sanitation, drainage, irrigation, grinding stream, transpose basins, navigation channels, hydroelectric, dikes• Extraction of fossil fuel (oil, shale, coal, natural gas) and mining on land and at sea• Air, sea, road, rail, waterway and pipeline transport• Landfills, processing and disposal of toxic or hazardous residues• Complex and plants (petrochemical, steel, chlorine chemical) and agribusiness (alcohol distilleries, coal, extraction and cultivation of water resources)• Industrial districts and zones strictly industrial• Agro industrial production• Economic exploitation of timber or firewood• Urbanistic projectsThe waste products and residues from these projects can be solid, liquid and gaseous.To combat pollution of land, air and water in the city and in the countryside, it´snecessary to make the recycling of products currently used and discarded and residues.In this perspective, the products currently used and discarded and waste when used invarious applications, should firstly be recycled to form a new product using the reverselogistics, secondly, being burnt in order to extract all the energy they contain, especiallyin the case of gaseous waste, and only ultimately must be removed to a landfill wheresolid waste and thrown in lakes, rivers and ocean after proper treatment in case of liquidwaste.2. The concept of logistics 1
  2. 2. Logistics is a branch of Administration whose activities are focused on planning thestorage, movement (land, air and sea) and product distribution. One of the mostimportant goals of logistics is to create mechanisms to deliver the products to the finaldestination in the shortest possible time, helping to reduce costs. It´s important to studythe circulation routes, means of transport, storage sites (deposits) and other factors thatinfluence the logistics.With the globalization of capital, especially since the Industrial Revolution, logistics hasbecome increasingly important for businesses in a competitive market. This occurredbecause the amount of goods produced and consumed and global trade greatlyincreased. Today, with the globalization of economy, the logistics expertises areessential for businesses. In recent years, the Business Logistics has been undergoingconstant evolution and is considered one of the key elements used in strategic planning,and is often responsible for generating huge competitive advantage of companies.3. The concept of reverse logisticsFrom the 1990s, with the constant concern about the use of natural resources, as well asthe accumulation of industrial wastes in large cities, large companies have been blamedby society for this problem. Large organizations now have a new concern: how would itbe possible to find a solution to this problem without generating increased costs andexpenses? With the advent of this scenario arose the concept of Reverse Logistics.It is defined as reverse logistics the activity that plans, operates and controls the flowand logistics information corresponding to the return of goods after-sales and post-consumer to business-cycle or to productive cycle, through the Reverse DistributionChannels, adding value to them of various kinds: economic, ecological, legal,competitive, corporate image, among others.While Traditional Logistics is the flow of products from factory to client, ReverseLogistics deals with the return of products, parts and materials of the final consumer tothe production process of the company. Due to severe existing environmental legislationand also the great influence of society and non-governmental organizations, companiesare adopting the use of a higher percentage of recycled material in its productionprocess, and have also adopted procedures for the proper disposal of products whichcannot be reused or recycled.The reverse logistics is, therefore, the activity of the logistic that treat with the return ofproducts or packaging materials to their production center, as is shown in Figure 1below. The reverse logistics in the recycling process causes the material to return todifferent production centers shaped raw material. Activities of management of reverselogistics predict the reuse and waste removal and management of returns.In many companies, it was shown that a small investment in Reverse Logisticsmanagement results in substantial savings. The Reverse Logistics is the last frontier forcost reduction. The logistics reverse applies to all physical flows backward, i.e., from 2
  3. 3. the consumption point to the origin or deposition of packaging products in a safe placeat the end of life, returns, etc. having the most varied areas of application.The physical reverse flows are linked to new industries reuse of products or materials atthe end of life cycle, such as waste and debris, transformation of certain types of waste,products damaged or object of complaint and consequent return, return and recyclingused packaging, vehicles and other equipment at end of life.Figure 1 - Reverse LogisticsCompanies encouraged by ISO 14000 and concerned with environmental management,also known as "green logistics", began to recycle materials and disposable packagingsuch as aluminum cans, plastic bottles and cardboard boxes, among others, who have tostand out as raw material and no longer treated like garbage.4. Applications of reverse logisticsThe main issue of the Reverse Logistics is the viability of the return of goods throughtheir reintegration into the manufacturing cycle or business and for this to occur, it isnecessary to develop a first step to analyze these goods and after-sales post-consumption in order to define the status of these goods in the process and determinewhich should be submitted. The materials can be returned to the supplier or may beresold if they are still under suitable marketing. Furthermore, the goods may bereconditioned or recycled, so only the product is discarded in the latter case. 3
  4. 4. The Reverse Logistics Post-sale is a field of Reverse Logistics which handles theaddressing and operation of the physical flow of logistics information andcorresponding goods after sale, unused or little used, which for different reasons toreturn different links in the chain of direct distribution, which constitute a part ofReverse Channels through which flow these products. Its strategic goal is to add valueto a product that is returned logistics for commercial reasons, errors in processingorders, warranty given by the manufacturer, defects or malfunctions in product damageduring transport, among other reasons.In turn, the Reverse Logistics Post-consumer is a field of Reverse Logistics andoperationalizes that equates physical flow and information related to post-consumergoods discarded by society in general returning to the business cycle or the cycleproduction through distribution channels specific reverse. They consist of post-consumer goods products at end of life or used with possibility of utilization andindustrial waste in general. Its strategic goal is to add value to a product consisting oflogistical unserviceable assets to the original owner, or who still have conditions of usefor discarded products because they have reached the end of life and industrial waste.These post-consumer products may originate from durable or disposable flow andreverse channels for Reuse, Dismantle, and Recycling until the final destination.5. Benefits of Reverse LogisticsFinancial and logistical gains are just some of the benefits that reverse logistics is ableto provide. There are also gains to the corporate image of the organization to adopt anenvironmentally friendly, attracting attention and preference not only for customers butalso for consumers. Initiatives related to reverse logistics have brought considerablereturns for companies. Economies with the use of returnable packaging or recycling ofmaterials for production have brought increasingly gains that stimulate new initiatives.The reuse of materials is one of the processes that are part of the dynamics of reverselogistics, and is one of the aspects that have potential to add value to materials inreturnable reverse process. The use of reverse logistics as a means of competitivedifferentiation is very important to the company. Achieving competitive advantage isone of the main factors leading organizations to implement the reverse process ofdistribution.BIBLIOGRAPHYBARTHOLOMEU, Daniela Bacchi; CAIXETA-FILHO, José Vicente.LogísticaAmbiental de Resíduos Sólidos (Logistics Environmental Solid Waste). São Paulo:Atlas, 2011.NOGUEIRA, Amarildo de Souza. Logística Empresarial (Business Logistics). SãoPaulo: Atlas, 2012. 4
  5. 5. RAZZOLINI FILHO, Edelvino, BERTÉ, Rodrigo. O reverso da logística e asquestões ambientais no Brasil (The reverse logistics and environmental issues inBrazil). Curitiba: Ibpex, 2009.VEIGA, José Eli da. Economia socioambiental (Environmental economics). SãoPaulo: Editora Senac São Paulo, 2009. 5