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Some problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabic

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  • 1. U n iv e rs it y o f G a ry o u n is F a c u lt y o f A rt E n g lis h D e p a rt m e n t T ra n s la t io n S e c t io nS o m e P ro b le m s O f A m b ig u it y I n T r a n s la t io n :W it h R e f e re n c e t o E n g li s h – A ra b ic By : S u n d o s I s m a il A L -s h e rk a s y 45324 & Istabraq Ismail AL-sherkasy 45309 Supervisor : Dr. Ramadan AL-Mjrab Academic year 2009-2010
  • 2. Thank You For all the things we have done ……. For all success we get through ….. For the hard and good times … Theres always one helping us in true … Now its our time to speak ..to write ..To thank the one who helping us indeed … O , Allah no matter what we tell … We never could imagine how the life be without you … We say our grateful and thanks To the only God in the universe Allah ….. 2
  • 3. Introduction Translation is the comprehension of the meaning of a text and the subsequentproduction of an equivalent text, that communicates the same message in anotherlanguage. The text to be translated is called the source text, and the language that it is tobe translated into is called the target language; the final product is sometimes called thetarget text ,there are several useful definitions of translation , but probably the mostworkable one is the following : Translation is replacing a text in one language byanother text in another language . Firstly , it is based on text-translation . Secondly , thedefinition involves two languages , which is translation proper . Replacing a text byanother text in the same language is often termed rewording or interpretation .Translation proper is always between two languages . A text may appear in severallanguages but basically every time the process of translation is practiced it takes placebetween two languages only also translation defined as ; it is an intellectual andintuitive operation which requires the translator to decode the meaning before re-encoding it in another form. It depends as much on translator understanding andjudgment of the source language text as in the target language text. Translationproduces a result, a new text, which should be able to stand independently of the sourcetext which generated it, That translation as an excise (Introduction to Translation :2004) . And translation for Peter Newmark is : “translation is not merely a dualistic process. It has to take account of fivemedial factors: ethics, reality, logic, ‘pure language’ and aesthetics , of which only aes-thetics is not exclusively universal " 3
  • 4. And a text is a linguistic unit which is higher than a sentence , and consists ofone sentence or more . It is highly dependent on the context , and maybe oral or written.Moreover some of the modern theories of translation , namely deconstruction , haverejected the idea of equivalence between the source text and the target text (Gentzler ,1993 , 144 ) . Equivalence is considered essential for translation. For a text to beconsidered a translation of another it must be equivalent in one way or another to theoriginal ; otherwise it not qualify as translated text . The most common , but not theonly, basis for equivalence is meaning. The translated text is said to be equivalent to thesource text in meaning . This implies that the proposition that they express is it same .. Ambiguity can be defined as a word, phrase, or sentence is ambiguous if ithas more than one meaning. The word light, for example, can mean not very heavy ornot very dark. The notion of ambiguity has philosophical applications. For example, identifying an ambiguity can aid in solving a philosophicalproblem. Suppose one wonders how two people can have the same idea, say of aunicorn. This can seem puzzling until one distinguishes idea in the sense of a particularpsychological occurrence, a mental representation, from idea in the sense of anabstract, shareable concept. On the other hand, gratuitous claims of ambiguity can makefor overly simple solutions. Accordingly, the question arises of how genuineambiguities can be distinguished from spurious ones. Part of the answer consists inidentifying phenomena with which ambiguity may be confused, such as vagueness,unclarity, inexplicitness and indexicality . Ambiguity is, strictly speaking, a property of linguistic expressions.Obviously this definition does not say what meanings are or what it is for an expressionto have one (or more than one). For a particular language, this information is provided 4
  • 5. by a grammar, which systematically pairs forms with meanings, ambiguous forms withmore than one meaning (see meaning and semantics). Ambiguity in main aspect is the property of words, terms, notations,signs, symbols, and concepts (within a particular context) as being undefined,indefinable, multi-defined, or without an obvious definition, and thus having amisleading, or unclear, meaning. A word, phrase, sentence, or other communication iscalled “ambiguous” if it can be interpreted in more than one way. Ambiguity is distinctfrom vagueness, which arises when the boundaries of meaning are indistinct. Ambiguity is in contrast with definition, and typically refers to an unclearchoice between standard definitions, as given by a dictionary, or else understoodas common knowledge. If opposed to ‘clarity’, ambiguity would be considered a fault. Modernistcriticism turned it into a virtue, equivalent roughly to ‘richness’ or ‘wit’. This reversalof normal connotations was made possible by two factors: I. A. Richards’s argumentthat what is required of scientific language (e.g. lucidity) is not necessarily demanded inpoetry (see language); and William Empson’s promotion of the concept in Seven Typesof Ambiguity, first published in 1930. Following Empson, ambiguity came to beregarded as a defining linguistic characteristic of poetry. Ambiguity is not a specific figurative device which may be chosen at will fordecoration; it is not, says Empson, ‘a thing to be attempted’. Rather, it is anatural characteristic of language which becomes heightened and significant in verse.The link between content and form is indirect and arbitrary; hence syntactic ‘accidents’may occur, syntax realizing two or more meanings in the same signal. Linguists say thatone ‘surface structure’ may conceal two or more ‘deep structures’ (the reverse situationis PARAPHRASE). Ambiguity is common in ordinary language, but we do not notice itbecause context usually selects just one of the alternative meanings (‘disambiguates’). 5
  • 6. First thing we want to talk about is" the causes of Ambiguity : There are plenty of things that leads or causes "Ambiguity" either in a sentence ,in word or in others here are some of them : * Using a pronoun without making clear who or what the referent is, for example,"Tom called his father last night. They talked for an hour. He said he would be homethe next day."It is not clear whether "He" is referring to Tom or his father.And here the Arabic translator have just two ways to translate the sentence either bymaking the pronoun "He" refer to the father ‫ا ما‬ ‫ل‬ ‫دإ ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م ا‬ ‫ا‬ or to Tom .. ‫ا ما‬ ‫ل‬ ‫دإ ا‬ ‫و لا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م ا‬ ‫ا‬ and sure on of them will change the meaning completely …. or"I arrived at the airport and greeted my family. They had been waiting there for over anhour. It is very complicated." It is not clear what "it" is referring to in the sentence "It is very complicated." Thismust be explained more clearly in the sentence, for example, "Returning home to see my family is always very complicated because my parents are 6
  • 7. divorced and do not have a relationship with each other, but I have a close relationshipwith each of them."There are, of course, other reasons for ambiguity. 1. Factors Leading to English Ambiguity It should be admitted that many factors might lead to English ambiguity.Modern linguists tend to believe that English ambiguity is embodied in four aspects interms of linguistics. i.e., phonology, lexicology, syntax and pragmatics. 1.1 Phonological Factor Here it refers to the juncture, one of the phonological terminologies, thetransition from one sound to another in speech. When people speak, one phoneme glides to another one, during whichdifferent combinations are produced, leading to different meanings. For example, My younger brother had a / greidei / The sentence can be heard in two different ways (a) My younger brother had a grade A. (b) My younger brother had a gray day. During the communication, although the ambiguity caused by differentjunctures is not easily eliminated, proper stop can be used to make clear what thespeaker wants to express. 7
  • 8. 1.2 Lexical Factors (1) Polysemy Once a word, which has more than one meaning, appears in the sentence,ambiguity tends to happen. It is also called polysemy, which may exist in nouns, verbs, adjectives etc., for example, (A) I went to the bank. bank (a) land sloping up along side of a river or canal (b) establishment for keeping money, valuables The Arabic translator will choose from this two : ‫ا‬ ‫أ ( ذه‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ب( ذه‬ (B) She couldn’t bear children. Bear (a) endure (sth); tolerate; stand; (b) give birth to. ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ (‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫إ بأ‬ (‫ب‬ The italic words in the two sentences(A), (B) mentioned above have more than one meaning, so there is more than one way to explainthem. To figure out the exact meanings of such words, it demands language-learners’ careful consideration of specific context. Especially, whenreading the books on literature, it requires more attention on the purpose of the author as well as the communicational situation. Only in this way can language-learners do a good job in disambiguation. 8
  • 9. (2) Parts of Speech If a word can be used as different parts of speech, we always call it amultifunctional word. The sentence containing such words easily presents differentdeeper structures, then causing different comprehensions, i.e. (A) The doctor saw the Indian dance. Indian (a) adj. “Indian” modifies “dance” (b) n. “Indian” refers to “a specific person” ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه ا‬ ‫أ(ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه ا ا‬ ‫ب( ا‬ In English, present or past participles are always confused with adjectives,verbs, which then cause ambiguity, i.e. (B) She is calculating. ‫ا( ه‬ (‫) آ ة‬ ‫ب( ه أ‬ Functioning as “present participle”, “calculating” means “working out byusing numbers or one’s judgment”. The sentence describes that the action is takingplace. Functioning as “adjective”, “calculating” means “selfish, scheming, or shrewd”.The sentence depicts characteristics of a person. 1.3 Syntactical Factor 9
  • 10. Syntactically, sentences are made up of phrases; phrases are made up ofwords. Thus, there exists a kind of syntactic relation, i.e., a hierarchical relation. Such arelation shows the inner layers of sentences. The way the words are arrangedhierarchically has an important role in determining the meaning. It is also because ofthis that the ambiguity is produced. IC Analysis (Immediate Constituent Analysis)proposed by Leonard Bloomfield can be used to reveal the hierarchical structure of asentence. Take the following for instance: ( old men and women) It means “old men and old women” if we regard old as a modifier of bothmen and women; or “women and old men” if we think old is a modifier of men but notof women. The ambiguity can be captured by two different hierarchical structures. old men and old women old men and old women old men and woman Old men and woman ‫ن‬ ‫وا أة‬ ‫ب( ر‬ ‫وا أة‬ ‫ا( ر‬ Types of Ambiguity Although people are sometimes said to be ambiguous in how they uselanguage, ambiguity is, strictly speaking, a property of linguistic expressions. 10
  • 11. A word, phrase, or sentence is ambiguous if it has more than one meaning.Obviously this definition does not say what meanings are or what it is for an expressionto have one (or more than one). For a particular language, this information is providedby a grammar, which systematically pairs forms with meanings, ambiguous forms withmore than one meaning . There are two types of ambiguity, lexical and structural. Lexical ambiguity isby far the more common. Everyday examples include nouns like chip, pen and suit,verbs like call, draw and run, and adjectives like deep, dry and hard. There arevarious tests for ambiguity. One test is having two unrelated antonyms, as with hard,which has both soft and easy as opposites. Another is the conjunction reduction test.Consider the sentence, The tailor pressed one suit in his shop and one in the municipalcourt. Evidence that the word suit (not to mention press) is ambiguous is providedby the anomaly of the crossed interpretation of the sentence, on which suit is used torefer to an article of clothing and one to a legal action. The above examples of ambiguity are each a case of one word with more thanone meaning. However, it is not always clear when we have only one word. The verbdesert and the noun dessert, which sound the same but are spelled differently, count asdistinct words (they are homonyms). So do the noun bear and the verb bear, eventhough they not only sound the same but are spelled the same. These examples may beclear cases of homonymy, but what about the noun respect and the verb respect or thepreposition over and the adjective over? Are the members of these pairs homonyms ordifferent forms of the same word? There is no general consensus on how to draw theline between cases of one ambiguous word and cases of two homonymous words.Perhaps the difference is ultimately arbitrary. Lexical semantics has the task of identifying and characterizing suchsystematic phemena. It is also concerned to explain the rich and subtle semantic 11
  • 12. behavior of common and highly flexible words like the verbs do and put and theprepositions at, in and to. Each of these words has uses which are so numerous yet soclosely related that they are often described as polysemous rather than ambiguous. Structural ambiguity occurs when a phrase or sentence has more than oneunderlying structure, such as the sentences The girl hit the boy with a book andVisiting relatives can be boring. This ambiguity is said to be structural because such aphrase can be represented in two structurally different ways . It is not always clear when we have a case of structural ambiguity. Consider,for example, the elliptical sentence, Perot knows a richer man than Trump. It has twomeanings, that Perot knows a man who is richer than Trump and that Perot knows manwho is richer than any man Trump knows, and is therefore ambiguous. But what aboutthe sentence John loves his mother and so does Bill? It can be used to say either that John loves Johns mother and Bill loves Bills mother or that John loves Johns mother and Bill loves Johns mother. But is it really ambiguous? One might argue that the clause so does Bill isunambiguous and may be read unequivocally as saying in the context that Bill does thesame thing that John does, and although there are two different possibilities for whatcounts as doing the same thing, these alternatives are not fixed semantically. Hence theambiguity is merely apparent and better described as semantic under determination. Clear Examples of Ambiguity : Any sentence with two or more structural representations is said to besyntactically or in some way ambiguous. Ambiguity, having more than one meaning, 12
  • 13. may be a result of syntax or of semantics. Semantic ambiguity depends on the meaning of a word or words whichthemselves can be misinterpreted. Syntactic ambiguity means that the grammatical construction of the phrase orsentence brings about the misinterpretation - the word order or the fact that a wordcould be either a noun or a verb Ambiguity In spoken language a) I promise Ill give you a ring tomorrow. Although uncommon in American dialects, "giving someone a ring" cansimply mean calling them on the telephone. But, obviously, the above sentence can alsomean giving someone a piece of jewelry worn on the finger. The statement is, therefore,ambiguous. b) I know a man with a dog who has fleas it is unclear - ambiguous - whether it is the man or the dog who has fleas. It isthe syntax not the meaning of the words which is unclear. To clarify the meaning or meanings of an ambiguous sentence we can glossthe meaning (express it in a different form of words) or use grammatical terminology toexplain the functions of the words and the structure of the sentence. c) "Mine Exploded" the gloss could be either "the object belonging to me exploded" or "theexplosive device exploded". 13
  • 14. Grammatically we can say that the first meaning has a structure of first personpossessive pronoun + verb while the second meaning is noun + verb. Ambiguity In written and read language The term ambiguity can be defined as a statement that contains two or moremeanings, or a statement that is unclear. One may think that ambiguity in writing wouldbe a bad thing, but it really depends on the subject matter. Ambiguity can be used as aliterary device to effectively strengthen your writing in several ways. Ambiguity is a great way to open a story, as well. By offering a confusingstatement, or one that seems to contradict itself, the writer can draw the reader in bycreating interest or mystery. Often the ambiguity will be cleared by the end of the pieceof writing, but it is the initial confusion that can create conflict or interest. An example of ambiguity in the opening of a piece of writing is one of themost famous first lines of any novel, "A Tale of Two Cities" by Charles Dickens: "Itwas the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the ageof foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was theseason of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was thewinter of despair." These contradictory statements create a sense of ambiguity which draws thereader into the story. In writing, being concise and clear is key to conveying meaning to the reader,but using ambiguity effectively can be used to strengthen a piece of writing. Or in newspaper headlines below 14
  • 15. FREE WALES from whom? FREE WALES with every five gallons WET PAINT this is not an instruction BILL STICKERS WILL BE PROSECUTED Bill Stickers is innocentOr as in the eve of George Bushs visit to the UK in November 2003 Ceefax posted the following headline: GIANT POLICE EXERCISE TO GUARD BUSH 15
  • 16. Practical PartAnalysis of the Translated sentences : 1) ST : Police squad help dog bite victim .S t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n sa) . ‫يا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬b) . ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬c) . ‫طا‬ ‫ةا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز ة‬d) . ‫ا‬ ‫ا ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬e) . ‫ا‬ ‫ا ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ f) . ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫با‬ ‫تا‬g) . ‫م‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Comment : This statement includes structural ambiguity . It may be translated as ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ which is similar to the Students translation in (a) , (b) , (d) , (e) … furthermore , students (c) , (f) and (g) arent adequate .====================================================================2) ST : The man saw the boy with binoculars .S t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s :a) ‫ا‬ ‫ا ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رأى ا‬b) ‫ر‬ ‫رأى ا‬ ‫ا‬c) ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رأى ا‬d) ‫را‬ ‫ا ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رأى ا‬e) ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫رأى ا‬ ‫ا‬ 16
  • 17. f) ‫رأى ا‬ ‫ا‬g) ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه ا‬ Comment : This sentence indicates structure ambiguity , it has two meanings ; firstly Which is similar to students translation (a), (d), (e) and (g) ‫اب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رأى ا‬ secondly ; it can be translated as ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رأي ا‬ And that is similar to translation (b) .3) ST: The police were ordered to stop drinking after midnight .S t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s :a) ‫ا‬ ‫ا ب‬ ‫ع‬ ‫و أوا‬b) ‫ا‬ ‫ا ب‬ ‫أ ت‬ ‫ا‬c) ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ تا‬d) ‫ا‬ ‫ا اب ا‬ ‫أ تا‬e) ‫ا‬ ‫ا ب‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬f) ‫ا‬ ‫ا ب‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أ رت ا‬ Comment : Here there is structural ambiguity in the sentence either it mean . ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫با‬ ‫أ ت‬ ‫ا‬ Or . ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ءا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ Most of the translated statements were meant to be translated as the first one . the second possible translated can only be an option if it was passive .==================================================================== 17
  • 18. 4) ST :They are hunting dogsS t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s :a) ‫دون ا ب‬ ‫ه ء‬b) ‫دون ا ب‬c) ‫ا ب‬ ‫ن‬d) ‫ردون ا ب‬ ‫إ‬e) ‫ا ب‬ ‫ا‬f) ‫دوا ا ب‬g) ‫نا با‬ Comment : And here is semantic ambiguity and it can translate as ‫ ه ء آ ب‬Or ‫دون ا ب‬ ‫أ‬ Most of the students translated this one as the first translation , except the last one which is incorrect.5) ST : The chicken is ready to eat .S t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s :a) ‫ا ج ه‬b) ‫ه ة آ‬ ‫ا‬c) ‫آ‬ ‫ا ج ه‬d) ‫ا ج ه‬ Comment : This statement contain a semantic ambiguity . it more adequate to translated as . ‫آ‬ ‫ا ج‬All of the translated sentences translate this one as passive whereas in common passiveform it be the chicken is ready to be eaten . but those translation could be correct too if it was passive .====================================================6) ST: While the man was hunting the dear ran through the forest .S t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s : 18
  • 19. a) ‫د‬ ‫آن‬ ‫ا‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫أ عا‬b) ‫د ا ال إ ا‬ ‫ا‬c) ‫د‬ ‫آنا‬ ‫ال ه ب إ ا‬ ‫ا‬d) ‫رد ا ال ه ب إ ا‬ ‫ا‬Comment : This one is semantic ambiguity it maybe understood by two different meanings one is . ‫د‬ ‫ول ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه ع ا ال إ ا‬ And the other meaning is . ‫د ا ال‬ ‫آن‬ ‫إ ا‬ ‫أ عا‬ Translation (a) ,(c) are similar to the first adequate translation , whereas the other two translation by the students translated literally without solving the ambiguity .====================================================================7) ST: A sailor was dancing with a wooden legS t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s :a) ‫ق‬ ‫آنا ر‬b) ‫ا‬ ‫ا رآن‬c) ‫ق‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬d) ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا ر‬e) ‫ا‬f) ‫ا‬ ‫ا ر ذو ا‬ Comment : This statement have structural ambiguity so it understood in more than one meaning First meaning could be . ‫ا‬ ‫آنا ر‬ And the other possible meaning is . ‫د‬ ‫ا ر‬ ‫ر‬ But all of the student translated it as the first are except student (e) who translated it as the second one .===================================================================8) ST :The criminal experienced a seizure.S t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s :a) ‫ء‬ ‫ما‬ ‫فا‬ ‫ا‬ 19
  • 20. b) ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬c) ‫ء‬ ‫ة ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬d) ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬e) ‫ا‬ ‫با‬ ‫ا‬f) ‫ما‬ ‫ا‬ Comment : Here its semantic ambiguity and also have two possible meanings , one . ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ Or .‫م‬ ‫زا‬ ‫ا‬==================================================================9) ST: The girl hit the boy with a bookS t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s :a) ‫ب‬ ‫ا ةا‬b) ‫ا ب‬ ‫ا ا ي‬ ‫ا‬c) ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫با‬d) ‫ب‬ ‫ا ةا‬ Comment : This sentence includes structural ambiguity whereas the first possible meaning is .‫ا ب‬ ‫ا ا ا ي‬As it translated correctly by the student (b) , and the other meaning as the rest of student translate it ‫ب‬ ‫ا ةا‬==============================================================10) ST : We saw The Eiffel Tower flying from London to Paris .S t u d e n t s t ra n s la t io n s :a) ‫ر‬ ‫نإ‬ ‫جإ‬ ‫رأ‬b) ‫ر‬ ‫نإ‬ ‫جإ‬ ‫رأ‬c) ‫ر‬ ‫نإ‬ ‫جإ‬ ‫رأ‬ 20
  • 21. d) ‫ر‬ ‫نإ‬ ‫جإ‬ ‫رأ‬Comment : In here its semantic ambiguity first meaning is . ‫جإ‬ ‫ر رأ‬ ‫نإ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ Or . ‫ر‬ ‫نإ‬ ‫ة جإ‬ ‫رأ‬ And most of students translation eat to be the first translation .====================================================================ST sentences taken from :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_linguistic_example_sentences 21
  • 22. Conclusion As it has been started in this paper , the definition of translation as it isthe comprehension of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of anequivalent text, that communicates the same message in another language . Follows that the definition of ambiguity term as a word, phrase, orsentence becomes ambiguous if it has more than one direct meaning in the context.This paper shed the light on the causes and what are the main factors behindcreating ambiguity in a text . Ambiguity can be attributed to Phonological ,Lexical and Syntactical factors . Lexical type when the ambiguity is in non-choosing the more adequate word. And structural ambiguity when it is deals withthe syntax of the statement (structure of the sentence ). Finally, this paper givesclear examples of ambiguity in different language usage . 22
  • 23. Bibliography- Peter Newmark, (2004), Introduction to Translation.- Gentzler , (1993) , 144.- J.M Cohen (1983) " The Translators Endless Toil " , Christopher kasparek ,The Polish Review , Vol , xxvIII , no.2, ,pp.84-87 .- J.M Cohen (1986) "Translation " , Encyclopedia Americana , Vol.27 , p.12.- Andrew .Wilson (2009) Translators on Translating : Inside The Art . ccsppress: Vancouver.- Snell-Hornby , M.(2006) . The Turns of Translation Studies : New Paradigmsor Shifting View Points ? Philadelphia : John Benjamins , p.133- Hutchins , W.J.(2000) , Early Years in Machine Translation : Memoirs andBiographs of Pioneers , Amsterdam : John Benjamins- Ambiguity and Rationality , Jonathan Baron .15 of February , journal ofBehavioral Decision Marking , http://www.interscience.wiley.com/maintenance.html- Some Structural Ambiguities , Norman C. stagerberg 13 . feb . 2010- Interview with Peter Newmark , Pioneering Theovetion in ScientificTranslation , David Shea . www.medtrad.orglpanacea.html- Kent Bach , Rowledge Encyclopedia of philosophy entry.26.Nov.2009 23
  • 24. - Ambiguous Grammar www.translationdirectory.com/articles/article1868.php. 24