change management

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introduction to Change Management

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change management

  1. 1. A Reconnaissance Survey of theDiscipline of Change managementLecture 1Atiq
  2. 2. Did you ever face any difficultperson?How did you manage him/her?
  3. 3. A question for you:What is Change management?
  4. 4. Another question for you:Have your change management effortsworked as well as you wanted?
  5. 5. “8. My organization is good at managing the “people” side of change initiatives.”36%20%24%8%2%10%0%10%20%30%40%StonglyDisagreeDisagree Neutral Agree StronglyAgreeDont Know& N/AAlmost 1/2 disagreedManaging change: people
  6. 6. “People” Readiness for changeFor corporate process improvement involving systems investments:28% are abandoned41% come in behind schedule and/orover budget80% are NOT used in the way they wereintended, or NOT USED AT ALL, 6 monthsafter completion of installation-- Gartner Group, 2003
  7. 7. Here is what I believe changemanagement is: The process, tools and techniques tomanage the people-side of change toachieve the required business outcome(s)
  8. 8. Key PointsKey point 1: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that effective changemanagement is more than just a few pieces of communicationKey point 2: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that we (the“changers”) may be “living” in the future state, while everyone else (“the changees”) is living in thepresentKey point 3: To move beyond good intentions, effective change management MUST be focused onhelping individuals changeKey point 4: Individual change is a processKey point 5: To move beyond good intentions, we need to select and use the tools available to usKey point 6: To move beyond good intentions, we need the right people involved and engaged in theright waysKey point 7: Begin with end in mind. Measure the “right” things for this change, at the organizationallevel and the individual level
  9. 9. Key point 1: To move from good intentionsto good results, we have to realize thateffective change management is more thanjust a few pieces of communicationChange management is the process, toolsand techniques to manage the people-sideof change toachieve the required business outcome
  10. 10. Benchmarking findingsCauses of resistance Employees:1. Not aware of the businessneed for change2. Lay-offs were announcedor feared3. Unsure if they had theskills needed for success inthe future state4. Comfort with the currentstate5. Believed they were beingasked to do more withless, or do more for thesame pay Managers:1. Loss of power and control2. Overloaded with currentresponsibilities3. Lacked awareness of theneed for change4. Lacked the required skills5. Fear, uncertainty anddoubtCan mere communications address these?
  11. 11. Key point 2:To move from good intentions to goodresults, we have to realize that we (the“changers”) may be “living” in the futurestate, while everyone else (“the changees”)are living in the present future
  12. 12. Three Phases of Change: Howpeople experience changeCurrentStateTransitionStateFutureState
  13. 13. Current State• Employees (including management and executives!) generallyprefer the current state, because that is where they liveCurrentStateTransitionStateFutureState“better the devil you know is better than the devil you don’t”
  14. 14. Future State• The future state is unknown to the employee; will it be better,or worse?• This is where Project teams “live”CurrentStateTransitionStateFutureState
  15. 15. Transition State• The transition state creates stress and anxietyCurrentStateTransitionStateFutureState
  16. 16. Key point 2, revisited: To move from goodintentions to good results, we have to realizethat we may be “living” in the future state,while everyone else is living in the presentPeople will resist change, but not becausethey are being contrary“better the devil you know is better than the devil you don’t”
  17. 17. Key point 3: Effective change managementMUST be focused on helping individualschange
  18. 18. Successful change addresses both the technical and thepeople sideSolution isdesigned, developedand delivered effectively(Technical side)Solution is accepted,adopted and utilizedeffectively(People side)= CHANGE SUCCESS+Project managementChange managementCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureIndividual PEOPLE change, NOT organizations
  19. 19. Effective change managementrequires two perspectivesIndividual perspective How does oneperson makes achangesuccessfully?Organizational perspective What tools we** have tohelp individuals makechanges successfully?** “we” means project leaders and teammembers, HR, OD, training, communications, managers, supervisors
  20. 20. 20The focus of Change management is on helpingindividuals make their own personal transitionOrganizational“The change” to how wedo businessIndividualCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureHow I do my jobtodayHow I will do my jobafter the change isimplementedCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureFrom:To:
  21. 21. Key point 3, revisited: To move beyond goodintentions, effective change managementMUST be focused on helping individualschangeFrom an organizational perspective, weneed to determine what “we”** can do tohelp individuals change
  22. 22. Key point 4: Individual change is a process
  23. 23. The five building blocks of successfulindividual changeAwareness of the need for changeDesire to participate and support the changeKnowledge on how to changeAbilityto implement required skills andbehaviorsReinforcement to sustain the changeADKAR is the (relatively) easy-to-remember acronym
  24. 24. Communication checklistYes No Question:Have you identified all of the different audiences you need tocommunicate with throughout the organization?Have you identified who the ideal sender of communicationmessages will be?Have you identified what are the most effective channels ofcommunication?Have you created mechanisms to enable two-waycommunication to take place?
  25. 25. Not Everyone Changesat the Same PaceAwareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson B Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson BAwareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson D Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson DAwareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson C Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson CAwareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson AAwareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson H Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson HAwareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson G Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson GAwareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson E Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson EAwareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson I Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson IPerson F Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson F Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson F Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementPerson F Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability ReinforcementAddress the needs of each INDIVIDUAL
  26. 26. Employee A D K A R Notes/actionsAdnan 4 5 2 2 4Babar 4 1 4 3 4Chaudhry 2 2 3 3 4Dilshad 5 1 4 2 3Employee A D K A R Notes/actionsA 4 5 2 2 44 1 4 3 42 2 3 3 45 1 4 2 3Recommendation:Create a Change ManagementProfile for Each EmployeeNeeds knowledgeLow desireQuestionable desireLow desire
  27. 27. Key point 4, revisited: Individual change is aprocessFrom an organizational perspective, weneed to determine what “we”** can do tohelp individuals
  28. 28. Key point 5: To move beyond goodintentions, we need to understand, selectand use the tools available to us
  29. 29. Some Key Change ManagementToolsCommunicationsSponsor RoadmapCoachingTrainingReadiness / Resistance Mgt.These channels enableEffective change management
  30. 30. Mapping the tools to the personalchange elements (ADKAR)These channelsenable project teamto facilitateorganizationthrough phases ofADKAR.CommunicationsSponsor RoadmapCoachingTrainingAwarenessDesireKnowledgeAbilityReinforcementAwarenessDesireKnowledgeAbilityReinforcementReadiness / Resistance Mgt.
  31. 31. Key point 5, revisited: To move beyond goodintentions, we need to select and use thetools available to usUse the right tools, in right placeCommunicationsSponsor RoadmapCoachingTrainingReadiness / Resistance Mgt.
  32. 32. Who is this “We”
  33. 33. Key point 6: To move beyond goodintentions, we need the right people involvedand engaged in the right ways
  34. 34. Middle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctionsChange management requires a system of‘doers’Each ‘gear’ plays aspecific role based onhow they are relatedto change
  35. 35. Change management rolesRole Ideal implementationChange mgmtresource/team“I develop the change management strategy andplans. I am an integral part of project success.”Executives and seniormanagers“I launch (authorize and fund) changes.”“I sponsor change.”Middle managers andfront-line supervisors“I coach my direct reports through the changes thatimpact their day-to-day work.”Project team“I manage the technical side of the change. Iintegrate change management into my projectplans.”Project supportfunctions“I support different activities of the changemanagement team and project team.”* Changemanagement group,dept or office“We own the change management methodologyand support its implementation in the organization.”
  36. 36. Current common reality that weneed to move beyondRole Common implementationChange mgmtresource/team“I feel like I‟m on an island here – people expect meto do everything and have all the answers.”Executives and seniormanagers“I gave you funding and signed the charter – now gomake it happen!”Middle managers andfront-line supervisors“I feel like I‟m the direct target for some of thesechanges, and I wish I knew what was going on.”Project team“My focus is just the „technical‟ side. Once I flip theswitch, I‟m moving on to the next project.”Project supportfunctions“I get called in on projects and given one little task,but I‟m not sure how I fit in to the overall picture.”* Changemanagement group,dept or office“I don‟t even exist yet.”
  37. 37. Executives and senior mgrsWhat is their role1. Participate actively and visibly throughoutthe project2. Build a coalition of sponsorship andmanage resistance3. Communicate directly with employeesNot just signing cheques and project charters!Middle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  38. 38. Middle mgrs and supervisorsWhy are they important They are close to thepeople who adopt thechange They play a role in alltypes of change in theorganizationThey need to be trained tobe successfulExecutives and senior leadersExecutives and senior leadersFront-line employeesFront-line employeesMiddle managers and supervisorsExecutives and senior leadersExecutives and senior leadersFront-line employeesFront-line employeesMiddle managers and supervisorsMacro – top-down changesMicro – daily changesMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  39. 39. Middle mgrs and supervisorsWhat are their rolesRole 1 – CommunicatorRole 2 – AdvocateRole 3 – CoachRole 4 – LiaisonRole 5 – Resistance managerMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  40. 40. Project teamWhy are they importantDrive the technical side of changeDesign solutionsDevelop solutionsDeliver solutionsProject managementChange managementCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  41. 41. Project teamWhat is their role1. Design the actual change2. Manage the ‘technical side’ of the change• Charter, business case, schedule, resources, workbreakdown structure, budget, etc.3. Engage with CMgt team/resource4. Integrate CMgt plans into project planMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  42. 42. Project support functions Examples HR OD Training Communication SMEs Bring specific experience,knowledge, tools andexpertise to the project Sometimes act as thechange mgmt resource Key pieces of the ‘technical’and ‘people’ puzzlesMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  43. 43. Mapping change management roles1. Authorize and fund2. Participate activelyand visibly3. Create coalition4. Communicate directly1. Design ‘the change’2. Manage ‘technical side’3. Engage with CM4. Integrate CM1. Communicator2. Advocate3. Coach4. Liaison5. Resistance manager1. Experience2. Knowledge3. Tools4. Expertise1. Apply methodology2. Formulate strategy3. Develop plans4. Support other ‘doers’Middle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  44. 44. Change management resourceWhat is their roleEnable others…Help managersand supervisorsEffectively coach their employeesthrough transitionsHelp execs andsenior leadersEffectively fulfill the role of‘sponsor of change’Help projectteamsMake the bridge betweenimplementing a solution and realizingbenefitsMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctionsMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  45. 45. Employee-facing vs. enablingEmployee-facing roles Enabling rolesOne-to-one interactionsOne-to-many interactionObservable behaviorsCreation and implementationof plans that are executed bythe employee-facing rolesMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctionsMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctions
  46. 46. Homework: Where is your group?Role: Who: Understanding: Effectiveness:Change mgmtresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersMiddle managers andfront-line supervisorsProject teamProject supportfunctions* Change mgmt group,dept or officeWho in theorganizationplays eachrole?How well dotheyunderstandtheir role?How effectivelyare theyfulfilling theirrole?
  47. 47. Key point 6, revisited: To move beyond goodintentions, we need the right people involvedin the right waysMiddle managersand supervisorsMiddle managersand supervisorsChangemanagementresource/teamChangemanagementresource/teamExecutives andsenior managersExecutives andsenior managersProjectteamProjectteamProjectsupportfunctionsProjectsupportfunctionsDo you have the right people involved inthe right way?
  48. 48. How will you know if your change hasbeen effective?
  49. 49. “Begin with the end in mind.”-- Stephen R. Covey from “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People”.Key point 7:
  50. 50. “Begin with the end in mind.”-- Stephen R. Covey from “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People”.… and, measure your progressaccordingly …
  51. 51. Two points of measurement:Organizational perspective Outcome: Did the project deliver theintended results? Process: Was the project delivered ontime and on budget? Were milestones met along theway?Current Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureOrganizationalCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureOrganizational#s
  52. 52. Two points of measurement:Individual perspective Outcome: Are employees doing their workthe “new way” required by theproject? Process: How well did employees makethe transition? How well did we** support thattransition?Current Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureIndividualCurrent Transition FutureCurrent Transition FutureIndividualA D K A R
  53. 53. Framework for measurementOrganizational IndividualProcessSpeed of adoptionUtilization rateProficiencyIndividual changemanagement:-Awareness-Desire-Knowledge-Ability-ReinforcementOutcome Business performanceagainst objectivesIndividualperformance foreach job role
  54. 54. Framework for measurementOrganizational IndividualProcessSpeed of adoptionUtilization rateProficiencyMeasured by group, function,and or locationIndividual changemanagement:-Awareness-Desire-Knowledge-Ability-ReinforcementMeasure byassessmentOutcomeBusiness performance against objectives,such as: Financial Performance Quality of product, service Quality of worklife Speed of implementation Etc.Individual performance foreach job rolePerformance towardsobjectives, as definedin personal objectiveswith immediatemanager
  55. 55. Key point 7, revisited: Begin with end inmind. Measure the “right” things for thischange, at the organizational level and theindividual levelChange management is the process, toolsand techniques to manage the people-sideof change toachieve the required business outcome
  56. 56. Summary of Key Points: RevisitedKey point 1: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that effective changemanagement is more than just a few pieces of communicationKey point 2: To move from good intentions to good results, we have to realize that we (the“changers”) may be “living” in the future state, while everyone else (“the changees”) are living inthe presentKey point 3: To move beyond good intentions, effective change management MUST be focused onhelping individuals changeKey point 4: Individual change is a processKey point 5: To move beyond good intentions, we need to select and use the tools available to usKey point 6: To move beyond good intentions, we need the right people involved and engaged inthe right waysKey point 7: Begin with end in mind. Measure the “right” things for this change, at theorganizational level and the individual level
  57. 57. “Everyone thinks ofchanging the world,but no one thinks ofchanging himself.”- Leo Tolstoy
  58. 58. A stepped approach tochangeStartXA journey of a thousand milesoccurs one step at a time.Success
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