DEMOGRAPHIC
TRENDS IN INDIA
PRESENTED BY
FAISAL SHAAN
MBBS 2010 BATCH
DEMOGRAPHY & FAMILY
PLANNING:
INTRODUCTION
▪ DEFINITION – Demography is the scientific study of human population.
 5 Processes in demography :
Fertili...
DEMOGRAPHIC CYCLE
5 STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC CYCLE
Stage BR DR Examples
Stage
1
High
Stationary
India was in
this stage till ...
DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN INDIA
▪ India has 2.4% world land area & 17% of world’s population.
▪ Year 1921- “Big divide”.
▪ Ind...
DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS
Population Size
Population Density
Sex Ratio
Dependency Ratio
Birth Rate
Death Rate
Growth Rate
Lif...
AGE & SEX COMPOSITION
AGE PYRAMID:
• Represents Age structure of a population.
• The age pyramid of India is typical of de...
SEX RATIO
6/11
Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in
the population.
The sex ratio in the countr...
DEPENDENCY RATIO Total dependency ratio = 0-14 years + 65 years and above
15 to 65 years
7/11
DEMOGRAPHIC BONUS –
 A decl...
FAMILY SIZE
Total number of children borne by a women at a point in
time during her child bearing age (15 to 45 years).
Lo...
URBANIZATION
 Mass migration of rural population into urban centers resulting in increasing the urban population &
growth...
LITERACY & EDUCATION
 A person (7 yrs. or more) is considered as literate if he or she can read & write with understandin...
LIFE EXPECTANCY
 “Indicator of country’s
level of development &
overall health status of the
population.”
 Expectation o...
AT A GLANCE:
REFERENCES: CENSUS 2011 & K.PARK 22nd Edition.
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DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN INDIA

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An Insight into the demographic trends of India using various demographic indicators ( Sex Ratio,Dependency Ratio, Urbanization, Family Size, Literacy Rate and Life Expectancy).

There is also brief introduction of basics of demography along with the demographic cycle.

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DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN INDIA

  1. 1. DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN INDIA PRESENTED BY FAISAL SHAAN MBBS 2010 BATCH DEMOGRAPHY & FAMILY PLANNING:
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION ▪ DEFINITION – Demography is the scientific study of human population.  5 Processes in demography : Fertility, mortality , marriage ,migration and Social mobility. ▪ 3 Phenomena in demography: Change in population size – Growth or Decline Composition of population Distribution of population in space Demographic Process Fertility Mortality MarriageMigration Social Mobility 1/11
  3. 3. DEMOGRAPHIC CYCLE 5 STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC CYCLE Stage BR DR Examples Stage 1 High Stationary India was in this stage till 1920 Stage 2 Early Expanding + South Asia & Africa Stage 3 Late Expanding India, China, Singapore Stage 4 Low Stationary UK, Denmark, Sweden , Belgium Stage 5 Declining Germany & Hungary INDIA 1920 High Stationary INDIA PRESENT Late Expanding High Stationary Early Expanding Late Expanding Low Stationary Declining 2/11
  4. 4. DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN INDIA ▪ India has 2.4% world land area & 17% of world’s population. ▪ Year 1921- “Big divide”. ▪ India’s population currently increasing at rate of 16 million/yr. HISTORICAL POPULATION OF INDIA Year Population (Millions) 1901 238 1911 252 1921 251 1931 279 1941 318 1951 361 1961 439 1971 548 1981 683 1991 846 2001 1028 2011 1210 3/11 Source: 1. K . Park 22nd Edition 2. Census 2011 Population projection: If our population continues to grow at this rate: By 2050 India’s population will be 1.53 billion.
  5. 5. DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS Population Size Population Density Sex Ratio Dependency Ratio Birth Rate Death Rate Growth Rate Life Expectancy at Birth Mortality & Fertility Rate Population Statistics Vital Statistics DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS 4/11
  6. 6. AGE & SEX COMPOSITION AGE PYRAMID: • Represents Age structure of a population. • The age pyramid of India is typical of developing countries i.e. with a “BROAD BASE” and “TAPERING TOP”.  Proportion of population < 14 yrs. - “DECLINING Trend” .  Proportion of the elderly “INCREASING”. This Imposes a greater BURDEN on Health services in India. 5/11 Source: Census 2011
  7. 7. SEX RATIO 6/11 Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population. The sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavorable to females. Census year Sex ratio (Females per 1000 males) 1951 946 1961 941 1971 930 1981 934 1991 927 2001 933 2011 940 Causes of low sex ratio:  Strong Male child preference  Consequent gender Inequities  Neglect of the girl child  Female infanticide  Female foeticide  High MMR  Male bias in population enumeration. ALARMING: Census 2011 marks a considerable fall in child sex ratio (0-6 yrs. ) and has reached an all time low of 914 since 1961.
  8. 8. DEPENDENCY RATIO Total dependency ratio = 0-14 years + 65 years and above 15 to 65 years 7/11 DEMOGRAPHIC BONUS –  A decline in the TDR d/t- Decline in fertility.  Key factor in Economic development. DEMOGRAPHIC BURDEN –  Increase in the TDR.  Cause of Economic Burden. For the Year 2010: • Young Age dependency Ratio-47.9% • Old Age dependency Ratio-7.7% Source- K. Park 22nd edition
  9. 9. FAMILY SIZE Total number of children borne by a women at a point in time during her child bearing age (15 to 45 years). Long term goal NRR=1 “2 Child Family Norm”  Total fertility rate (TFR) gives an idea of total family size.  TFR in India: 2.68 (NFHS-3). Family size depends upon Duration of marriage Education of couple No. of live births Contraception method Socioeconomic status etc. 8/11
  10. 10. URBANIZATION  Mass migration of rural population into urban centers resulting in increasing the urban population & growth of cities.  Cause of urbanization: “MIGRATION” d/t-  Better employment opportunities.  Better living standards.  Better availability of social services like Education, Health, Transport, Entertainment etc. 9/11 CENSUS 2011 Rural Population (millions) Urban Population (millions) Increase in Urban population (%) INDIA 833.1 377.1 3.35
  11. 11. LITERACY & EDUCATION  A person (7 yrs. or more) is considered as literate if he or she can read & write with understanding in any language.  Highest Literacy Rate in India- KERALA (93.91).  Dismal picture in – Bihar (Lit. Rate- 63.82%) & Arunachal Pradesh (Lit. Rate- 66.9%) Literacy Rates: 10/11 State Male lit.(%) Female lit.(%) Total lit.(%) India 82.14 65.46 74.04 Uttar Pradesh 79.24 59.26 69.72 Kerala 96.02 91.98 93.91 Source: 1. K . Park 22nd Edition 2. Census 2011 18.33 28.3 34.45 43.57 52.21 65.38 74.04 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Literacy Rate in India 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
  12. 12. LIFE EXPECTANCY  “Indicator of country’s level of development & overall health status of the population.”  Expectation of life at birth – World (Combined for both sexes) 1950 : 46.5 years 2002 : 63 years Census 2011:The value for Life expectancy at birth, total (years) in India was 65.48 as of 2011. Year Males Females 1901 23.63 23.96 1951 32.45 31.66 1961 41.89 40.55 1971 46.40 44.70 1981 54.10 54.70 1991 59.70 60.90 2001 63.90 66.90 2009 63 66 11/11 Expectation of life -at a given age is the average number of years which a person of that age may expect to live, according to the mortality pattern prevalent in that country. Expectation of life at birth (India): Source: 1. K . Park 22nd Edition
  13. 13. AT A GLANCE: REFERENCES: CENSUS 2011 & K.PARK 22nd Edition.
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